260 Works

Microsaccade characterization using the continuous wavelet transform and principal component analysis

Kliegl, Reinhold; University Of Potsdam, Bettenbühl, Mario; University Of Potsdam, Paladini, Claudia; University Of Potsdam, Holschneider, Matthias; University Of Potsdam, Engbert, Ralf; University Of Potsdam & Mergenthaler, Konstantin; University Of Potsdam
During visual fixation on a target, humans perform miniature (or fixational) eye movements consisting of three components, i.e., tremor, drift, and microsaccades. Microsaccades are high velocity components with small amplitudes within fixational eye movements. However, microsaccade shapes and statistical properties vary between individual observers. Here we show that microsaccades can be formally represented with two significant shapes which we identfied using the mathematical definition of singularities for the detection of the former in real data...

The Illusion of Being Located in Dynamic Virtual Environments. Can Eye Movement Parameters Predict Spatial Presence?

Weibel, David; University Of Bern, Switzerland, Mast, Fred W.; University Of Bern, Switzerland, Stricker, Daniel; University Of Bern, Switzerland, Siegenthaler, Eva; Distance Learning University Switzerland & Wissmath, Bartholomäus; University Of Bern, Switzerland
Attention allocation towards the mediated environment is assumed to be a necessary precondition to feel localized in a virtual world. In presence research, however, the potential of eye movement research has not been fully exploited so far. In this study, participants (N=44) rode on a virtual roller coaster simulation. We compare participants scoring high versus low on presence. During the ride, the eye movements and subjective ex post presence judgments were assessed. We found high...

Functionally sequenced scanpath similarity method (FuncSim): Comparing and evaluating scanpath similarity based on a task’s inherent sequence of functional (action) units

Schneider, Werner X.; University Of Bielefeld & Foerster, Rebecca M.; University Of Bielefeld
Measures of scanpath similarity are essential in many domains of eye tracking research. Depending on the question, different calculations are adequate. We (Foerster, Carbone, Koesling, & Schneider, 2011) developed a method with a functional matching procedure suitable for sequential tasks. Here, we report two extensions. We introduced an alignment variant making the method more robust across tasks. We added the possibility to compare scanpaths according to multiple characteristics. The extended method, here called “functionally sequenced...

Saccadic Behavior during the Response to Pure Vergence Stimuli I: General Properties

Alvarez, Tara L.; New Jersey Institute Of Technology, Newark, New Jersey, USA, Pedrono, Claude; Essilor International, SA, Saint Maur, FRANCE, Chen, Yung-Fu; Department And Institute Of Health Services Administration, China Medical University Taichung, Taiwan. & Semmlow, John; Robert Wood Johnson Medical School UMDNJ New Brunswick, New Jersey USA / Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey USA
If two targets are carefully aligned so that they fall along the cyclopean axis, the required eye movement will be symmetrical with the two eyes turning equally inward or outward. When such “pure vergence stimuli” are used only a “pure vergence movement” is required, yet almost all responses include saccadic eye movements, a rapid tandem movement of the eyes. When saccades occur, they must either produce an error in the desired symmetrical response or correct...

A Unifying Model-Based Hypothesis for the Diverse Waveforms of Infantile Nystagmus Syndrome

Wang, Zhong I.; Daroff-Dell'Osso Ocular Motility Laboratory, Cleveland, OH, USA & Dell'Osso, Louis F.; Daroff-Dell'Osso Ocular Motility Laboratory, Cleveland, OH, USA
We expanded the original behavioral Ocular Motor System (OMS) model for Infantile Nystagmus Syndrome (INS) by incorporating common types of jerk waveforms within a unifying mechanism. Alexander’s law relationships were used to produce desired INS null positions and sharpness. At various gaze angles, these relationships influenced the IN slow-phase amplitudes differently, thereby mimicking the gaze-angle effects of INS patients. Transitions from pseudopendular with foveating saccades to jerk waveforms required replacing braking saccades with foveating fast...

Haptic feedback in eye typing

Akkil, Deepak; University Of Tampere, Isokoski, Poika; University Of Tampere, Majaranta, Päivi; University Of Tampere, Kangas, Jari; University Of Tampere, Rantala, Jussi; University Of Tampere, Raisamo, Roope; University Of Tampere & Špakov, Oleg; University Of Tampere
Proper feedback is essential in gaze based interfaces, where the same modality is used for both perception and control. We measured how vibrotactile feedback, a form of haptic feedback, compares with the commonly used visual and auditory feedback in eye typing. Haptic feedback was found to produce results that are close to those of auditory feedback; both were easy to perceive and participants liked both the auditory ”click” and the tactile “tap” of the selected...

Covert Attention Tracking: Towards Two-Dimensional Real-Time Recordings

Gregori Grgic, Regina; Vita-Salute San Raffaele University & De'Sperati, Claudio; Vita-Salute San Raffaele University
Achieving attention tracking as easily as recording eye movements is still beyond reach. However, by exploiting Steady-State Visual Evoked Potentials (SSVEPs) we could recently record in a satisfactory way the horizontal trajectory of covert visuospatial attention in single trials, both when attending target motion and during mental motion extrapolation. Here we show that, despite the different cortical functional architecture for horizontal and vertical motion processing, the same result is obtained for vertical attention tracking. Thus,...

SMOOVS: Towards calibration-free text entry by gaze using smooth pursuit movements

Venjakob, Antje Christine; Chair Of Human-Machine Systems, Technical University Berlin, Ruff, Stefan; Chair Of Human-Machine Systems, Technical University Berlin & Lutz, Otto Hans-Martin; Chair Of Human-Machine Systems, Technical University Berlin
Gaze-based text spellers have proved useful for people with severe motor diseases, but lack acceptance in general human-computer interaction. In order to use gaze spellers for public displays, they need to be robust and provide an intuitive interaction concept. However, traditional dwell- and blink-based systems need accurate calibration which contradicts fast and intuitive interaction. We developed the first gaze speller explicitly utilizing smooth pursuit eye movements and their particular characteristics. The speller achieves sufficient accuracy...

A probabilistic approach for eye-tracking based process tracing in catalog browsing

Schaffer, Erina Ishikawa; Kyoto University, Kawashima, Hiroaki; Kyoto University & Matsuyama, Takashi; Kyoto University
Eye movements are an important cue to understand consumer decision processes. Findings from existing studies suggest that the consumer decision process consists of a few different browsing states such as screening and evaluation. This study proposes a hidden Markov-based gaze model to reveal the characteristics and temporal changes of browsing states in catalog browsing situations. Unlike previous models that employ a heuristic rule-based approach, our model learns the browsing states in a bottom-up manner. Our...

Examining the validity of the total dwell time of eye fixations to identify landmarks in a building

Vansteenkiste, Pieter; Ghent University, Alain De Wulf, Viaene, Pepijn; Ghent University-Geography Department, Philippe De Maeyer & Lenoir, Matthieu; Ghent University
It is uncertain to what extent the duration of eye fixations reflects the use of landmarks during navigation. Therefore, a study was conducted in which eye tracking data and route descriptions were collected of 23 participants who were highly familiar with the indoor test environment. Based on the total fixation time on different landmark categories, two measures were calculated, namely the calculated landmark category use and the probable landmark category use. Based on the ratio...

Gaze Tracking in Semi-Autonomous Grasping

Castellini, Claudio; LIRA-Lab, University Of Genova, Italy
In critical human/robotic interactions such as, e.g., teleoperation by a disabled master or with insufficient bandwidth, it is highly desirable to have semi-autonomous robotic artifacts interact with a human being. Semi-autonomous grasping, for instance, consists of having a smart slave able to guess the master’s intentions and initiating a grasping sequence whenever the master wants to grasp an object in the slave’s workspace. In this paper we investigate the possibility of building such an intelligent...

Object Frequency and Predictability Effects on Eye Fixation Durations in Real-World Scene Viewing

Hwang, Alex D.; University Of Massachusetts At Boston, Wang, Hsueh-Cheng; University Of Massachusetts At Boston & Pomplun, Marc; University Of Massachusetts At Boston
During text reading, the durations of eye fixations decrease with greater frequency and predictability of the currently fixated word (Rayner, 1998; 2009). However, it has not been tested whether those results also apply to scene viewing. We computed object frequency and predictability from both linguistic and visual scene analysis (LabelMe, Russell et al., 2008), and Latent Semantic Analysis (Landauer et al., 1998) was applied to estimate predictability. In a scene-viewing experiment, we found that, for...

A Skeleton-based Approach to Analyze and Visualize Oculomotor Behavior when Viewing Animated Characters

Thibaut Le Naour & Bresciani, Jean-Pierre; University Of Fribourg
Knowing what people look at and understanding how they analyze the dynamic gestures of their peers is an exciting challenge. In this context, we propose a new approach to quantify and visualize the oculomotor behavior of viewers watching the movements of animated characters in dynamic sequences. Using this approach, we were able to illustrate on a 'heat mesh' the gaze distribution of one or several viewers, i.e., the time spent on each part of the...

The behavioural and neurophysiological modulation of microsaccades in monkeys

Bell, Andrew H.; Queen’s University, Fecteau, Jillian H.; Queen’s University, Corneil, Brian D.; University Of Western Ontario, Munoz, Douglas P.; Queen’s University & Brien, Donald C.; Queen’s University
Systematic modulations of microsaccades have been observed in humans during covert orienting. We show here that monkeys are a suitable model for studying the neurophysiology governing these modulations of microsaccades. Using various cue-target saccade tasks, we observed the effects of visual and auditory cues on microsaccades in monkeys. As in human studies, following visual cues there was an early bias in cue-congruent microsaccades followed by a later bias in cue-incongruent microsaccades. Following auditory cues there...

Effectiveness of a Virtual Reality Head-Mounted Display System-based Developmental Eye Movement Test

Kim, Jung-Ho; Kwangwoon University, Son, Ho-Jun; Kwangwoon University, Lee, Sung-Jin; Kwangwoon University Duksung Women's University, Yun, Deok-Young; Kwangwoon University, Lee, Seung-Hyun; Kwangwoon University & Kwon, Soon-Chul; Kwangwoon University
By transplanting the Developmental Eye Movement (DEM) test chart to a virtual reality head-mounted display (VR HMD) system, this study sought to evaluate the effectiveness of the DEM test for measuring dynamic visual acuity.Thirty-nine adults aged 20–39 years of both genders were the subjects of the study. After undergoing measurement of their visual function, through medical questionnaire, interpupillary distance, near point of convergence (NPC), near point of accommodation (NPA), and far and near phoria, the...

Sampling frequency and eye-tracking measures: how speed affects durations, latencies, and more

Holmqvist, Kenneth; Lund University, Nyström, Marcus; Lund University & Andersson, Richard; Lund University
We use simulations to investigate the effect of sampling frequency on common dependent variables in eye-tracking. We identify two large groups of measures that behave differently, but consistently. The effect of sampling frequency on these two groups of measures are explored and simulations are performed to estimate how much data are required to overcome the uncertainty of a limited sampling frequency. Both simulated and real data are used to estimate the temporal uncertainty of data...

Effect of Dravidian vernacular, English and Hindi during onscreen reading text: A physiological, subjective and objective evaluation study

Majumdar, Deepti; DIPAS, DRDO, Delhi, India, Chowdhury, Bodhisattwa; DIPAS, DRDO, Delhi, India, Majumdar, Dhurjati; DIPAS, DRDO, Delhi, India & Bhattacharyya, Debojyoti; DIPAS, DRDO, Delhi, India
Multilingualism has become an integral part of our present lifestyle. India has twenty two registered official languages with English and Hindi being most widely used for all official activities across the nation. As both these languages are introduced later in life, it was hypothesised that comprehensive reading will be better and faster if the native medium was used. Therefore present study aimed to evaluate the differences in performance while using one of the four Indian...

Eye movements and attention in visual feature search with graded target-distractor-similarity

Heße, Uta; Department Of Psychology, Martin-Luther-University Halle, Germany, Wienrich, Carolin; Department Of Psychology, Martin-Luther-University Halle, Germany & Müller-Plath, Gisela; Department Of Psychology, Martin-Luther-University Halle, Germany
We conducted a visual feature search experiment in which we varied the target-distractor-similarity in four steps, the number of items (4, 6, and 8), and the presence of the target. In addition to classical search parameters like error rate and reaction time (RT), we analyzed saccade amplitudes, fixation durations, and the portion of reinspections (recurred fixation on an item with at least one different item fixated in between) and refixations (recurred fixation on an item...

Study of depth bias of observers in free viewing of still stereoscopic synthetic stimuli

Ricordel, Vincent; LUNAM Université, Université De Nantes, IRCCyN UMR CNRS 6597, France, Callet, Patrick Le; LUNAM Université, Université De Nantes, IRCCyN UMR CNRS 6597, France, Silva, Matthieu Perreira Da; LUNAM Université, Université De Nantes, IRCCyN UMR CNRS 6597, France, Tourancheau, Sylvain; Dept Of Information Technology And Media, Mid Sweden University, Sweden & Wang, Junle; LUNAM Université, Université De Nantes, IRCCyN UMR CNRS 6597, France
Observers’ fixations exhibit a marked bias towards certain areas on the screen when viewing scenes on computer monitors. For instance, there exists a well-known “center-bias” which means that fixations are biased towards the center of the screen during the viewing of 2D still images. In the viewing of 3D content, stereoscopic displays enhance depth perception by the mean of binocular parallax. This additional depth cue has a great influence on guiding eye movements. Relatively little...

Simple Configuration Effects on Eye Movements in Horizontal Scanning Tasks

Skilters, Jurgis; University Of Latvia, Lacis, Ivars; University Of Latvia & Laicane, Ilze; University Of Latvia
When reading text, observers alternate periods of stable gaze (fixations) and shifts of gaze (saccades). An important debate in the literature concerns the processes that drive the control of these eye movements. Past studies using strings of letters rather than meaningful text ('z-reading') suggest that eye movement control during reading is, to a large extent, controlled by low-level image properties. These studies, however, have failed to take into account perceptual grouping processes that could drive...

Ways of improving the precision of eye tracking data: Controlling the influence of dirt and dust on pupil detection

Dennis Hospach, Wolfgang Rosenstiel, Wolfgang Fuhl, Thomas C. Kübler, Kasneci, Enkelejda; University Of Tübingen Department Of Computer Science & Oliver Bringmann
Eye-tracking technology has to date been primarily employed in research. With recent advances in aordable video-based devices, the implementation of gaze-aware smartphones, and marketable driver monitoring systems, a considerable step towards pervasive eye-tracking has been made. However, several new challenges arise with the usage of eye-tracking in the wild and will need to be tackled to increase the acceptance of this technology. The main challenge is still related to the usage of eye-tracking together with...

Binocular coordination during smooth pursuit in dyslexia: a multiple case study

Bucci, Maria-Pia; IRIS Laboratory, FRE 3154, CNRS, Yang, Qing; IRIS Laboratory, FRE 3154, CNRS, Vernet, Marine; IRIS Laboratory, FRE 3154, CNRS & Kapoula, Zoe; IRIS Laboratory, FRE 3154, CNRS
Smooth pursuit (SP) was explored in dyslexics and non-dyslexics. Dyslexic children show similar gain of SP, and number and amplitude of catch-up saccades (CUS) as non-dyslexic children. The quality of binocular coordination is good for both groups; the only significant exception is for pursuit to the right for both smooth phase and CUS; dyslexics show higher disconjugacy. Decrement of binocular control during rightward pursuit only could reflect immaturity of oculomotor learning mechanisms needed to optimize...

Using Eye Tracking to Trace a Cognitive Process: Gaze Behaviour During Decision Making in a Natural Environment

Gidlöf, Kerstin; Lund University, Dewhurst, Richard; Lund University, Holmqvist, Kenneth; Lund University & Wallin, Annika; Lund University
The visual behaviour of consumers buying (or searching for) products in a supermarket was measured and used to analyse the stages of their decision process. Traditionally metrics used to trace decision-making processes are difficult to use in natural environments that often contain many options and unstructured information. Unlike previous attempts in this direction (i.e. Russo & Leclerc, 1994), our methodology reveals differences between a decision-making task and a search task. In particular the second (evaluation)...

Visual Multi-Metric Grouping of Eye-Tracking Data

Burch, Michael; Eindhoven Uni. Of Tech., Netherlands, Netzel, Rudolf; University Of Stuttgart, Mueller, Klaus; Stony Brook University, New York, Weiskopf, Daniel; University Of Stuttgart & Kumar, Ayush; Stony Brook University, New York
We present an algorithmic and visual grouping of participants and eye-tracking metrics derived from recorded eye-tracking data. Our method utilizes two well-established visualization concepts. First, parallel coordinates are used to provide an overview of the used metrics, their interactions, and similarities, which helps select suitable metrics that describe characteristics of the eye-tracking data. Furthermore, parallel coordinates plots enable an analyst to test the effects of creating a combination of a subset of metrics resulting in...

The Effects of Individual Differences on Cued Antisaccade Performance

Taylor, Alisdair J.G.; University Of Sussex & Hutton, Samuel B.; University Of Sussex
In the antisaccade task, pre-cueing the location of a correct response has the paradoxical effect of increasing errors. It has been suggested that this effect occurs because participants adopt an "antisaccade task set" and treat the cue as if was a target - directing attention away from the precue and towards the location of the impending target. This hypothesis was tested using a mixed pro / antisaccade task. In addition the effects of individual differences...

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