7,227 Works

Eye typing in application: A comparison of two systems with ALS patients

Pannasch, Sebastian; Applied Cognitive Research/Psychology III, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Velichkovsky, Boris M.; Applied Cognitive Research/Psychology III, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Malischke, Susann; Applied Cognitive Research/Psychology III, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Helmert, Jens R.; Applied Cognitive Research/Psychology III, Technische Universitaet Dresden & Storch, Alexander; Department Of Neurology, Technische Universitaet Dresden
A variety of eye typing systems has been developed during the last decades. Such systems can provide support for people who lost the ability to communicate, e.g. patients suffering from motor neuron diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In the current retrospective analysis, two eye typing applications were tested (EyeGaze, GazeTalk) by ALS patients (N = 4) in order to analyze objective performance measures and subjective ratings. An advantage of the EyeGaze system was...

Program of the 18th European Conference on Eye Movements 2015

Ansorge, Ulrich; University Of Vienna, Leder, Helmut; University Of Vienna, Ditye, Thomas; University Of Vienna & Florack, Arnd; University Of Vienna
This document contains the Program of the 18th European Conference on Eye Movements, August 16-21 2015 in Vienna, Austria

Sprachbewusstheit – Sprachreflexion – Sprachkritik – Sprachpraxis – Sprachspiel: Didaktische Perspektiven auf die Auseinandersetzung von Kindern mit tradierten sprachlichen Formen

Helga Andresen
Children enjoy playing with language, even when they are as young as four years of age. Their playful practice can be seen as dealing with linguistic rules and conventions critically. Therefore didactic language criticism should be aware of children’s motivation for language play and their experiences in this field. The article describes several forms of language play – spontaneous speech play, jokes and riddles – and relates them to language acquisition, language awareness and acquisition...

Investigating the Spatial Pattern of Older Drivers’ Eye Fixation Behaviour and Associations with Their Visual Capacity

Falkmer, Torbjörn; Curtin University, Australia Linköping University, Sweden La Trobe University, Australia, Lee, Hoe; Curtin University, Australia, Sun, Qian; Department Of Spatial Sciences, Curtin University, Australia & Xia, Jianhong (Cecilia); Curtin University, Australia
Visual capacity generally declines as people age, yet its impact on visual search patterns along different road sections of actual driving still remains undocumented. In this on-road driving study, we simultaneously recorded 30 older drivers’ eye movement and precise vehicle movement trajectories. The vehicle positions were linked to every eye fixation of individual drivers so that we know the locations of a driver's gaze origin in geospatial coordinates. Spatial distribution pattern of drivers’ eye fixations...

Comparing Experts and Novices on Scaffolded Data Visualizations using Eye-tracking

Stofer, Kathryn; University Of Florida & Che, Xuan; National Institutes Of Health
Spatially-based scientific data visualizations are becoming widely available, yet they are often not optimized for novice audiences. This study follows after an investigation of ex-pert and novice meaning-making from scaffolded data visualizations using clinical inter-views. Using eye-tracking and concurrent interviewing, we examined quantitative fixation and AOI data and qualitative scan path data for two expertise groups (N = 20) on five versions of scaffolded global ocean data visualizations. We found influences of expertise, scaffolding, and...

Visual vs. Spatial Contributions to Microsaccades and Visual-Spatial Working Memory

Bridgeman, Bruce; Department Of Psychology, University Of California, Santa Cruz, USA & Gaunt, Joshua T.; Department Of Psychology, University Of California, Santa Cruz, USA
Microsaccade rates and directions were monitored while observers performed a visual working memory task at varying retinal eccentricities. We show that microsaccades generate no interference in a working memory task, indicating that spatial working memory is at least partially insulated from oculomotor activity. Intervening tasks during the memory interval affected microsaccade patterns; microsaccade frequency was consistently higher during concurrent spatial tapping (no visual component) than during exposure to dynamic visual noise (no task). Average microsaccade...

Eric Sorita

Sylvie Tétreault
Sans résumé.

Du dictionnaire de fréquence au lexique pour les apprenant·e·s de FLE : l’exemple des adjectifs / noms communs de personnes

Alain Kamber & Daniel Elmiger
In French morphology, there is a certain proximity of categories and inflectional models between adjectives and nouns (e. g. responsable (adj.) – le/la responsable (noun)). This is hardly reflected in FLE textbooks (French as a foreign language), which tend to present the grammatical categories and inflectional paradigms separately. The topic of transcategorisation is investigated using a large electronic corpus (Corpus français Leipzig), which will be briefly described, as well as the frequency dictionary created on...

Error Correction in Vergence Eye Movements: Evidence Supporting Hering’s Law

Semmlow, John L.; Rutgers University, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Alvarez, Tara L.; New Jersey Institute Of Technology & Granger-Donetti, Bérangère; Essilor International
In pure symmetrical vergence eye movements, a fusion initiating component quickly brings the eyes close to the desired position. A small error usually remains after this response which must be corrected to attain the small final vergence error (i.e., fixation disparity). Error correction will usually involve both version and version movements so possible mechanisms include: small saccades, smooth pursuit, symmetrical vergence, or some combination. Alternatively, an asymmetrical vergence or uniocular slow eye movement could be...

The Informatics of the Planning Target Volume -- why it cannot and should not be changed

Scott Turner & Alexis Andrew Miller
The ICRU defined the Planning Target Volume (PTV) as a static and geometrical volume in 1993. Radiation oncologists continue to manually alter PTVs in their daily practice when critical organs at risk (OAR) are too close to high dose PTVs. This practice is examined and shown to be non-standard (defies the ICRU definitions), inaccurate (all DVHs look perfect when the plan is manifestly NOT perfect), and useless for outcomes research (automatically analysed DVHs will find...

This is it ! : Indicating and looking in collaborative work at distance

Cherubini, Mauro; Telefonica Research, Barcelona, Nüssli, Marc-Antoine; Swiss Federal Institute Of Technology, Lausanne & Dillenbourg, Pierre; Swiss Federal Institute Of Technology, Lausanne
Little is known of the interplay between deixis and eye movements in remote collaboration. This paper presents quantitative results from an experiment where participant pairs had to collaborate at a distance using chat tools that differed in the way messages could be enriched with spatial information from the map in the shared workspace. We studied how the availability of what we defined as an Explicit Referencing mechanism (ER) affected the coordination of the eye movements...

Eye tracking scanpath analysis techniques on web pages: A survey, evaluation and comparison

Eraslan, Sukru; University Of Manchester, UK, & Middle East Technical University, Northern Cyprus Campus, Kalkanli, Guzelyurt, Turkey, Yesilada, Yeliz; Middle East Technical University, Northern Cyprus Campus, 99738 Kalkanli, Guzelyurt, Mersin 10, Turkey & Harper, Simon; School Of Computer Science, University Of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom
Eye tracking has commonly been used to investigate how users interact with web pages, with the goal of improving their usability. This article comprehensively revisits the techniques that could be applicable to eye tracking data for analysing user scanpaths on web pages. It also uses a third-party eye tracking study to compare these techniques. This allows researchers to recognise existing techniques for their goals, understand how they work and know their strengths and limitations so...


Martine Brousseau & Sylvie Tétreault
Sans résumé.


Maud Dubois & Alain Kamber

Parsing eye movement analysis of scanpaths of naïve viewers of art: How do we differentiate art from non-art pictures?

Zangemeister, Wolfgang H.; Neuroophthalmology Unit, Department Of Neurology, University Hamburg, FRG & Privitera, Claudio; Dept. Of Physiological Optics And Optometry, UC Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
Relating to G. Buswell’s early work we posed the questions: How do art-naïve people look at pairs of artful pictures and similarly looking snapshots? Does the analysis of their eye movement recordings reveal a difference in their perception? Parsing eye scanpaths using string editing, similarity coefficients can be sorted out and represented for the two measures ‘Sp’ (Similarities of position) and ‘Ss’ (Similarities of sequences). 25 picture pairs were shown 5 times to 7 subjects...

Manuel d’analyse qualitative. Analyser sans compter ni classer. Un livre de Christophe Lejeune

Sylvie Tétreault
Sans résumé.

Abstracts of the 16th European Conference on Eye Movements 2011

Vitu, Françoise; CNRS, Université De Provence, Castet, Eric; CNRS, Université De La Méditerranée & Goffart, Laurent; CNRS, Université De La Méditerranée
This document contains all abstracts of the 16th European Conference on Eye Movements, August 21-25 2011 in Marseille, France. It was a real honour and a great pleasure to welcome more than 500 delegates to Marseille for the 16th edition of the European Conference on Eye Movements. The series of ECEM conferences started in 1981 under the auspices of Rudolf Groner in Bern. This year, we therefore celebrated the 30th Anniversary of ECEM. For this...

LCD vs. E-ink: An Analysis of the Reading Behavior

Siegenthaler, Eva; Swiss Distance University Of Applied Sciences, Wyss, Michael; University Of Bern, Wurtz, Pascal; GfK Switzerland AG, SirValUse, Biel & Schmid, Laura; University Of Bern
Electronic books (e-book) are an interesting option compared to classic paper books. Most e-reading devices of the first generation were based on e-ink technology. With the appearance of the Apple iPad on the market, TFT-LCDs became important in the field of e-reading. Both technologies have advantages and disadvantages but the question remains whether one or the other technology is better for reading. In the present study we analyzed and compared reading behavior when reading on...

St. Gallen, Stiftsbibliothek, Cod. Sang. 850 : Cicero, Tusculanae disputationes, De finibus bonorum et malorum, De natura deorum, De divinatione

Marcus Tullius Cicero & Papst Nikolaus V.
This codex, written in humanist minuscule, contains philosophical works by Marcus Tullius Cicero (106–43 BC): pp. 3–121 Tusculanae disputationes (“Tusculan Disputations”), pp. 121–248 De finibus bonorum et malorum (“On the Ends of Good and Evil”), pp. 249–344 De natura deorum (“On the Nature of the Gods”) and pp. pp. 345–416 De divinatione (“On Divination”). The coat of arms on p. 3 (four bearded male faces in profile, arranged in a circle) most likely was that...

The behavioural and neurophysiological modulation of microsaccades in monkeys

Bell, Andrew H.; Queen’s University, Fecteau, Jillian H.; Queen’s University, Corneil, Brian D.; University Of Western Ontario, Munoz, Douglas P.; Queen’s University & Brien, Donald C.; Queen’s University
Systematic modulations of microsaccades have been observed in humans during covert orienting. We show here that monkeys are a suitable model for studying the neurophysiology governing these modulations of microsaccades. Using various cue-target saccade tasks, we observed the effects of visual and auditory cues on microsaccades in monkeys. As in human studies, following visual cues there was an early bias in cue-congruent microsaccades followed by a later bias in cue-incongruent microsaccades. Following auditory cues there...

Eye-movements in real curve driving: pursuit-like optokinesis in vehicle frame of reference, stability in an allocentric reference coordinate system

Lehtonen, Esko; University Of Helsinki & Lappi, Otto; University Of Helsinki
Looking at the future path and/or the tangent point (TP) have been identified as car drivers’ gaze targets in many studies on curve driving. Yet little is known in detail about these "fixations to the road". We quantitatively analyse gaze behavior at the level of individual fixations in real on-road data. We find that while gaze tracks the TP area, this pattern consists of fast optokinetic movements (smooth pursuit and fast resetting saccadic movements). Gaze...

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