287 Works

The Effects of Shot Changes on Eye Movements in Subtitling

Krejtz, Krzysztof; University Of Social Sciences And Humanities, Information Processing Institute, Szarkowska, Agnieszka; University Of Warsaw & Krejtz, Izabela; University Of Social Sciences And Humanities
In this paper we address the question whether shot changes trigger the re-reading of subtitles. Although it has been accepted in the professional literature on subtitling that subtitles should not be displayed over shot changes as they induce subtitle re-reading, support for this claim in eye movement studies is difficult to find. In this study we examined eye movement patterns of 71 participants watching news and documentary clips. We analysed subject hit count, number of...

Does color influence eye movements while exploring videos?

Hamel, Shahrbanoo; Gipsa-Lab, CNRS Grenoble-Alpes University, France, Guyader, Nathalie; Gipsa-Lab, CNRS Grenoble-Alpes University, France, Pellerin, Denis; Gipsa-Lab, CNRS Grenoble-Alpes University, France & Houzet, Dominique; Gipsa-Lab, CNRS Grenoble-Alpes University, France
Although visual attention studies consider color as one of the most important features in guiding visual attention, few studies have investigated how color influences eye movements while viewing natural scenes without any particular task. To better understand the visual features that drive attention, the aim of this paper was to quantify the influence of color on eye movements when viewing dynamic natural scenes. The influence of color was investigated by comparing the eye positions of...

Eye-movement efficiency and sight-reading expertise in woodwind players

Katie Zhukov, Sieu Khuu & Gary E McPherson
The ability to sight-read traditional staff notation is an important skill for all classically trained musicians. Up until now, however, most research has focused on pianists, by comparing experts and novices. Eye movement studies are a niche area of sight-reading research, focusing on eye-hand span and perceptual span of musicians, mostly pianists. Research into eye movement of non-piano sight-reading is limited. Studies into eye movement of woodwind sight-reading were conducted in the 1980s and early...

Editorial

Tatler, Benjamin W.; University Of Dundee
Editorial to the Special Issue on Perception of Natural Scenes

Fixation sequences in imagery and in recognition during the processing of pictures of real-world scenes

Humphrey, Katherine; University Of Nottingham & Underwood, Geoffrey; University Of Nottingham
Thirty photographs of real-world scenes were presented for encoding, and half the participants then performed a recognition test, deciding whether each of 60 images were old (from the original set) or new. The other participants performed an imagery task immediately after encoding each of the 30 images. After completing this task, the recognition group then performed the imagery task in response to prompts that were unique verbal descriptors, and the imagery group performed the recognition...

Performance of a simple remote video-based eye tracker with GPU acceleration

Blignaut, Pieter; Department Of Computer Science And Informatics, University Of The Free State, South Africa & Jean-Pierre Du Plessis
Eye tracking is a well-established tool that is often utilised in research. There are currently many different types of eye trackers available, but they are either expensive, or provide a relatively low sampling frequency. The eye tracker presented in this paper was developed in an effort to address the lack of low-cost high-speed eye trackers. It utilises the Graphical Processing Unit (GPU) in an attempt to parallelise aspects of the process to localize feature points...

Audio-visual integration during overt visual attention

Quigley, Cliodhna; Neurobiopsychology Department, Institute Of Cognitive Science, University Of Osnabrueck, Onat, Selim; Neurobiopsychology Department, Institute Of Cognitive Science, University Of Osnabrueck, Cooke, Martin; Speech And Hearing Group, Department Of Computer Science, University Of Sheffield, König, Peter; Neurobiopsychology Department, Institute Of Cognitive Science, University Of Osnabrueck & Harding, Sue; Speech And Hearing Group, Department Of Computer Science, University Of Sheffield
How do different sources of information arising from different modalities interact to control where we look? To answer this question with respect to real-world operational conditions we presented natural images and spatially localized sounds in (V)isual, Audio-visual (AV) and (A)uditory conditions and measured subjects' eye-movements. Our results demonstrate that eye-movements in AV conditions are spatially biased towards the part of the image corresponding to the sound source. Interestingly, this spatial bias is dependent on the...

Visual Multi-Metric Grouping of Eye-Tracking Data

Burch, Michael; Eindhoven Uni. Of Tech., Netherlands, Netzel, Rudolf; University Of Stuttgart, Mueller, Klaus; Stony Brook University, New York, Weiskopf, Daniel; University Of Stuttgart & Kumar, Ayush; Stony Brook University, New York
We present an algorithmic and visual grouping of participants and eye-tracking metrics derived from recorded eye-tracking data. Our method utilizes two well-established visualization concepts. First, parallel coordinates are used to provide an overview of the used metrics, their interactions, and similarities, which helps select suitable metrics that describe characteristics of the eye-tracking data. Furthermore, parallel coordinates plots enable an analyst to test the effects of creating a combination of a subset of metrics resulting in...

Microsaccades and Visual-Spatial Working Memory

Gaunt, Joshua T.; University Of California, Santa Cruz & Bridgeman, Bruce; University Of California, Santa Cruz
Observers performed working memory tasks at varying retinal eccentricities, fixating centrally while microsaccade rates and directions were monitored. We show that microsaccades generate no interference in a working memory task, indicating that spatial working memory is at least partially insulated from oculomotor activity. Intervening tasks during the memory interval affected memory as well as microsaccade patterns. Average microsaccade rate peaks after appearance of a fixation cross at the start of a trial, and dips at...

Analysis of eye and head coordination in a visual peripheral recognition task

Altorfer, Andreas; University Of Bern, Schwab, Simon; University Of Bern & Würmle, Othmar; University Of Bern
Coordinated eye and head movements simultaneously occur to scan the visual world for relevant targets. However, measuring both eye and head movements in experiments allowing natural head movements may be challenging. This paper provides an approach to study eye-head coordination: First, we demonstrate the capabilities and limits of the eye-head tracking system used, and compare it to other technologies. Second, a behavioral task is introduced to invoke eye-head coordination. Third, a method is introduced to...

Parsing costs as predictors of reading difficulty: An evaluation using the Potsdam Sentence Corpus

Hale, John; Cornell University, Boston, Marisa Ferrara; Cornell University, Patil, Umesh; University Of Potsdam, Vasishth, Shravan; University Of Potsdam & Kliegl, Reinhold; University Of Potsdam
The surprisal of a word on a probabilistic grammar constitutes a promising complexity metric for human sentence comprehension difficulty. Using two different grammar types, surprisal is shown to have an effect on fixation durations and regression probabilities in a sample of German readers’ eye movements, the Potsdam Sentence Corpus. A linear mixed-effects model was used to quantify the effect of surprisal while taking into account unigram frequency and bigram frequency (transitional probability), word length, and...

Simple Configuration Effects on Eye Movements in Horizontal Scanning Tasks

Skilters, Jurgis; University Of Latvia, Lacis, Ivars; University Of Latvia & Laicane, Ilze; University Of Latvia
When reading text, observers alternate periods of stable gaze (fixations) and shifts of gaze (saccades). An important debate in the literature concerns the processes that drive the control of these eye movements. Past studies using strings of letters rather than meaningful text ('z-reading') suggest that eye movement control during reading is, to a large extent, controlled by low-level image properties. These studies, however, have failed to take into account perceptual grouping processes that could drive...

Performance of a simple remote video-based eye tracker with GPU acceleration

Jean-Pierre Du Plessis & Blignaut, Pieter; Department Of Computer Science And Informatics, University Of The Free State, South Africa
Eye tracking is a well-established tool that is often utilised in research. There are currently many different types of eye trackers available, but they are either expensive, or provide a relatively low sampling frequency. The eye tracker presented in this paper was developed in an effort to address the lack of low-cost high-speed eye trackers. It utilises the Graphical Processing Unit (GPU) in an attempt to parallelise aspects of the process to localize feature points...

Time Course and Hazard Function: A Distributional Analysis of Fixation Duration in Reading

Feng, Gary; Duke University & RIKEN Brain Science Institute
Reading processes affect not only the mean of fixation duration but also its distribution function. This paper introduces a set of hypotheses that link the timing and strength of a reading process to the hazard function of a fixation duration distribution. Analyses based on large corpora of reading eye movements show a surprisingly robust hazard function across languages, age, individual differences, and a number of processing variables. The data suggest that eye movements are generated...

Eye typing in application: A comparison of two systems with ALS patients

Pannasch, Sebastian; Applied Cognitive Research/Psychology III, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Velichkovsky, Boris M.; Applied Cognitive Research/Psychology III, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Malischke, Susann; Applied Cognitive Research/Psychology III, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Helmert, Jens R.; Applied Cognitive Research/Psychology III, Technische Universitaet Dresden & Storch, Alexander; Department Of Neurology, Technische Universitaet Dresden
A variety of eye typing systems has been developed during the last decades. Such systems can provide support for people who lost the ability to communicate, e.g. patients suffering from motor neuron diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In the current retrospective analysis, two eye typing applications were tested (EyeGaze, GazeTalk) by ALS patients (N = 4) in order to analyze objective performance measures and subjective ratings. An advantage of the EyeGaze system was...

The effect of calibration errors on the accuracy of the eye movement recordings

Hoormann, Jörg; Leibniz Research Center For Working Environment And Human Factors, Jaschinski, Wolfgang; Leibniz Research Center For Working Environment And Human Factors & Jainta, Stephanie; Leibniz Research Center For Working Environment And Human Factors
For calibrating eye movement recordings, a regression between spatially defined calibration points and corresponding measured raw data is performed. Based on this regression, a confidence interval (CI) of the actually measured eye position can be calculated in order to quantify the measurement error introduced by inaccurate calibration coefficients. For calculating this CI, a standard deviation (SD) - depending on the calibration quality and the design of the calibration procedure - is needed. Examples of binocular...

Visualizing the Reading Activity of People Learning to Read

Špakov, Oleg; University Of Tampere, Siirtola, Harri; University Of Tampere, Räihä, Kari-Jouko; University Of Tampere & Istance, Howell; University Of Tampere
Several popular visualizations of gaze data, such as scanpaths and heatmaps, can be used independently of the viewing task. For a specific task, such as reading, more informative visualizations can be created. We have developed several such techniques, some dynamic and some static, to communicate the reading activity of children to primary school teachers. The goal of the visualizations was to highlight the reading skills to a teacher with no background in the theory of...

Influences of dwell time and cursor control on the performance in gaze driven typing

Helmert, Jens R.; Applied Cognitive Research / Institute Of Psychology III, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Velichkovsky, Boris M.; Applied Cognitive Research / Institute Of Psychology III, Technische Universitaet Dresden & Pannasch, Sebastian; Applied Cognitive Research / Institute Of Psychology III, Technische Universitaet Dresden
In gaze controlled computer interfaces the dwell time is often used as selection criterion. But this solution comes along with several problems, especially in the temporal domain: Eye movement studies on scene perception could demonstrate that fixations of different durations serve different purposes and should therefore be differentiated. The use of dwell time for selection implies the need to distinguish intentional selections from merely per-ceptual processes, described as the Midas touch problem. Moreover, the feedback...

LCD vs. E-ink: An Analysis of the Reading Behavior

Siegenthaler, Eva; Swiss Distance University Of Applied Sciences, Wyss, Michael; University Of Bern, Wurtz, Pascal; GfK Switzerland AG, SirValUse, Biel & Schmid, Laura; University Of Bern
Electronic books (e-book) are an interesting option compared to classic paper books. Most e-reading devices of the first generation were based on e-ink technology. With the appearance of the Apple iPad on the market, TFT-LCDs became important in the field of e-reading. Both technologies have advantages and disadvantages but the question remains whether one or the other technology is better for reading. In the present study we analyzed and compared reading behavior when reading on...

Advantage in Reading Lexical Bundles is Reduced in Non-Native Speakers

Saage, Sven; The Centre For Media And Interactivity, Justus-Liebig University Of Giessen, Germany, Valsecchi, Matteo; Department Of General Psychology, Justus-Liebig-University Of Giessen, Germany, Gegenfurtner, Karl R.; Department Of General Psychology, Justus-Liebig-University Of Giessen, Germany, White, Brian J.; Centre For Neuroscience Studies, Queen’s University Kingston, Ontario, Canada, Mukherjee, Joybrato; Department Of English, Justus-Liebig-University Of Giessen, Germany & Künstler, Viktoria; The Centre For Media And Interactivity, Justus-Liebig University Of Giessen, Germany
Formulaic sequences such as idioms, collocations, and lexical bundles, which may be processed as holistic units, make up a large proportion of natural language. For language learners, however, formulaic patterns are a major barrier to achieving native like competence. The present study investigated the processing of lexical bundles by native speakers and less advanced non-native English speakers using corpus analysis for the identification of lexical bundles and eye-tracking to measure the reading times. The participants...

Eye tracking in virtual reality

Viviane Clay, Peter König & Sabine U. König
The intent of this paper is to provide an introduction into the bourgeoning field of eye tracking in Virtual Reality (VR). VR itself is an emerging technology on the consumer market, which will create many new opportunities in research. It offers a lab environment with high immersion and close alignment with reality. An experiment which is using VR takes place in a highly controlled environment and allows for a more in-depth amount of information to...

The Influence of Complex Distractors in the Remote Distractor Paradigm

Benson, Valerie; University Of Southampton
Three experiments examined the influence of complex dis-tractors on the Remote Distractor Effect (RDE), a robust finding of an increase is saccade latencies when two, rather than one possible targets are presented simultaneously (Walker, Deubel, Schneider & Findlay, 1997). In Experiment 1 saccade onset latencies (SOL’s) were greater for central versus peripheral presentation for lexical distractors, but not for non-lexical distractors. Experiment 2 showed that repeated presentation of a distractor results in reduced SOL’s at...

Visual search without central vision – no single pseudofovea location is best

Lingnau, Angelika; University Of Trento, Italy, Albrecht, Thorsten; Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, Germany, Vorberg, Dirk; Westfälische Wilhems-Universität Münster, Germany & Schwarzbach, Jens; University Of Trento, Italy
We typically fixate targets such that they are projected onto the fovea for best spatial resolution. Macular degeneration patients often develop fixation strategies such that targets are projected to an intact eccentric part of the retina, called pseudofovea. A longstanding debate concerns which pseudofovea-location is optimal for non-foveal vision. We examined how pseudofovea position and eccentricity affect performance in visual search, when vision is restricted to an off-foveal retinal region by a gaze-contingent display that...

Gaze Path Stimulation in Retrospective Think-Aloud

Lehtinen, Merja; University Of Tampere, Ovaska, Saila; University Of Tampere, Hyrskykari, Aulikki; University Of Tampere, Majaranta, Pävi; University Of Tampere & Räihä, Kari-Jouko; University Of Tampere
For a long time, eye tracking has been thought of as a promising method for usability testing. During the last couple of years, eye tracking has finally started to live up to these expectations, at least in terms of its use in usability laboratories. We know that the user’s gaze path can reveal usability issues that would otherwise go unnoticed, but a common understanding of how best to make use of eye movement data has...

Integration and prediction difficulty in Hindi sentence comprehension: Evidence from an eye-tracking corpus

Srinivasan, Narayanan; CBCS, University Of Allahabad, India, Husain, Samar; Indian Institute Of Technology, Delhi, India & Vasishth, Shravan; University Of Potsdam, Germany
This is the first attempt at characterizing reading difficulty in Hindi using naturally occurring sentences. We created the Potsdam-Allahabad Hindi Eyetracking Corpus by recording eye-movement data from 30 participants at the University of Allahabad, India. The target stimuli were 153 sentences selected from the beta version of the Hindi-Urdu treebank. We find that word- or low-level predictors (syllable length, unigram and bigram frequency) affect first-pass reading times, regression path duration, total reading time, and outgoing...

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