280 Works

Eye movements and attention in visual feature search with graded target-distractor-similarity

Heße, Uta; Department Of Psychology, Martin-Luther-University Halle, Germany, Wienrich, Carolin; Department Of Psychology, Martin-Luther-University Halle, Germany & Müller-Plath, Gisela; Department Of Psychology, Martin-Luther-University Halle, Germany
We conducted a visual feature search experiment in which we varied the target-distractor-similarity in four steps, the number of items (4, 6, and 8), and the presence of the target. In addition to classical search parameters like error rate and reaction time (RT), we analyzed saccade amplitudes, fixation durations, and the portion of reinspections (recurred fixation on an item with at least one different item fixated in between) and refixations (recurred fixation on an item...

Eye typing in application: A comparison of two systems with ALS patients

Pannasch, Sebastian; Applied Cognitive Research/Psychology III, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Velichkovsky, Boris M.; Applied Cognitive Research/Psychology III, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Malischke, Susann; Applied Cognitive Research/Psychology III, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Helmert, Jens R.; Applied Cognitive Research/Psychology III, Technische Universitaet Dresden & Storch, Alexander; Department Of Neurology, Technische Universitaet Dresden
A variety of eye typing systems has been developed during the last decades. Such systems can provide support for people who lost the ability to communicate, e.g. patients suffering from motor neuron diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In the current retrospective analysis, two eye typing applications were tested (EyeGaze, GazeTalk) by ALS patients (N = 4) in order to analyze objective performance measures and subjective ratings. An advantage of the EyeGaze system was...

Different types of sounds influence gaze differently in videos

Granjon, Lionel; LPP, CNRS UMR 8158, Paris Descartes University, France, Song, Guanghan; GIPSA-Lab, CNRS UMR 5216, Grenoble University, France & Pellerin, Denis; GIPSA-Lab, CNRS UMR 5216, Grenoble University, France
This paper presents an analysis of the effect of different types of sounds on visual gaze when a person is looking freely at videos, which would be helpful to predict eye position. In order to test the effect of sound, an audio-visual experiment was designed with two groups of participants, with audio-visual (AV) and visual (V) conditions. By using statistical tools, we analyzed the difference between eye position of participants with AV and V conditions....

The effect of fixational eye movements on fixation identification with a dispersion-based fixation detection algorithm

Blignaut, Pieter; University Of The Free State & Beelders, Tanya; University Of The Free State
Gaze data of 31 participants of a memory recall experiment was analyzed and the I-DT dispersion based algorithm of Salvucci and Goldberg (2000) was used to identify fixations. It was found that individuals differ considerably with regard to the stability of eye gaze and that fixational eye movements affect the accuracy of fixation identification and the optimum dispersion threshold. It was also found that fixation radius and the distance between the points in a fixation...

Combining EEG and Eye Tracking: Using Fixation-Locked Potentials in Visual Search

Johnston, Matthew; Design Interactive, Inc., Carpenter, Angela; Design Interactive, Inc., Flint, Jesse; Design Interactive, Inc., Tomasetti, David; Design Interactive, Inc., Wang, Xuezhong; Design Interactive, Inc., Winslow, Brent; Design Interactive, Inc. & Hale, Kelly; Design Interactive, Inc.
Visual search is a complex task that involves many neural pathways to identify relevant areas of interest within a scene. Humans remain a critical component in visual search tasks, as they can effectively perceive anomalies within complex scenes. However, this task can be challenging, particularly under time pressure. In order to improve visual search training and performance, an objective, process-based measure is needed. Eye tracking technology can be used to drive real-time parsing of EEG...

Reading Shakespeare sonnets: Combining quantitative narrative analysis and predictive modeling - an eye tracking study

Shuwei Xue, Jana Lüdtke, Teresa Sylvester & Arthur M. Jacobs
As a part of a larger interdisciplinary project on Shakespeare sonnets’ reception (Jacobs et al., 2017; Xue et al., 2017), the present study analyzed the eye movement behavior of participants reading three of the 154 sonnets as a function of seven lexical features extracted via Quantitative Narrative Analysis (QNA). Using a machine learning- based predictive modeling approach five ‘surface’ features (word length, orthographic neighborhood density, word frequency, orthographic dissimilarity and sonority score) were detected as...

Did Javal measure eye movements during reading?

Wade, Nicholas J.; University Of Dundee & Tatler, Benjamin W.; University Of Dundee
Louis-Émile Javal is widely credited as the first person to record eye movements in read-ing. This is so despite the fact that Javal himself never made that claim but it is perpetu-ated in contemporary text books, scientific articles and on the internet. Javal did coin the term ‘saccades’ in the context of eye movements during reading but he did not measure them. In this article we suggest that a misreading of Huey’s (1908) book on...

Collecting and Analyzing Eye-Tracking Data in Outdoor Environments

Jacobs, Robert A.; University Of Rochester, Pelz, Jeff B.; Rochester Institute Of Technology, Evans, Karen M.; Rochester Institute Of Technology & Tarduno, John A.; University Of Rochester
Natural outdoor conditions pose unique obstacles for researchers, above and beyond those inherent to all mobile eye-tracking research. During analyses of a large set of eye-tracking data collected on geologists examining outdoor scenes, we have found that the nature of calibration, pupil identification, fixation detection, and gaze analysis all require procedures different from those typically used for indoor studies. Here, we discuss each of these challenges and present solutions, which together define a general method...

Gaze Tracking in Semi-Autonomous Grasping

Castellini, Claudio; LIRA-Lab, University Of Genova, Italy
In critical human/robotic interactions such as, e.g., teleoperation by a disabled master or with insufficient bandwidth, it is highly desirable to have semi-autonomous robotic artifacts interact with a human being. Semi-autonomous grasping, for instance, consists of having a smart slave able to guess the master’s intentions and initiating a grasping sequence whenever the master wants to grasp an object in the slave’s workspace. In this paper we investigate the possibility of building such an intelligent...

A statistical mixture method to reveal bottom-up and top-down factors guiding the eye-movements

Dubois, Michel; LPS, Grenoble II University, Guérin-Dugué, Anne; Gipsa-Lab, INPG, Grenoble, Marendaz, Christian; LPNC, Grenoble II University, Couronné, Thomas; Gipsa-Lab, INPG, Grenoble, France & Faye, Pauline; PSA Peugeot-Citroen, Paris
When people gaze at real scenes, their visual attention is driven both by a set of bottom-up processes coming from the signal properties of the scene and also from top-down effects such as the task, the affective state, prior knowledge, or the semantic context. The context of this study is an assessment of manufactured objects (here car cab interior). From this dedicated context, this work describes a set of methods to analyze the eye-movements during...

Editorial

Walker, Robin; Royal Holloway, University Of London & Liversedge, Simon P.; University Of Southampton
Editorial to the Special Issue in Honour of John M. Findlay

Visual vs. Spatial Contributions to Microsaccades and Visual-Spatial Working Memory

Bridgeman, Bruce; Department Of Psychology, University Of California, Santa Cruz, USA & Gaunt, Joshua T.; Department Of Psychology, University Of California, Santa Cruz, USA
Microsaccade rates and directions were monitored while observers performed a visual working memory task at varying retinal eccentricities. We show that microsaccades generate no interference in a working memory task, indicating that spatial working memory is at least partially insulated from oculomotor activity. Intervening tasks during the memory interval affected microsaccade patterns; microsaccade frequency was consistently higher during concurrent spatial tapping (no visual component) than during exposure to dynamic visual noise (no task). Average microsaccade...

Semantic Override of Low-level Features in Image Viewing – Both Initially and Overall

Nyström, Marcus; Lund University & Holmqvist, Kenneth; Lund University
Guidance of eye-movements in image viewing is believed to be controlled by stimulus driven factors as well as viewer dependent higher level factors such as task and memory. It is currently debated what proportions these factors contribute to gaze guidance, and also how they vary over time after image onset. Overall, the unanimity regarding these issues is surprisingly low and there are results supporting both types of factors as being dominant in eye-movement control under...

Rapid learning of pursuit target motion trajectories revealed by responses to randomized transient sinusoids

Barnes, Graham R.; University Of Manchester
When humans pursue sinusoidal target motion they rapidly learn to track with minimal phase error despite inherent visuo-motor processing delays; prior evidence suggests that prediction might even occur within the first cycle. Here, this has been examined by evoking reactive responses to single cycle stimuli having randomised periodicity and peak velocity. Periodicity was varied within three specific ranges with differing average periodicity. Initial responses in the first half-cycle were remarkably similar within periodicity ranges, irrespective...

Measuring Attention in Second Language Reading Using Eye-tracking: The Case of the Noticing Hypothesis

Dolgunsöz, Emrah; Bayburt University
Taking Schmidt’s (1990) noticing hypothesis as point of departure this study aims to measure attention and learning gains during second language (L2) reading by making use of eye-tracking methodology. Relying on Robinson’s hierarchical memory model (1995, 2003), it is hypothesized that vocabulary learning and attention are closely associated. After a vocabulary pre-test, seventy-five learners of English read a standard text individually while their eye movements were being recorded followed by an immediate post-test. The results...

Evidence for a Structural Analysis of Target Selection in Picture Viewing

Tatler, Benjamin W.; University Of Dundee, Scotland & Rasche, Christoph; Justus-Liebig-Universität Giessen, Germany
Spontaneous fixations onto shapes are driven by a structural analysis. But is such analysis also carried out during free viewing of real-world scenes? Here, we analyze how fixation locations in such scenes are related to their region using the region's symmetric axes as a reference. Each fixation location is compared with respect to its nearest symmetric-axis segment by a latitude and a longitude measure. Analyzing the distributions for the two measures we find that there...

The Illusion of Being Located in Dynamic Virtual Environments. Can Eye Movement Parameters Predict Spatial Presence?

Weibel, David; University Of Bern, Switzerland, Mast, Fred W.; University Of Bern, Switzerland, Stricker, Daniel; University Of Bern, Switzerland, Siegenthaler, Eva; Distance Learning University Switzerland & Wissmath, Bartholomäus; University Of Bern, Switzerland
Attention allocation towards the mediated environment is assumed to be a necessary precondition to feel localized in a virtual world. In presence research, however, the potential of eye movement research has not been fully exploited so far. In this study, participants (N=44) rode on a virtual roller coaster simulation. We compare participants scoring high versus low on presence. During the ride, the eye movements and subjective ex post presence judgments were assessed. We found high...

This is it ! : Indicating and looking in collaborative work at distance

Cherubini, Mauro; Telefonica Research, Barcelona, Nüssli, Marc-Antoine; Swiss Federal Institute Of Technology, Lausanne & Dillenbourg, Pierre; Swiss Federal Institute Of Technology, Lausanne
Little is known of the interplay between deixis and eye movements in remote collaboration. This paper presents quantitative results from an experiment where participant pairs had to collaborate at a distance using chat tools that differed in the way messages could be enriched with spatial information from the map in the shared workspace. We studied how the availability of what we defined as an Explicit Referencing mechanism (ER) affected the coordination of the eye movements...

Cyclopean vs. Dominant Eye in Gaze-Interface-Tracking

Wagner, Michael; Ariel University, Botzer, Assaf; Ariel University & Elbaum, Tomer; Ariel University
User-centered design questions in gaze interfaces have been explored in multitude empirical investigations. Interestingly, the question of what eye should be the input device has never been studied. We compared tracking accuracy between the “cyclopean” (i.e., midpoint between eyes) dominant and non-dominant eye. In two experiments, participants performed tracking tasks. In Experiment 1, participants did not use a crosshair. Results showed that mean distance from target was smaller with cyclopean than with dominant or non-dominant...

Effects of individuality, education, and image on visual attention: Analyzing eye-tracking data using machine learning

Sangwon Lee, Yongha Hwang, Yan Jin, Sihyeong Ahn & Jaewan Park
Machine learning, particularly classification algorithms, constructs mathematical models from labeled data that can predict labels for new data. Using its capability to identify distinguishing patterns among multi-dimensional data, we investigated the impact of three factors on the observation of architectural scenes: Individuality, education, and image stimuli. An analysis of the eye-tracking data revealed that (1) a velocity histogram was unique to individuals, (2) students of architecture and other disciplines could be distinguished via endogenous parameters,...

Tracking Visual Scanning Techniques in Training Simulation for Helicopter Landing

Robinski, Maxi; German Air Force Institute Of Aviation Medicine & Stein, Michael; German Air Force Institute Of Aviation Medicine
Research has shown no consistent findings about how scanning techniques differ between experienced and inexperienced helicopter pilots depending on mission demands. To explore this question, 33 military pilots performed two different landing maneuvers in a flight simulator. The data included scanning data (eye tracking) as well as performance, workload, and a self-assessment of scanning techniques (interviews). Fifty-four percent of scanning-related differences between pilots resulted from the factor combination of expertise and mission demands. A comparison...

Pupil response as an indicator of hazard perception during simulator driving

Vintila, Florentin; Eberhard-Karls-Universität Tübingen, Kübler, Thomas Christian; Eberhard-Karls-Universität Tübingen & Kasneci, Enkelejda; Eberhard-Karls-Universität Tübingen
We investigate the pupil response to hazard perception during driving simulation. Complementary to gaze movement and physiological stress indicators, pupil size changes can provide valuable information on traffic hazard perception with a relatively low temporal delay. We tackle the challenge of identifying those pupil dilation events associated with hazardous events from a noisy signal by a combination of wavelet transformation and machine learning. Therefore, we use features of the wavelet components as training data of...

Estimation of overlapped Eye Fixation Related Potentials: The General Linear Model, a more flexible framework than the ADJAR algorithm

Kristensen, Emmanuelle; University Grenoble Alpes, Rivet, Bertrand; University Grenoble Alpes & Guérin-Dugué, Anne; University Grenoble Alpes
The Eye Fixation Related Potential (EFRP) estimation is the average of EEG signals across epochs at ocular fixation onset. Its main limitation is the overlapping issue. Inter Fixation Intervals (IFI) - typically around 300 ms in the case of unrestricted eye movement- depend on participants’ oculomotor patterns, and can be shorter than the latency of the components of the evoked potential. If the duration of an epoch is longer than the IFI value, more than...

A cheap portable eye-tracker solution for common setups

Ferhat, Onur; Universitat Autonoma De Barcelona, Spain, Sanchez, Francisco Javier; Universitat Autonoma De Barcelona, Spain & Vilarino, Fernando; Universitat Autonoma De Barcelona, Spain
We analyze the feasibility of a cheap eye-tracker where the hardware consists of a single webcam and a Raspberry Pi device. Our aim is to discover the limits of such a system and to see whether it provides an acceptable performance. We base our work on the open source Opengazer (Zielinski, 2013) and we propose several improvements to create a robust, real-time system which can work on a computer with 30Hz sampling rate. After assessing...

Is poor coordination of saccades in dyslexics a consequence of reading difficulties? A study case

Ghassemi, Elham; IRIS Group, Centre D’Études De La Sensori-Motricité, UMR 8194, CNRS, Université Paris Descartes, Paris, France & Kapoula, Zoë; IRIS Group, Centre D’Études De La Sensori-Motricité, CNRS, Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou, Paris, France
We hypothesize that the high quality of binocular coordination of saccades in reading is progressively learned during childhood, and this oculomotor learning is based on a synergy between saccades and vergence. In present work deficits in the binocular control of saccades in six dyslexic children (mean age was 11±2.48 years) are studied for two tasks (text reading and Xs-C scanning), and at two viewing distances (40 cm and 100 cm). Fixation durations resulting are longer...

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