267 Works

Use of eye tracking for assessment of electronic navigation competency in maritime training

Oguz Atik & Omer Arslan
The purpose of this study is to experiment an assessment method using eye tracking technology in simulator based electronic navigation training of ship officers who play a critical role in maritime accidents. The maritime industry focuses on human factor developing and improving regulations, training requirements and technology to prevent marine casualties. The mandatory use of simulations in maritime training as per international regulations includes competency assessment as a vital process. The study involves capturing and...

Estimating pilots’ cognitive load from ocular parameters through simulation and in-flight studies

Mohan Dilli Babu, D. V. JeevithaShree, Gowdham Prabhakar, Kamal Preet Singh Saluja, Abhay Pashilkar & Pradipta Biswas
Eye tracking is the process of measuring either the point of gaze (where one is looking) or the motion of an eye relative to the head. This paper investigated use of eye gaze trackers in military aviation environment to automatically estimate pilot’s cognitive load from ocular parameters. We used a fixed base variable stability flight simulator with longitudinal tracking task and collected data from 14 military pilots. In a second study, we undertook three test...

Eye tracking use in researching driver distraction: A scientometric and qualitative literature review approach

Tina Cvahte Ojsteršek & Darja Topolšek
Many factors affect road safety, but research constantly shows that drivers are the major cause of critical situations that could potentially lead to a traffic accident in road traffic. Visual information is a crucial part of input information into the driving process; therefore, distractions of overt visual attention can potentially have a large impact on driving safety. Modern eye tracking technology enables researchers to gain precise insight into the direction and movement of a driver’s...

Effects of an active visuomotor steering task on covert attention

Samuel Tuhkanen, Jami Pekkanen, Esko Lehtonen & Otto Lappi
In complex dynamic tasks such as driving it is essential to be aware of potentially important targets in peripheral vision. While eye tracking methods in various driving tasks have provided much information about drivers’ gaze strategies, these methods only inform about overt attention and provide limited grounds to assess hypotheses concerning covert attention. We adapted the Posner cue paradigm to a dynamic steering task in a driving simulator. The participants were instructed to report the...

Evidence for a Structural Analysis of Target Selection in Picture Viewing

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Spontaneous fixations onto shapes are driven by a structural analysis. But is such analysis also carried out during free viewing of real-world scenes? Here, we analyze how fixation locations in such scenes are related to their region using the region's symmetric axes as a reference. Each fixation location is compared with respect to its nearest symmetric-axis segment by a latitude and a longitude measure. Analyzing the distributions for the two measures we find that there...

Recurrence Metrics for Assessing Eye Movements in Perceptual Experiments

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In a recent study evaluating the impact of image content on the consistency of eye movements in perceptual experiments (Farnand, 2013) image complexity was inversely related to scanpath consistency. This work involved a qualitative analysis of eye movements along with analysis of the number and duration of fixations. No quantitative analysis of scan path consistency was performed. Recently, Anderson et al. developed a quantitative tool - Recurrence Quantification Analysis - for analyzing eye movement patterns...

Idiosyncratic Feature-Based Gaze Mapping

It is argued that polynomial expressions that are normally used for remote, video-based, low cost eye tracking systems, are not always ideal to accommodate individual differences in eye cleft, position of the eye in the socket, corneal bulge, astigmatism, etc. A procedure to identify a set of polynomial expressions that will provide the best possible accuracy for a specific individual is proposed. It is also proposed that regression coefficients are recalculated in real-time, based on...

Ways of improving the precision of eye tracking data: Controlling the influence of dirt and dust on pupil detection

Dennis Hospach, Wolfgang Rosenstiel, Wolfgang Fuhl, Thomas C. Kübler, & Oliver Bringmann
Eye-tracking technology has to date been primarily employed in research. With recent advances in aordable video-based devices, the implementation of gaze-aware smartphones, and marketable driver monitoring systems, a considerable step towards pervasive eye-tracking has been made. However, several new challenges arise with the usage of eye-tracking in the wild and will need to be tackled to increase the acceptance of this technology. The main challenge is still related to the usage of eye-tracking together with...

Negative versus positive priming: When are distractors inhibited?

Stefan Van Der Stigchel
Visual attention is guided by the history of selections in previous trials, an effect usually referred to as intertrial priming. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether such priming in visual search is due to a strengthening of the target signal, or the suppression of the distractor signal. In two experiments, we examined the deviation of saccade endpoints in situations in which the target and distractors were presented in relative close proximity....

Using coefficient K to distinguish ambient/focal visual attention during map viewing

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We demonstrate the use of the ambient/focal coecient K for studying the dynamics of visual behavior when performing cartographic tasks. Participants viewed a cartographic map and satellite image of Barcelona while performing a number of map-related tasks. Cartographic maps can be viewed as summary representations of reality, while satellite images are typically more veridical, and contain considerably more information. Our analysis of traditional eye movement metrics suggests that the satellite representation facilitates longer fixation durations,...

Do you look where I look? Attention shifts and response preparation following dynamic social cues

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Studies investigating the effects of observing a gaze shift in another person often apply static images of a person with an averted gaze, while measuring response times to a peripheral target. Static images, however, are unlike how we normally perceive gaze shifts of others. Moreover, response times might only reveal the effects of a cue on covert attention and might fail to uncover cueing effects on overt attention or response preparation. We therefore extended the...

High working memory performers have efficient eye movement control systems under Reading Span Test

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Controlled eye movements are critical in performing highly goal oriented behavior such as text reading. Previous studies have examined the relationship between working memory capacity and eye movement control during working memory task. However, the results were inconsistent, due to a methodological issue including the predictability of target location. In the present study, we used Japanese version of reading span test, where the position of to-be-remembered word is not predictable so that more efficient attentional...

Schedule of the 13th European Conference on Eye Movements 2005

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This document contains the schedule of the 13th European Conference on Eye Movements, August 14-18 2005 in Bern, Switzerland

Individual Differences in Eye-Movements During Reading: Working Memory and Speed-of-Processing Effects

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Mathematical models of eye-movement control do not yet incorporate individual differences as a source of variation in reading. These models nonetheless provide an excellent foundation for describing and explaining how and why patterns of eye-movements differ across readers (e.g., Rayner et al., 2006). We focus in this article on two aspects of individual variation: global processing speed (e.g., Salthouse, 1996) and working-memory capacity (e.g., Just & Carpenter, 1992). Using Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) (Raudenbush &...

Parsing eye movement analysis of scanpaths of naïve viewers of art: How do we differentiate art from non-art pictures?

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Relating to G. Buswell’s early work we posed the questions: How do art-naïve people look at pairs of artful pictures and similarly looking snapshots? Does the analysis of their eye movement recordings reveal a difference in their perception? Parsing eye scanpaths using string editing, similarity coefficients can be sorted out and represented for the two measures ‘Sp’ (Similarities of position) and ‘Ss’ (Similarities of sequences). 25 picture pairs were shown 5 times to 7 subjects...

Probing Bottom-up Processing with Multistable Images

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The selection of fixation targets involves a combination of top-down and bottom-up processing. The role of bottom-up processing can be enhanced by using multistable stimuli because their constantly changing appearance seems to depend predominantly on stimulusdriven factors. We used this approach to investigate whether visual processing models based on V1 need to be extended to incorporate specific computations attributed to V4. Eye movements of 8 subjects were recorded during free viewing of the Marroquin pattern...

Gaze transitions when learning with multimedia

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Eye tracking methodology is used to examine the influence of interactive multimedia on the allocation of visual attention and its dynamics during learning. We hypothesized that an interactive simulation promotes more organized switching of attention between different elements of multimedia learning material, e.g., textual description and pictorial visualization. Participants studied a description of an algorithm accompanied either by an interactive simulation, self-paced animation, or static illustration. Using a novel framework for entropy-based comparison of gaze...

Functionally sequenced scanpath similarity method (FuncSim): Comparing and evaluating scanpath similarity based on a task’s inherent sequence of functional (action) units

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Measures of scanpath similarity are essential in many domains of eye tracking research. Depending on the question, different calculations are adequate. We (Foerster, Carbone, Koesling, & Schneider, 2011) developed a method with a functional matching procedure suitable for sequential tasks. Here, we report two extensions. We introduced an alignment variant making the method more robust across tasks. We added the possibility to compare scanpaths according to multiple characteristics. The extended method, here called “functionally sequenced...

A Unifying Model-Based Hypothesis for the Diverse Waveforms of Infantile Nystagmus Syndrome

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We expanded the original behavioral Ocular Motor System (OMS) model for Infantile Nystagmus Syndrome (INS) by incorporating common types of jerk waveforms within a unifying mechanism. Alexander’s law relationships were used to produce desired INS null positions and sharpness. At various gaze angles, these relationships influenced the IN slow-phase amplitudes differently, thereby mimicking the gaze-angle effects of INS patients. Transitions from pseudopendular with foveating saccades to jerk waveforms required replacing braking saccades with foveating fast...

Spoken language-mediated anticipatory eye-movements are modulated by reading ability - Evidence from Indian low and high literates

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We investigated whether levels of reading ability attained through formal literacy are related to anticipatory language-mediated eye movements. Indian low and high literates listened to simple spoken sentences containing a target word (e.g., "door") while at the same time looking at a visual display of four objects (a target, i.e. the door, and three distractors). The spoken sentences were constructed in such a way that participants could use semantic, associative, and syntactic information from adjectives...

Localizing the Neural Substrate of Reflexive Covert Orienting

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The capture of covert spatial attention by salient visual events influences subsequent gaze behavior. A task irrelevant stimulus (cue) can reduce (Attention capture) or prolong (Inhi-bition of return) saccade reaction time to a subsequent target stimulus depending on the cue-target delay. Here we investigated the mechanisms that underlie the sensory-based account of AC/IOR by manipulating the visual processing stage where the cue and target interact. In Experiment 1, liquid crystal shutter goggles were used to...

Eye Movements in Gaze Interaction

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Gaze as a sole input modality must support complex navigation and selection tasks. Gaze interaction combines specific eye movements and graphic display objects (GDOs). This paper suggests a unifying taxonomy of gaze interaction principles. The taxonomy deals with three types of eye movements: fixations, saccades and smooth pursuits and three types of GDOs: static, dynamic, or absent. This taxonomy is qualified through related research and is the first main contribution of this paper. The second...

Evaluation of accurate eye corner detection methods for gaze estimation

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Accurate detection of iris center and eye corners appears to be a promising approach for low cost gaze estimation. In this paper we propose novel eye inner corner detection methods. Appearance and feature based segmentation approaches are suggested. All these methods are exhaustively tested on a realistic dataset containing images of subjects gazing at different points on a screen. We have demonstrated that a method based on a neural network presents the best performance even...

A pragmatic approach to multi-modality and non-normality in fixation duration studies of cognitive processes

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Interpreting eye-fixation durations in terms of cognitive processing load is complicated by the multimodality of their distribution. An important source of multimodality is the distinction between single and multiple fixations to the same object. Based on the distinction, we separated a log-transformed distribution made to an object in non-reading task. We could reasonably conclude that the separated distributions belong to the same, general logistic distribution, which has a finite population mean and variance. This allowed...

Entering PIN codes by smooth pursuit eye movements

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Despite its potential gaze interaction is still not a widely-used interaction concept. Major drawbacks as the calibration, strain of the eyes and the high number of false alarms are associated with gaze based interaction and limit its practicability for every-day human computer interaction. In this paper two experiments are described which use smooth pursuit eye movements on moving display buttons. The first experiment was conducted to extract an easy and fast interaction concept and at...

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