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Speed and Accuracy of Gaze Gestures

Räihä, Kari-Jouko; Unit For Computer-Human Interaction (TAUCHI), Department Of Computer Sciences University Of Tampere, Finland & Heikkilä, Henna; Unit For Computer-Human Interaction (TAUCHI), Department Of Computer Sciences University Of Tampere, Finland
We conducted an experiment where participants carried out six gaze gesture tasks. The gaze paths were analyzed to find out the speed and accuracy of the gaze gestures. As a result, the gaze gestures took more time than we anticipated and only the very fastest participants got close to what was expected. There was not much difference in performance times between small and large gaze gestures, because the participants reached significantly faster speed when making...

Did Javal measure eye movements during reading?

Wade, Nicholas J.; University Of Dundee & Tatler, Benjamin W.; University Of Dundee
Louis-Émile Javal is widely credited as the first person to record eye movements in read-ing. This is so despite the fact that Javal himself never made that claim but it is perpetu-ated in contemporary text books, scientific articles and on the internet. Javal did coin the term ‘saccades’ in the context of eye movements during reading but he did not measure them. In this article we suggest that a misreading of Huey’s (1908) book on...

The effect of a temporary absence of target velocity information on visual tracking

Bedell, Harold E.; University Of Houston College Of Optometry, Kasthurirangan, Sanjeev; Abbott Medical Optics, Cisarik, Patricia M.; Southern College Of Optometry, Stevenson, Scott B.; University Of Houston College Of Optometry, Raghunandan, Avesh; Ferris State University, Michigan & Jr., Frank E. Visco; University Of Houston College Of Optometry
Experiments with the Rashbass ‘step-ramp’ paradigm have revealed that the initial catchup saccade that occurs near pursuit onset uses target velocity as well as position information in its programming. Information about both position and motion also influences smooth pursuit. To investigate the timing of velocity sampling near the initiation of saccades and smooth pursuit, we analyzed the eye movements made in nine ‘step-ramp’ conditions, produced by combining –2, 0 and +2 deg steps with –8,...

Heterophoria: Vergence stability and visual acuity after asymmetric saccades

Blum, Bernhard M.; Ludwig-Maximilians University Munich, Kirchhoff, Daniel; Ludwig-Maximilians University Munich, Ehrt, Oliver; Ludwig-Maximilians University Munich, Eggert, Thomas; Ludwig-Maximilians University Munich, Bickmann, Alexander; Ludwig-Maximilians University Munich & Straube, Andreas; Ludwig-Maximilians University Munich
Many patients with heterophoria report on symptoms related to impaired vision. To investigate whether these symptoms are provoked by saccades this study examines whether in heterophoria effects on intrasaccadic and postsaccadic vergence movements are linked to effects on visual performance. Visual acuity was measured in 35 healthy subjects during fixation and immediately after asymmetric diverging saccades. Binocular position traces were recorded by video-oculography. Subjects with exophoria showed larger intrasaccadic divergence amplitudes, which in turn led...

Different types of sounds influence gaze differently in videos

Granjon, Lionel; LPP, CNRS UMR 8158, Paris Descartes University, France, Song, Guanghan; GIPSA-Lab, CNRS UMR 5216, Grenoble University, France & Pellerin, Denis; GIPSA-Lab, CNRS UMR 5216, Grenoble University, France
This paper presents an analysis of the effect of different types of sounds on visual gaze when a person is looking freely at videos, which would be helpful to predict eye position. In order to test the effect of sound, an audio-visual experiment was designed with two groups of participants, with audio-visual (AV) and visual (V) conditions. By using statistical tools, we analyzed the difference between eye position of participants with AV and V conditions....

Semantic Override of Low-level Features in Image Viewing – Both Initially and Overall

Nyström, Marcus; Lund University & Holmqvist, Kenneth; Lund University
Guidance of eye-movements in image viewing is believed to be controlled by stimulus driven factors as well as viewer dependent higher level factors such as task and memory. It is currently debated what proportions these factors contribute to gaze guidance, and also how they vary over time after image onset. Overall, the unanimity regarding these issues is surprisingly low and there are results supporting both types of factors as being dominant in eye-movement control under...

Fixation disparity during reading: Fusion, not suppression

Liversedge, Simon P.; University Of Southampton
In this paper I present a brief review of some recent studies my colleagues and I have carried out to investigate binocular coordination during reading. These studies demonstrate that the eyes are often not perfectly aligned during reading, with fixation disparities of approximately one character on average. Both crossed and uncrossed disparities are common and vergence movements during fixations serve to reduce, but not eliminate disparity. Fixation disparity results in different retinal inputs from each...

Attention distribution and cognitive load in a subtitled academic lecture: L1 vs. L2

Kruger, Jan-Louis; Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia, & North-West University, Vanderbijlpark, South Africa, Matthew, Gordon; North-West University, Vanderbijlpark, South Africa & Hefer, Esté; North-West University, Vanderbijlpark, South Africa
In multilingual classrooms, subtitling can be used to address the language needs of students from different linguistic backgrounds. The way students distribute their visual and cognitive resources during a lecture is important in educational design. Students have to shift their attention between sources of information of varying density and relevance. If there is redundancy between these sources, there will be competition and possible cognitive overload. This paper compares visual attention distribution between subtitles and other...

Program of the 18th European Conference on Eye Movements 2015

Ansorge, Ulrich; University Of Vienna, Leder, Helmut; University Of Vienna, Ditye, Thomas; University Of Vienna & Florack, Arnd; University Of Vienna
This document contains the Program of the 18th European Conference on Eye Movements, August 16-21 2015 in Vienna, Austria

Sampling frequency and eye-tracking measures: how speed affects durations, latencies, and more

Holmqvist, Kenneth; Lund University, Nyström, Marcus; Lund University & Andersson, Richard; Lund University
We use simulations to investigate the effect of sampling frequency on common dependent variables in eye-tracking. We identify two large groups of measures that behave differently, but consistently. The effect of sampling frequency on these two groups of measures are explored and simulations are performed to estimate how much data are required to overcome the uncertainty of a limited sampling frequency. Both simulated and real data are used to estimate the temporal uncertainty of data...

Mixed Responses: Why Readers Spend Less Time at Unfavorable Landing Positions

Feng, Gary; Duke University & RIKEN Brain Science Institute
This paper investigates why the average fixation duration tends to decrease from the center to the two ends of a word. Specifically, it examines (a) whether unfavorable landing positions trigger a corrective mechanism, (b) whether the triggering is based on the internal efference copy mechanism, and (c) whether the corrective mechanism is specific to fixations that missed their targeted words. To estimate the mean and proportion of the corrective fixations, a 3-parameter mixture model was...

The effect of magnification and contrast on reading performance in different types of simulated low vision

Abegg, Mathias; University Of Bern & Christen, Michael; University Of Bern
Low vision therapy, such as magnifiers or contrast enhancement, is widely used. Scientific evidence proving its efficacy is scarce however. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the benefits of magnification and contrast enhancement depended on the origin of low vision. For this purpose we measured reading speed with artificially induced low vision in 12 healthy subjects in conditions of a simulated central scotoma, blurred vision and oscillopsia. Texts were either blurred, set...

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