287 Works

On the Structure of Measurement Noise in Eye-Tracking

Orden, Guy Van; Center For Cognition, Action, And Perception, University Of Cincinnati, Wallot, Sebastian; MINDLab, Aarhus University, And Center For Cognition, Action, And Perception, University Of Cincinnati, Coey, Charles A.; Perceptual-Motor Dynamics Lab, Center For Cognition, Action, And Perception, University Of Cincinnati & Richardson, Michael J.; Perceptual-Motor Dynamics Lab, Center For Cognition, Action, And Perception, University Of Cincinnati
Past research has discovered fractal structure in eye movement variability and interpreted this result as having theoretical ramifications. No research has, however, investigated how properties of the eye-tracking instrument might affect the structure of measurement varia-bility. The current experiment employed fractal and multifractal methods to investigate whether an eye-tracker produced intrinsic random variation and how features of the data recording procedure affected the structure measurement variability. The results of this experiment revealed that the structure...

A comparison of eye movement measures across reading efficiency quartile groups in elementary, middle, and high school students in the U.S.

Spichtig, Alexandra; Reading Plus, Ferrara, John; Reading Plus, Vorstius, Christian; Bergische Universität Wuppertal & Pascoe, Jeffrey; Reading Plus
This cross-sectional study examined eye movements during reading across grades in students with differing levels of reading efficiency. Eye-movement recordings were obtained while students in grades 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 silently read normed grade-leveled texts with demonstrated comprehension. Recordings from students in each reading rate quartile at each grade level were compared to characterize differences in reading rate, number of fixations, number of regressions, and fixation durations. Comparisons indicated that students in...

Examining the validity of the total dwell time of eye fixations to identify landmarks in a building

Vansteenkiste, Pieter; Ghent University, Alain De Wulf, Viaene, Pepijn; Ghent University-Geography Department, Philippe De Maeyer & Lenoir, Matthieu; Ghent University
It is uncertain to what extent the duration of eye fixations reflects the use of landmarks during navigation. Therefore, a study was conducted in which eye tracking data and route descriptions were collected of 23 participants who were highly familiar with the indoor test environment. Based on the total fixation time on different landmark categories, two measures were calculated, namely the calculated landmark category use and the probable landmark category use. Based on the ratio...

Eye fixations to figures in a four-choice situation with luminance balanced areas: Evaluating practice effects

Pessôa, Candido V. B. B.; Universidade De São Paulo, Endemann, Peter; Universidade De São Paulo, Huziwara, Edson M.; Universidade De São Paulo, Tomanari, Gerson Y.; Universidade De São Paulo & Perez, William F.; Universidade De São Paulo
Contingency analyses of eye movements may reveal variables that are relevant to the stimulus control of observing behavior. The present research tracked the eye movements of four adults exposed to a simultaneous discrimination among four stimuli, two two-dimensional (square and circle) and two three-dimensional (cube and cylinder) mono-chromatic figures with approximately equal luminance. On each discrimination trial, the stimuli were displayed in the four corners of a video monitor and participants chose among them by...

Influence of soundtrack on eye movements during video exploration

Guyader, Nathalie; Gipsa Laboratory-CNRS UMR 5216, Grenoble University, France, Caplier, Alice; Gipsa Laboratory-CNRS UMR 5216, Grenoble University, France, Ionescu, Gelu; Gipsa Laboratory-CNRS UMR 5216, Grenoble University, France & Coutrot, Antoine; Gipsa Laboratory-CNRS UMR 5216, Grenoble University, France
Models of visual attention rely on visual features such as orientation, intensity or motion to predict which regions of complex scenes attract the gaze of observers. So far, sound has never been considered as a possible feature that might influence eye movements. Here, we evaluate the impact of non-spatial sound on the eye movements of observers watching videos. We recorded eye movements of 40 participants watching assorted videos with and without their related soundtracks. We...

Introduction to the PETMEI special issue

Bednarik, Roman; School Of Computing, University Of Eastern Finland & Bulling, Andreas; Max Planck Institute For Informatics, Saarbrücken, Germany
Latest developments in remote and head-mounted eye tracking and automated eye movement analysis point the way toward unobtrusive eye-based human-computer interfaces that will become pervasively usable in everyday life. We call this new paradigm pervasive eye tracking – continuous eye monitoring and analysis 24/7. Pervasive Eye Tracking and Mobile Eye-Based Interaction (PETMEI) is a workshop series that revolves around the theme of pervasive eye-tracking as a trailblazer for pervasive eye-based human-computer interaction and eye-based context-awareness....

Eye tracking in the wild: Piloting a real-life assessment paradigm for older adults

Damaris Aschwanden, Nicolas Langer & Mathias Allemand
Previous research showed associations between personality traits and eye movements of young adults in the laboratory. However, less is known about these associations in real life and in older age. Primarily, there seems to be no paradigm to assess eye movements of older adults in real life. The present feasibility study thus aimed to test grocery shopping as a real-life assessment paradigm with older adults. Additionally, possible links between personality traits and eye movements were...

Children’s attention to online adverts is related to low-level saliency factors and individual level of gaze control

Sandberg, Helena; Lund University, Holmqvist, Kenneth; Lund University & Holmberg, Nils; Lund University
Twenty-six children in 3rd grade were observed while surfing freely on their favourite websites. Eye movement data were recorded, as well as synchronized screen recordings. Each online advert was analyzed in order to quantify low-level saliency features, such as motion, luminance and edge density. The eye movement data were used to register if the children had attended to the online adverts. A mixed-effects multiple regression analysis was performed in order to test the relationship between...

The effect of expertise in music reading: cross-modal competence

Drai-Zerbib, Véronique; University Of Pierre & Marie Curie, Paris, France & Baccino, Thierry; University Of Paris 8, France
We hypothesize that the fundamental difference between expert and learner musicians is the capacity to efficiently integrate cross-modal information. This capacity might be an index of an expert memory using both auditory and visual cues built during many years of learning and extensive practice. Investigating this issue through an eye-tracking experiment, two groups of musicians, experts and non-experts, were required to report whether a fragment of classical music, successively displayed both auditorily and visually on...

The global effect: what determines where the eyes land?

Stigchel, Stefan Van Der; Helmholtz Institute, Utrecht University & Nijboer, Tanja C.W.; Helmholtz Institute, Utrecht University
In certain situations, the endpoint of an eye movement is not positioned on the centre of a target element, but deviates in the direction of another element. This phenomenon has been termed 'the global effect' and has proven to constitute a valuable measure of various processes that control and influence our oculomotor behavior. The goal of the current review is to provide insight in the factors that determine where the eyes land. We will focus...

Effect of Saccadic Adaptation on Sequences of Saccades

Pélisson, Denis; ImpAct Team, CRNL-INSERM U1028-CNRS UMR5292-Lyon University, Panouillères, Muriel; ImpAct Team, CRNL-INSERM U1028-CNRS UMR5292-Lyon University, Urquizar, Christian; ImpAct Team, CRNL-INSERM U1028-CNRS UMR5292-Lyon University & Salemme, Roméo; ImpAct Team, CRNL-INSERM U1028-CNRS UMR5292-Lyon University
Accuracy of saccadic eye movements is maintained thanks to adaptation mechanisms. The adaptive lengthening and shortening of reactive and voluntary saccades rely on partially separate neural substrates. Although in daily-life we mostly perform sequences of saccades, the effect of saccadic adaptation has been mainly evaluated on single saccades. Here, sequences of two saccades were recorded before and after adaptation of rightward saccades. In 4 separate sessions, reactive and voluntary saccades were adaptively shortened or lengthened....

Evaluation of accurate eye corner detection methods for gaze estimation

Villanueva, Arantxa; Public University Of Navarra, Spain, Cerrolaza, Juan J.; Childrens National Medical Center, USA, Cabeza, Rafael; Public University Of Navarra, Spain & Bengoechea, Jose Javier; Public University Of Navarra, Spain
Accurate detection of iris center and eye corners appears to be a promising approach for low cost gaze estimation. In this paper we propose novel eye inner corner detection methods. Appearance and feature based segmentation approaches are suggested. All these methods are exhaustively tested on a realistic dataset containing images of subjects gazing at different points on a screen. We have demonstrated that a method based on a neural network presents the best performance even...

Estimation of overlapped Eye Fixation Related Potentials: The General Linear Model, a more flexible framework than the ADJAR algorithm

Kristensen, Emmanuelle; University Grenoble Alpes, Rivet, Bertrand; University Grenoble Alpes & Guérin-Dugué, Anne; University Grenoble Alpes
The Eye Fixation Related Potential (EFRP) estimation is the average of EEG signals across epochs at ocular fixation onset. Its main limitation is the overlapping issue. Inter Fixation Intervals (IFI) - typically around 300 ms in the case of unrestricted eye movement- depend on participants’ oculomotor patterns, and can be shorter than the latency of the components of the evoked potential. If the duration of an epoch is longer than the IFI value, more than...

Eye movements as a window to cognitive processes

Wilming, Niklas; U. Osnabrück, Germany; U. Medical Center, Hamburg, Germany, Kietzmann, Tim C.; U. Osnabrück, Germany, Jose P. Ossandón, Ehinger, Benedikt V.; U. Osnabrück, Germany, Kaspar, Kai; U. Osnabrück; U. Cologne; Germany, Gameiro, Ricardo R.; U. Osnabrück, Germany, König, Peter; Universität Osnabrück & Onat, Selim; U. Osnabrück; U. Medical Center, Hamburg; Germany
Eye movement research is a highly active and productive research field. Here we focus on how the embodied nature of eye movements can act as a window to the brain and the mind. In particular, we discuss how conscious perception depends on the trajectory of fixated locations and consequently address how fixation locations are selected. Specifically, we argue that the selection of fixation points during visual exploration can be understood to a large degree based...

Microsaccades reflect the dynamics of misdirected attention in magic

Anthony S. Barnhart, Francisco M. Costela, Susana Martinez-Conde, Stephen L. Macknik & Stephen D. Goldinger
The methods of magicians provide powerful tools for enhancing the ecological validity of laboratory studies of attention. The current research borrows a technique from magic to explore the relationship between microsaccades and covert attention under near-natural viewing conditions. We monitored participants’ eye movements as they viewed a magic trick where a coin placed beneath a napkin vanishes and reappears beneath another napkin. Many participants fail to see the coin move from one location to the...

Assessment of Dual-Mode and Switched-Channel Models with Experimental Vergence Responses

Semmlow, John L.; Rutgers University, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School UMDNJ, Lee, You Yun; New Jersey Institute Of Technology & Alvarez, Tara L.; New Jersey Institute Of Technology
Controversy exists in the literature regarding the basic neural control structure that mediates convergence responses. This study constructed and simulated two models, the switched-channel feedback model and the dual-mode model consisting of preprogrammed with feedback control. Models were constructed and compared to experimental data. The stimuli consisted of 2 deg and 4 deg vergence steps. Both closed- and open-loop settings were utilized. After parameter adjustment, both models could accurately simulate step responses from subjects having...

Edit Blindness: The relationship between attention and global change blindness in dynamic scenes.

Henderson, John M.; University Of Edinburgh & Smith, Tim J.; University Of Edinburgh
Although we experience the visual world as a continuous, richly detailed space we often fail to notice large and significant changes. Such change blindness has been demonstrated for local object changes and changes to the visual form of whole images, however it is assumed that total changes from one image to another would be easily detected. Film editing presents such total changes several times a minute yet we rarely seem to be aware of them,...

Does descriptive text change how people look at art? A novel analysis of eye-movements using data-driven Units of Interest

Reani, Manuele; University Of Manchester, Vigo, Markel; University Of Manchester, Grimes, Martin; Manchester City Galleries, Davies, Alan; University Of Manchester, Jay, Caroline; University Of Manchester, Gannaway, Clare; Manchester Art Gallery & Harper, Simon; University Of Manchester
Does reading a description of an artwork affect how a person subsequently views it? In a controlled study, we show that in most cases, textual description does not influence how people subsequently view paintings, contrary to participants’ self-report that they believed it did. To examine whether the description affected transition behaviour, we devised a novel analysis method that systematically determines Units of Interest (UOIs), and calculates transitions between these, to quantify the effect of an...

Saccade Latency and Fixation Stability: Repeatability and Reliability

Langaas, Trine; University College Of Southeast Norway & Horgen, Gro; Vikesdal University College Of Southeast Norway, Norwegian University Of Life Sciences
This study aimed to investigate the repeatability and reliability of saccadic latency and fixation stability as a function of sighting-dominance and contact lens wear. Eye movements were recorded in 12 healthy adults who performed a pro- saccade and a fixation task in four conditions; baseline, retest, non-sighting eye viewing and plano contact lens wear. The re-sults showed that saccadic latency and fixation stability (indexed via logBCEA) have good internal consistency, reliability and repeatability, which are...

Estimating pilots’ cognitive load from ocular parameters through simulation and in-flight studies

Mohan Dilli Babu, D. V. JeevithaShree, Gowdham Prabhakar, Kamal Preet Singh Saluja, Abhay Pashilkar & Pradipta Biswas
Eye tracking is the process of measuring either the point of gaze (where one is looking) or the motion of an eye relative to the head. This paper investigated use of eye gaze trackers in military aviation environment to automatically estimate pilot’s cognitive load from ocular parameters. We used a fixed base variable stability flight simulator with longitudinal tracking task and collected data from 14 military pilots. In a second study, we undertook three test...

Social context modulates basic properties of oculomotor control

Strukelj, Alexander; Centre For Languages And Literature, Lund University, Lund, Sweden, Nyström, Marcus; Lund University Humanities Laboratory, Lund, Sweden & Foulsham, Tom; Department Of Psychology, University Of Essex, Colchester, UK
Experiments performed in a lab are often considered generalizable over both people and social settings. The problems with generalizing over different groups of people are well known, but it is only recently that changes in behavior depending on the social setting have been examined. Large changes in behavior can be seen in trivial cognitive tasks, depending on whether the participant is alone or if other people are present. However, there are very few studies which...

Mobile eye tracking during real-world night driving: A selective review of findings and recommendations for future research

Ansorge, Ulrich; University Of Vienna & Grüner, Markus; University Of Vienna
We exhaustively review the published research on eye movements during real-world night driving, which is an important field of research as fatal road traffic accidents at night outnumber fatal accidents during the daytime. Eye tracking provides a unique window into the underlying cognitive processes. The studies were interpreted and evaluated against the background of two descriptions of the driving task: Gibson and Crooks’ (1938) description of driving as the visually guided selection of a driving...

Control of Visual Selection during Visual Search in the Human Brain

Brandt, Stephan A.; Department Of Neurology, Charité, Humboldt-University Of Berlin, Donner, Tobias H.; Center For Neural Science And Department Of Psychology, New York University & Olma, Manuel C.; Department Of Neurology, Charité, Humboldt-University Of Berlin
How do we find a target object in a cluttered visual scene? Targets carrying unique salient features can be found in parallel without directing attention, whereas targets defined by feature conjunctions or non-salient features need to be scrutinized in a serial attentional process in order to be identified. In this article, we review a series of experiments in which we used fMRI to probe the neural basis of this active search process in the human...

A pragmatic approach to multi-modality and non-normality in fixation duration studies of cognitive processes

Leeuwen, Cees Van; RIKEN Brain Science Institute, Laboratory For Perceptual Dynamics & Nakatani, Chie; RIKEN Brain Science Institute, Laboratory For Perceptual Dynamics
Interpreting eye-fixation durations in terms of cognitive processing load is complicated by the multimodality of their distribution. An important source of multimodality is the distinction between single and multiple fixations to the same object. Based on the distinction, we separated a log-transformed distribution made to an object in non-reading task. We could reasonably conclude that the separated distributions belong to the same, general logistic distribution, which has a finite population mean and variance. This allowed...

A Unifying Model-Based Hypothesis for the Diverse Waveforms of Infantile Nystagmus Syndrome

Wang, Zhong I.; Daroff-Dell'Osso Ocular Motility Laboratory, Cleveland, OH, USA & Dell'Osso, Louis F.; Daroff-Dell'Osso Ocular Motility Laboratory, Cleveland, OH, USA
We expanded the original behavioral Ocular Motor System (OMS) model for Infantile Nystagmus Syndrome (INS) by incorporating common types of jerk waveforms within a unifying mechanism. Alexander’s law relationships were used to produce desired INS null positions and sharpness. At various gaze angles, these relationships influenced the IN slow-phase amplitudes differently, thereby mimicking the gaze-angle effects of INS patients. Transitions from pseudopendular with foveating saccades to jerk waveforms required replacing braking saccades with foveating fast...

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