287 Works

Eye-tracking Analysis of Interactive 3D Geovisualization

Herman, Lukas; Masaryk University, Brno, Hejlova, Vendula; Palacky University, Olomouc & Popelka, Stanislav; Palacky University, Olomouc
This paper describes a new tool for eye-tracking data and their analysis with the use of interactive 3D models. This tool helps to analyse interactive 3D models easier than by time-consuming, frame-by-frame investigation of captured screen recordings with superimposed scanpaths. The main function of this tool, called 3DgazeR, is to calculate 3D coordinates (X, Y, Z coordinates of the 3D scene) for individual points of view. These 3D coordinates can be calculated from the values...

Binocular coordination of saccades: development, aging and cerebral substrate

Bucci, Maria Pia; Iris Laboratory, FRE 3154, CNRS, Yang, Qing; Iris Laboratory, FRE 3154, CNRS, Vernet, Marine; Iris Laboratory, FRE 3154, CNRS & Kapoula, Zoë; Iris Laboratory, FRE 3154, CNRS
The origin of binocular coordination of saccades (central, peripheral) and the role of learning remain controversial (Hering vs Helmholtz). We will present evidence for learning: in young children (5 years) horizontal saccades are poorly yoked, coordination improves slowly with age particularly at near viewing distances. In dyslexic teenagers coordination of horizontal saccades is poor relative to non-dyslexics, suggesting slower learning. On the other hand, in healthy elderly participants (73 years) coordination of vertical saccades is...

Image preference estimation with a data-driven approach: A comparative study between gaze and image features

Ozaki, Yasunori; The University Of Tokyo, Japan, Sugano, Yusuke; The University Of Tokyo, Japan, Kasai, Hiroshi; The University Of Tokyo, Japan, Ogaki, Keisuke; The University Of Tokyo, Japan & Sato, Yoichi; The University Of Tokyo, Japan
Understanding how humans subjectively look at and evaluate images is an important task for various applications in the field of multimedia interaction. While it has been repeatedly pointed out that eye movements can be used to infer the internal states of humans, not many successes have been reported concerning image understanding. We investigate the possibility of image preference estimation based on a person’s eye movements in a supervised manner in this paper. A dataset of...

Combining EEG and Eye Tracking: Using Fixation-Locked Potentials in Visual Search

Johnston, Matthew; Design Interactive, Inc., Carpenter, Angela; Design Interactive, Inc., Flint, Jesse; Design Interactive, Inc., Tomasetti, David; Design Interactive, Inc., Wang, Xuezhong; Design Interactive, Inc., Winslow, Brent; Design Interactive, Inc. & Hale, Kelly; Design Interactive, Inc.
Visual search is a complex task that involves many neural pathways to identify relevant areas of interest within a scene. Humans remain a critical component in visual search tasks, as they can effectively perceive anomalies within complex scenes. However, this task can be challenging, particularly under time pressure. In order to improve visual search training and performance, an objective, process-based measure is needed. Eye tracking technology can be used to drive real-time parsing of EEG...

This is it ! : Indicating and looking in collaborative work at distance

Cherubini, Mauro; Telefonica Research, Barcelona, Nüssli, Marc-Antoine; Swiss Federal Institute Of Technology, Lausanne & Dillenbourg, Pierre; Swiss Federal Institute Of Technology, Lausanne
Little is known of the interplay between deixis and eye movements in remote collaboration. This paper presents quantitative results from an experiment where participant pairs had to collaborate at a distance using chat tools that differed in the way messages could be enriched with spatial information from the map in the shared workspace. We studied how the availability of what we defined as an Explicit Referencing mechanism (ER) affected the coordination of the eye movements...

The Illusion of Being Located in Dynamic Virtual Environments. Can Eye Movement Parameters Predict Spatial Presence?

Weibel, David; University Of Bern, Switzerland, Mast, Fred W.; University Of Bern, Switzerland, Stricker, Daniel; University Of Bern, Switzerland, Siegenthaler, Eva; Distance Learning University Switzerland & Wissmath, Bartholomäus; University Of Bern, Switzerland
Attention allocation towards the mediated environment is assumed to be a necessary precondition to feel localized in a virtual world. In presence research, however, the potential of eye movement research has not been fully exploited so far. In this study, participants (N=44) rode on a virtual roller coaster simulation. We compare participants scoring high versus low on presence. During the ride, the eye movements and subjective ex post presence judgments were assessed. We found high...

The inter-trial spatial biases of stimuli and goals in saccadic programming

Barton, Jason J S; University Of British Columbia, Rastgardani, Tara; University Of British Columbia & Abegg, Mathias; University Of Bern
Prior studies have shown an ‘alternate antisaccade-goal bias’, in that the saccadic landing points of antisaccades were displaced towards the location of antisaccade goals used in other trials in the same experimental block. Thus the motor response in one trial induced a spatial bias of a motor response in another trial. In this study we investigated whether sensory information, i.e. the location of a visual stimulus, might have a spatial effect on a motor response...

EyeMMV toolbox: An eye movement post-analysis tool based on a two-step spatial dispersion threshold for fixation identification

Filippakopoulou, Vassiliki; National Technical University Of Athens, Krassanakis, Vassilios; National Technical University Of Athens & Nakos, Byron; National Technical University Of Athens
Eye movement recordings and their analysis constitute an effective way to examine visual perception. There is a special need for the design of computer software for the performance of data analysis. The present study describes the development of a new toolbox, called EyeMMV (Eye Movements Metrics & Visualizations), for post experimental eye movement analysis. The detection of fixation events is performed with the use of an introduced algorithm based on a two-step spatial dispersion threshold....

Ways of improving the precision of eye tracking data: Controlling the influence of dirt and dust on pupil detection

Dennis Hospach, Wolfgang Rosenstiel, Wolfgang Fuhl, Thomas C. Kübler, Kasneci, Enkelejda; University Of Tübingen Department Of Computer Science & Oliver Bringmann
Eye-tracking technology has to date been primarily employed in research. With recent advances in aordable video-based devices, the implementation of gaze-aware smartphones, and marketable driver monitoring systems, a considerable step towards pervasive eye-tracking has been made. However, several new challenges arise with the usage of eye-tracking in the wild and will need to be tackled to increase the acceptance of this technology. The main challenge is still related to the usage of eye-tracking together with...

Pupil response as an indicator of hazard perception during simulator driving

Vintila, Florentin; Eberhard-Karls-Universität Tübingen, Kübler, Thomas Christian; Eberhard-Karls-Universität Tübingen & Kasneci, Enkelejda; Eberhard-Karls-Universität Tübingen
We investigate the pupil response to hazard perception during driving simulation. Complementary to gaze movement and physiological stress indicators, pupil size changes can provide valuable information on traffic hazard perception with a relatively low temporal delay. We tackle the challenge of identifying those pupil dilation events associated with hazardous events from a noisy signal by a combination of wavelet transformation and machine learning. Therefore, we use features of the wavelet components as training data of...

Systematic diagonal and vertical errors in antisaccades and memory-guided saccades

Lee, Hyung; Keimyung University, Barton, Jason J. S.; University Of British Columbia & Abegg, Mathias; University Of Bern
Studies of memory-guided saccades in monkeys show an upward bias, while studies of antisaccades in humans show a diagonal effect, a deviation of endpoints toward the 45° diagonal. To determine if these two different spatial biases are specific to different types of saccades, we studied prosaccades, antisaccades and memory-guided saccades in humans. The diagonal effect occurred not with prosaccades but with antisaccades and memory-guided saccades with long intervals, consistent with hypotheses that it originates in...

Saccade Latency and Fixation Stability: Repeatability and Reliability

Langaas, Trine; University College Of Southeast Norway & Horgen, Gro; Vikesdal University College Of Southeast Norway, Norwegian University Of Life Sciences
This study aimed to investigate the repeatability and reliability of saccadic latency and fixation stability as a function of sighting-dominance and contact lens wear. Eye movements were recorded in 12 healthy adults who performed a pro- saccade and a fixation task in four conditions; baseline, retest, non-sighting eye viewing and plano contact lens wear. The re-sults showed that saccadic latency and fixation stability (indexed via logBCEA) have good internal consistency, reliability and repeatability, which are...

Is poor coordination of saccades in dyslexics a consequence of reading difficulties? A study case

Ghassemi, Elham; IRIS Group, Centre D’Études De La Sensori-Motricité, UMR 8194, CNRS, Université Paris Descartes, Paris, France & Kapoula, Zoë; IRIS Group, Centre D’Études De La Sensori-Motricité, CNRS, Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou, Paris, France
We hypothesize that the high quality of binocular coordination of saccades in reading is progressively learned during childhood, and this oculomotor learning is based on a synergy between saccades and vergence. In present work deficits in the binocular control of saccades in six dyslexic children (mean age was 11±2.48 years) are studied for two tasks (text reading and Xs-C scanning), and at two viewing distances (40 cm and 100 cm). Fixation durations resulting are longer...

Eye tracker as an implied social presence: awareness of being eye-tracked induces social-norm-based looking behaviour

Hoo Keat Wong & Ian D. Stephen
Human behaviour is not only influenced by the physical presence of others, but also implied social presence. According to Risko and Kingstone (2011), an eye tracker can represent an implied social presence which could influence individuals’ gaze behaviour. This study examines the impact of awareness of being eye-tracked on eye movement behaviour in a laboratory setting. During a classic yes/no face recognition task, participants were made to believe that their eye movements were recorded (or...

Autobiographical recall triggers visual exploration

Delerue, Céline; University Of Lille, Mohamad El Haj, Boucart, Muriel; University Of Lille, Omigie, Diana; University Of Lille, Antoine, Pascal; University Of Lille & Nandrino, Jean Louis; University Of Lille
Autobiographical recall is thought to rely on the ability to generate a visual image of the remembered event. Neuropsychological studies suggest a relationship between deterioration in visual mental imagery and autobiographical distortions, while neuroimaging data similarly implicate visual brain areas in autobiographical recall. However, neither whether autobiographical retrieval is associated with visual exploration, or not. Our paper aimed to provide such evidence one way or the other. Using an eye tracking system, we recorded eye...

Abstracts of the 19th European Conference on Eye Movements 2017

Radach, Ralph; University Of Wuppertal, Vorstius, Christian; University Of Wuppertal, Hofmann (Eds.), Markus J.; University Of Wuppertal & Deubel, Heiner; University Of Munich
This document contains all abstracts of the 19th European Conference on Eye Movements, August 20-24, 2017, in Wuppertal, Germany

Gaze transitions when learning with multimedia

Krejtz, Krzysztof; University Of Social Sciences And Humanities,And National Information Processing Institute, Warsaw, Kopacz, Agata; National Information Processing Institute, Warsaw, Poland, Chrząstowski-Wachtel, Piotr; Math, Informatics, And Mechanics, Institute Of Informatics, University Of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland, Duchowski, Andrew T.; Clemson University, Clemson, USA & Krejtz, Izabela; University Of Social Sciences And Humanities, Warsaw, Poland
Eye tracking methodology is used to examine the influence of interactive multimedia on the allocation of visual attention and its dynamics during learning. We hypothesized that an interactive simulation promotes more organized switching of attention between different elements of multimedia learning material, e.g., textual description and pictorial visualization. Participants studied a description of an algorithm accompanied either by an interactive simulation, self-paced animation, or static illustration. Using a novel framework for entropy-based comparison of gaze...

Comparison of shutter glasses and mirror stereoscope for measuring dynamic and static vergence

Jaschinski, Wolfgang; Institut Für Arbeitsphysiologie, Dortmund, Germany, Hoormann, Jörg; Institut Für Arbeitsphysiologie, Dortmund, Germany & Jainta, Stephanie; Institut Für Arbeitsphysiologie, Dortmund, Germany
Vergence eye movement recordings in response to disparity step stimuli require to present different stimuli to the two eyes. The traditional method is a mirror stereoscope. Shutter glasses are more convenient, but have disadvantages as limited repetition rate, residual cross task, and reduced luminance. Therefore, we compared both techniques measuring (1) dynamic disparity step responses for stimuli of 1 and 3 deg and (2) fixation disparity, the static vergence error. Shutter glasses and mirror stereoscope...

Selective attention to question-relevant text information precedes high-quality summaries: Evidence from eye movements

José A. León, José David Moreno, Inmaculada Escudero & Johanna K. Kaakinen
Comprehension and summarizing are closely related. As more strategic and selective processing during reading should be reflected in higher quality of summaries, the aim of this study was to use eye movement patterns to analyze how readers who produce good quality summaries process texts. 40 undergraduate students were instructed to read six expository texts in order to respond a causal question introduced in the end of the first paragraph. After reading, participants produced an oral...

Reading Shakespeare sonnets: Combining quantitative narrative analysis and predictive modeling - an eye tracking study

Shuwei Xue, Jana Lüdtke, Teresa Sylvester & Arthur M. Jacobs
As a part of a larger interdisciplinary project on Shakespeare sonnets’ reception (Jacobs et al., 2017; Xue et al., 2017), the present study analyzed the eye movement behavior of participants reading three of the 154 sonnets as a function of seven lexical features extracted via Quantitative Narrative Analysis (QNA). Using a machine learning- based predictive modeling approach five ‘surface’ features (word length, orthographic neighborhood density, word frequency, orthographic dissimilarity and sonority score) were detected as...

Abstracts of the 13th European Conference on Eye Movements 2005

Müri, R.; University Of Bern, Raess, Simon; University Of Bern, Suri, P.; University Of Bern, Koga, Kazuo; Nagoya University, Groner, Marina; University Of Bern & Groner, Rudolf; University Of Bern
This issue contains the abstracts submitted for presentation at the Thirteenth European Conference on Eye Movements (ECEM13), Bern, August 14 – 18, 2005, and reviewed by the Scientific Board, consisting of W. Becker, Ulm; C.J. Erkelens, Utrecht; J.M. Findlay, Durham; A.G. Gale, Derby; C.W. Hess, Bern; J. Hyönä, Turku; A. Kennedy, Dundee; K. Koga, Nagoya; G. Lüer, Göttingen; M. Menozzi, Zürich; W. Perrig, Bern; G. d’Ydewalle, Leuven; D. Zambarbieri, Pavia. A quarter of a century...

What determines the direction of microsaccades?

Walker, Robin; University Of London & Hermens, Frouke; University Of London, University Of Leuven
During visual fixation, our eyes are not entirely still. Instead, small eye movements, such as microsaccades, can be observed. We here investigate what determines the direction and frequency of these microsaccades, as this information might help to clarify what purpose they serve. The relative contribution of three possible factors was examined: (1) the orienting of covert attention, (2) the spatial distribution of possible target locations, and (3) whether monocular or binocular microsaccades are considered. The...

Different judgments about visual textures invoke different eye movement patterns

Renken, Remco; University Medical Center Groningen, Cornelissen, Frans W.; University Medical Center Groningen, Jacobs, Richard H.A.H.; University Medical Center Groningen & Thumfart, Stefan; Profactor GmbH
Top-down influences on the guidance of the eyes are generally modeled as modulating influences on bottom-up salience maps. Interested in task-driven influences on how, rather than where, the eyes are guided, we expected differences in eye movement parameters accompanying beauty and roughness judgments about visual textures. Participants judged textures for beauty and roughness, while their gaze-behavior was recorded. Eye movement parameters differed between the judgments, showing task effects on how people look at images. Similarity...

Visual Fixation Durations and Saccade Amplitudes: Shifting Relationship in a Variety of Conditions

Helmert, Jens R.; Applied Cognitive Research/Psychology III, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Roth, Katharina; Department Of Psychiatry, University Of Bonn, Walter, Henrik; Department Of Psychiatry, University Of Bonn, Pannasch, Sebastian; Applied Cognitive Research/Psychology III, Technische Universitaet Dresden & Herbold, Ann-Katrin; Department Of Psychiatry, University Of Bonn
Is there any relationship between visual fixation durations and saccade amplitudes in free exploration of pictures and scenes? In four experiments with naturalistic stimuli, we compared eye movements during early and late phases of scene perception. Influences of repeated presentation of similar stimuli (Experiment 1), object density (Experiment 2), emotional stimuli (Experiment 3) and mood induction (Experiment 4) were examined. The results demonstrate a systematic increase in the durations of fixations and a decrease for...

Functionally sequenced scanpath similarity method (FuncSim): Comparing and evaluating scanpath similarity based on a task’s inherent sequence of functional (action) units

Schneider, Werner X.; University Of Bielefeld & Foerster, Rebecca M.; University Of Bielefeld
Measures of scanpath similarity are essential in many domains of eye tracking research. Depending on the question, different calculations are adequate. We (Foerster, Carbone, Koesling, & Schneider, 2011) developed a method with a functional matching procedure suitable for sequential tasks. Here, we report two extensions. We introduced an alignment variant making the method more robust across tasks. We added the possibility to compare scanpaths according to multiple characteristics. The extended method, here called “functionally sequenced...

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