273 Works

Fixational eye movement waveforms in amblyopia: Characteristics of fast and slow eye movements

Sarah Linda Kang, Sinem B. Beylergil, Jorge Otero-Millan, Aasef Shaikh & Fatema Ghasia
Fixational eye movements comprise of fast microsaccades alternating with slow inter-saccadic drifts. These physiologic eye movements play an important role in visual perception. Amblyopic patients are known to have fixation instability, particularly of the amblyopic eye. We examined eye movement abnormalities that contribute to this instability. We found that fixation stability is affected by the presence of fusion maldevelopment nystagmus (FMN). However, some amblyopes can have nystagmus without nasally directed slow phases and reversal in...

Evaluating age-related variations of gaze behavior for a novel digitized-digit symbol substitution test

Debatri Chatterjee, Rahul Dasharath Gavas, Kingshuk Chakravarty, Aniruddha Sinha & Uttama Lahiri
Analysis of cognitive functioning from gaze behavior might serve as an early indicator of age related decline of cognitive functions. Standard psychological tests like the digit-symbol substitution test or the symbol-digit modalities test is used exclusively in this regard. In this paper, we have designed and developed a digitized version of the digit symbol substitution test. Three different versions have been designed in order to derive deeper insights of the user behavior. The test-retest validation...

Microsaccades distinguish looking from seeing

Eva Krueger, Andrea Schneider, Ben Sawyer, Alain Chavaillaz, Andreas Sonderegger, Rudolf Groner & Peter Hancock
Understanding our visual world requires both looking and seeing. Dissociation of these processes can result in the phenomenon of inattentional blindness or ‘looking without seeing‘. Concomitant errors in applied settings can be serious, and even deadly. Current visual data analysis cannot differentiate between just ‘looking‘ and actual processing of visual information, i.e., ‘seeing‘. Differentiation may be possible through the examination of microsaccades; the involuntary, small-magnitude saccadic eye movements that occur during processed visual fixation. Recent...

The function of “looking-at-nothing” for sequential sensorimotor tasks: Eye movements to remembered action-target locations

Rebecca Martina Foerster
When performing manual actions, eye movements precede hand movements to target locations: Before we grasp an object, we look at it. Eye-hand guidance is even preserved when visual targets are unavailable, e.g., grasping behind an occlusion. This “looking-at-nothing” behavior might be functional, e.g., as “deictic pointer” for manual control or as memory-retrieval cue, or a by-product of automatization. Here, it is studied if looking at empty locations before acting on them is beneficial for sensorimotor...

Microsaccades and covert attention: Evidence from a continuous, divided attention task

Aimee Elizabeth Ryan, Brendan Keane & Guy Wallis
A substantial question in understanding expert behavior is isolating where experts look, and which aspects of their environment they process. While tracking the position of gaze provides some insight into this process, our ability to attend covertly to regions of space other than the current point of fixation, severely limits the diagnostic power of such data. Over the past decade, evidence has emerged suggesting that microscopic eye movements present during periods of fixation may be...

Microsaccades reflect the dynamics of misdirected attention in magic

Anthony S. Barnhart, Francisco M. Costela, Susana Martinez-Conde, Stephen L. Macknik & Stephen D. Goldinger
The methods of magicians provide powerful tools for enhancing the ecological validity of laboratory studies of attention. The current research borrows a technique from magic to explore the relationship between microsaccades and covert attention under near-natural viewing conditions. We monitored participants’ eye movements as they viewed a magic trick where a coin placed beneath a napkin vanishes and reappears beneath another napkin. Many participants fail to see the coin move from one location to the...

Why do we look at people's eyes?

Birmingham, Elina; University Of British Columbia, Kingstone, Alan; University Of British Columbia & Bischof, Walter F.; University Of Alberta
We have previously shown that when observers are presented with complex natural scenes that contain a number of objects and people, observers look mostly at the eyes of the people. Why is this? It cannot be because eyes are merely the most salient area in a scene, as relative to other objects they are fairly inconspicuous. We hypothesized that people look at the eyes because they consider the eyes to be a rich source of...

Parsing costs as predictors of reading difficulty: An evaluation using the Potsdam Sentence Corpus

Hale, John; Cornell University, Boston, Marisa Ferrara; Cornell University, Patil, Umesh; University Of Potsdam, Vasishth, Shravan; University Of Potsdam & Kliegl, Reinhold; University Of Potsdam
The surprisal of a word on a probabilistic grammar constitutes a promising complexity metric for human sentence comprehension difficulty. Using two different grammar types, surprisal is shown to have an effect on fixation durations and regression probabilities in a sample of German readers’ eye movements, the Potsdam Sentence Corpus. A linear mixed-effects model was used to quantify the effect of surprisal while taking into account unigram frequency and bigram frequency (transitional probability), word length, and...

An easy iris center detection method for eye gaze tracking system

Yu, Mingxin; Northeastern University, Boston, USA, & Beijing Institute Of Technology, China, Xu, Jing; Northeastern University, USA, Wang, Xiangzhou; Beijing Institute Of Technology, China, Tang, Xiaoying; Beijing Institute Of Technology, China, Guo, Yikang; Beijing Institute Of Technology, China, Lin, Yingzi; Northeastern University, USA & Schmidt, David; Northeastern University, USA
Iris center detection accuracy has great impact on eye gaze tracking system performance. This paper proposes an easy and efficient iris center detection method based on modeling the geometric relationship between the detected rough iris center and the two corners of the eye. The method fully considers four states of iris within the eye region, i.e. center, left, right, and upper. The proposed active edge detection algorithm is utilized to extract iris edge points for...

Editorial

Velichkovsky, Boris M.; Applied Cognitive Research / Institute Of Psychology III, Technische Universität Dresden, Helmert, Jens R.; Applied Cognitive Research / Institute Of Psychology III, Technische Universität Dresden & Pannasch, Sebastian; Applied Cognitive Research / Institute Of Psychology III, Technische Universität Dresden
Editorial to the Special Issue on Eye tracking and Usability Research

Eye tracking in the wild: Piloting a real-life assessment paradigm for older adults

Damaris Aschwanden, Nicolas Langer & Mathias Allemand
Previous research showed associations between personality traits and eye movements of young adults in the laboratory. However, less is known about these associations in real life and in older age. Primarily, there seems to be no paradigm to assess eye movements of older adults in real life. The present feasibility study thus aimed to test grocery shopping as a real-life assessment paradigm with older adults. Additionally, possible links between personality traits and eye movements were...

A Focus on Selection for Fixation

Wloka, Calden; York University, Canada, Kotseruba, Iuliia; York University, Canada & Tsotsos, John; York University, Canada
A computational explanation of how visual attention, interpretation of visual stimuli, and eye movements combine to produce visual behavior, seems elusive. Here, we focus on one component: how selection is accomplished for the next fixation. The popularity of saliency map models drives the inference that this is solved, but we argue otherwise. We provide arguments that a cluster of complementary, conspicuity representations drive selection, modulated by task goals and history, leading to a hybrid process...

Advantage in Reading Lexical Bundles is Reduced in Non-Native Speakers

Saage, Sven; The Centre For Media And Interactivity, Justus-Liebig University Of Giessen, Germany, Valsecchi, Matteo; Department Of General Psychology, Justus-Liebig-University Of Giessen, Germany, Gegenfurtner, Karl R.; Department Of General Psychology, Justus-Liebig-University Of Giessen, Germany, White, Brian J.; Centre For Neuroscience Studies, Queen’s University Kingston, Ontario, Canada, Mukherjee, Joybrato; Department Of English, Justus-Liebig-University Of Giessen, Germany & Künstler, Viktoria; The Centre For Media And Interactivity, Justus-Liebig University Of Giessen, Germany
Formulaic sequences such as idioms, collocations, and lexical bundles, which may be processed as holistic units, make up a large proportion of natural language. For language learners, however, formulaic patterns are a major barrier to achieving native like competence. The present study investigated the processing of lexical bundles by native speakers and less advanced non-native English speakers using corpus analysis for the identification of lexical bundles and eye-tracking to measure the reading times. The participants...

Do Graph Readers Prefer the Graph Type Most Suited to a Given Task? Insights from Eye Tracking

Saß, Steffani; Leibniz Institute For Science And Mathematics Education (IPN), Kiel, Strobel, Benjamin; Leibniz Institute For Science And Mathematics Education (IPN), Kiel, Lindner, Marlit Annalena; Leibniz Institute For Science And Mathematics Education (IPN), Kiel & Köller, Olaf; Leibniz Institute For Science And Mathematics Education (IPN), Kiel
Research on graph comprehension suggests that point differences are easier to read in bar graphs, while trends are easier to read in line graphs. But are graph readers able to detect and use the most suited graph type for a given task? In this study, we applied a dual repre-sentation paradigm and eye tracking methodology to determine graph readers’ preferential processing of bar and line graphs while solving both point difference and trend tasks. Data...

Schedule of the 13th European Conference on Eye Movements 2005

Groner, Marina; University Of Bern, Müri, R.; University Of Bern, Raess, Simon; University Of Bern, P., P; Suri, Koga, Kazuo; Nagoya University & Groner, Rudolf; University Of Bern
This document contains the schedule of the 13th European Conference on Eye Movements, August 14-18 2005 in Bern, Switzerland

Increased microsaccade rate in individuals with ADHD traits

Stafford, Tom; The University Of Sheffield, Overton, Paul; The University Of Sheffield & Panagiotidi, Maria; Staffordshire University
Microsaccades are involuntary, small, jerk-like eye-movements with high-velocity that are observed during fixation. Abnormal microsaccade rates and characteristics have been observed in a number of psychiatric and developmental disorders. In this study, we examine microsaccade differences in 43 non-clinical participants with high and low levels of ADHD-like traits, assessed with the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS, Kessler, Adler, et al., 2005). A simple sustained attention paradigm, which has been previously shown to elicit microsaccades, was...

How form and structure of Chinese characters affect eye movement control

Ma, Min-Yuan; National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (R.O.C) & Chuang, Hsien-Chih; National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (R.O.C)
This study investigated the correlations between the form features and legibility of Chinese characters by employing the eye tracking method in two experiments: Experiment 1 examined factors affecting Chinese character legibility with character modules and identified the correlations between character form and legibility of crossing strokes; and Experiment 2 examined the effect of crossing strokes on subjective complicacy perception in both Chinese characters and English letters. This study determined that enclosed Chinese characters affect subjective...

The Influence of Complex Distractors in the Remote Distractor Paradigm

Benson, Valerie; University Of Southampton
Three experiments examined the influence of complex dis-tractors on the Remote Distractor Effect (RDE), a robust finding of an increase is saccade latencies when two, rather than one possible targets are presented simultaneously (Walker, Deubel, Schneider & Findlay, 1997). In Experiment 1 saccade onset latencies (SOL’s) were greater for central versus peripheral presentation for lexical distractors, but not for non-lexical distractors. Experiment 2 showed that repeated presentation of a distractor results in reduced SOL’s at...

Using smooth pursuit calibration for difficult-to-calibrate participants

Blignaut, Pieter; University Of The Free State, South Africa
Although the 45-dots calibration routine of a previous study (Blignaut, 2016) provided very good accuracy, it requires intense mental effort and the routine proved to be unsuccessful for young children who struggle to maintain concentration. The calibration procedures that are normally used for difficult-to-calibrate participants, such as autistic children and infants, do not suffice since they are not accurate enough and the reliability of research results might be jeopardised.Smooth pursuit has been used before for...

Binocular coordination during smooth pursuit in dyslexia: a multiple case study

Bucci, Maria-Pia; IRIS Laboratory, FRE 3154, CNRS, Yang, Qing; IRIS Laboratory, FRE 3154, CNRS, Vernet, Marine; IRIS Laboratory, FRE 3154, CNRS & Kapoula, Zoe; IRIS Laboratory, FRE 3154, CNRS
Smooth pursuit (SP) was explored in dyslexics and non-dyslexics. Dyslexic children show similar gain of SP, and number and amplitude of catch-up saccades (CUS) as non-dyslexic children. The quality of binocular coordination is good for both groups; the only significant exception is for pursuit to the right for both smooth phase and CUS; dyslexics show higher disconjugacy. Decrement of binocular control during rightward pursuit only could reflect immaturity of oculomotor learning mechanisms needed to optimize...

Effect of target type on near point of convergence in a healthy, active, young adult population

Phillips, Jacqueline; Temple University & Tierney, Ryan; Temple University
Purpose: Measuring near point of convergence (NPC) has recently emerged as a concussion assessment tool. Differences in administration of the test can be seen within the literature, which may affect results and normative values. There has been little investigation examining if clinically accessible target types affects NPC and no examination of NPC in a healthy, active young adult population. Methods: NPC was measured in 39 subjects using 5 different targets two times each with an...

A cheap portable eye-tracker solution for common setups

Ferhat, Onur; Universitat Autonoma De Barcelona, Spain, Sanchez, Francisco Javier; Universitat Autonoma De Barcelona, Spain & Vilarino, Fernando; Universitat Autonoma De Barcelona, Spain
We analyze the feasibility of a cheap eye-tracker where the hardware consists of a single webcam and a Raspberry Pi device. Our aim is to discover the limits of such a system and to see whether it provides an acceptable performance. We base our work on the open source Opengazer (Zielinski, 2013) and we propose several improvements to create a robust, real-time system which can work on a computer with 30Hz sampling rate. After assessing...

Fixation Region Overlap: A quantitative method for the analysis of fixational eye movement patterns

Johnston, Stephen; Wales Institute For Cognitive Neuroscience, School Of Psychology, Bangor University & Leek, Charles; Wales Institute For Cognitive Neuroscience, School Of Psychology, Bangor University
This article presents a new method for the quantitative analyses of fixation patterns in eye tracking data. The Fixation Region Overlap Analysis (FROA) uses thresholded spatial distributions of fixation frequency or duration to determine regions-of-interest (ROIs). The locations of these ROIs are contrasted with fixation regions of other empirically-derived, or modelled, data patterns by comparing region pixel overlap. A Monte Carlo procedure is used to assess the statistical significance of fixation region overlap based on...

Less users more confidence: How AOIs don’t affect scanpath trend analysis

Eraslan, Sukru; Computer Engineering Program, Middle East Technical University Northern Cyprus Campus, Yesilada, Yeliz; Computer Engineering Program, Middle East Technical University Northern Cyprus Campus & Harper, Simon; School Of Computer Science, University Of Manchester, United Kingdom
User studies are typically difficult, recruiting enough users is often problematic and each experiment takes a considerable amount of time to be completed. In these studies, eye tracking is increasingly used which often increases time, therefore, the lower the number of users required for these studies the better for making these kinds of studies more practical in terms of economics and time expended. The possibility of achieving almost the same results with fewer users has...

Evaluation of accurate eye corner detection methods for gaze estimation

Villanueva, Arantxa; Public University Of Navarra, Spain, Cerrolaza, Juan J.; Childrens National Medical Center, USA, Cabeza, Rafael; Public University Of Navarra, Spain & Bengoechea, Jose Javier; Public University Of Navarra, Spain
Accurate detection of iris center and eye corners appears to be a promising approach for low cost gaze estimation. In this paper we propose novel eye inner corner detection methods. Appearance and feature based segmentation approaches are suggested. All these methods are exhaustively tested on a realistic dataset containing images of subjects gazing at different points on a screen. We have demonstrated that a method based on a neural network presents the best performance even...

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