223 Works

Study of depth bias of observers in free viewing of still stereoscopic synthetic stimuli

Ricordel, Vincent; LUNAM Université, Université De Nantes, IRCCyN UMR CNRS 6597, France, Callet, Patrick Le; LUNAM Université, Université De Nantes, IRCCyN UMR CNRS 6597, France, Silva, Matthieu Perreira Da; LUNAM Université, Université De Nantes, IRCCyN UMR CNRS 6597, France, Tourancheau, Sylvain; Dept Of Information Technology And Media, Mid Sweden University, Sweden & Wang, Junle; LUNAM Université, Université De Nantes, IRCCyN UMR CNRS 6597, France
Observers’ fixations exhibit a marked bias towards certain areas on the screen when viewing scenes on computer monitors. For instance, there exists a well-known “center-bias” which means that fixations are biased towards the center of the screen during the viewing of 2D still images. In the viewing of 3D content, stereoscopic displays enhance depth perception by the mean of binocular parallax. This additional depth cue has a great influence on guiding eye movements. Relatively little...

Does color influence eye movements while exploring videos?

Hamel, Shahrbanoo; Gipsa-Lab, CNRS Grenoble-Alpes University, France, Guyader, Nathalie; Gipsa-Lab, CNRS Grenoble-Alpes University, France, Pellerin, Denis; Gipsa-Lab, CNRS Grenoble-Alpes University, France & Houzet, Dominique; Gipsa-Lab, CNRS Grenoble-Alpes University, France
Although visual attention studies consider color as one of the most important features in guiding visual attention, few studies have investigated how color influences eye movements while viewing natural scenes without any particular task. To better understand the visual features that drive attention, the aim of this paper was to quantify the influence of color on eye movements when viewing dynamic natural scenes. The influence of color was investigated by comparing the eye positions of...

Edit Blindness: The relationship between attention and global change blindness in dynamic scenes.

Henderson, John M.; University Of Edinburgh & Smith, Tim J.; University Of Edinburgh
Although we experience the visual world as a continuous, richly detailed space we often fail to notice large and significant changes. Such change blindness has been demonstrated for local object changes and changes to the visual form of whole images, however it is assumed that total changes from one image to another would be easily detected. Film editing presents such total changes several times a minute yet we rarely seem to be aware of them,...

Comparison of shutter glasses and mirror stereoscope for measuring dynamic and static vergence

Jaschinski, Wolfgang; Institut Für Arbeitsphysiologie, Dortmund, Germany, Hoormann, Jörg; Institut Für Arbeitsphysiologie, Dortmund, Germany & Jainta, Stephanie; Institut Für Arbeitsphysiologie, Dortmund, Germany
Vergence eye movement recordings in response to disparity step stimuli require to present different stimuli to the two eyes. The traditional method is a mirror stereoscope. Shutter glasses are more convenient, but have disadvantages as limited repetition rate, residual cross task, and reduced luminance. Therefore, we compared both techniques measuring (1) dynamic disparity step responses for stimuli of 1 and 3 deg and (2) fixation disparity, the static vergence error. Shutter glasses and mirror stereoscope...

Orienting during gaze guidance in a letter-identification task

Rasche, Christoph; Bucharest Politechnica University, Romania & Gegenfurtner, Karl; Justus-Liebig-Universität Giessen, Germany
The idea of gaze guidance is to lead a viewer’s gaze through a visual display in order to facilitate the viewer’s search for specific information in a least-obtrusive manner. This study investigates saccadic orienting when a viewer is guided in a fast-paced, low-contrast letter identification task. Despite the task’s difficulty and although guiding cues were ad-justed to gaze eccentricity, observers preferred attentional over saccadic shifts to obtain a letter identification judgment; and if a saccade...

Parsing costs as predictors of reading difficulty: An evaluation using the Potsdam Sentence Corpus

Hale, John; Cornell University, Boston, Marisa Ferrara; Cornell University, Patil, Umesh; University Of Potsdam, Vasishth, Shravan; University Of Potsdam & Kliegl, Reinhold; University Of Potsdam
The surprisal of a word on a probabilistic grammar constitutes a promising complexity metric for human sentence comprehension difficulty. Using two different grammar types, surprisal is shown to have an effect on fixation durations and regression probabilities in a sample of German readers’ eye movements, the Potsdam Sentence Corpus. A linear mixed-effects model was used to quantify the effect of surprisal while taking into account unigram frequency and bigram frequency (transitional probability), word length, and...

Telling people where to look in a soccer-based decision task: A nomothetic approach

Kuhn, Gustav; Goldsmiths, London, United Kingdom, Maton, Claire; Brunel University, United Kingdom & Bishop, Daniel; Brunel University, United Kingdom
Research has shown that identifiable visual search patterns characterize skilled performance of anticipation and decision-making tasks in sport. However, to date, the use of experts’ gaze patterns to entrain novices’ performance has been confined to aiming activities. Accordingly, in a first experiment, 40 participants of varying soccer experience viewed static images of oncoming soccer players and attempted to predict the direction in which those players were about to move. Multiple regression analyses showed that the...

Abstracts of the 16th European Conference on Eye Movements 2011

Vitu, Françoise; CNRS, Université De Provence, Castet, Eric; CNRS, Université De La Méditerranée & Goffart, Laurent; CNRS, Université De La Méditerranée
This document contains all abstracts of the 16th European Conference on Eye Movements, August 21-25 2011 in Marseille, France. It was a real honour and a great pleasure to welcome more than 500 delegates to Marseille for the 16th edition of the European Conference on Eye Movements. The series of ECEM conferences started in 1981 under the auspices of Rudolf Groner in Bern. This year, we therefore celebrated the 30th Anniversary of ECEM. For this...

Saccadic Behavior during the Response to Pure Vergence Stimuli I: General Properties

Alvarez, Tara L.; New Jersey Institute Of Technology, Newark, New Jersey, USA, Pedrono, Claude; Essilor International, SA, Saint Maur, FRANCE, Chen, Yung-Fu; Department And Institute Of Health Services Administration, China Medical University Taichung, Taiwan. & Semmlow, John; Robert Wood Johnson Medical School UMDNJ New Brunswick, New Jersey USA / Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey USA
If two targets are carefully aligned so that they fall along the cyclopean axis, the required eye movement will be symmetrical with the two eyes turning equally inward or outward. When such “pure vergence stimuli” are used only a “pure vergence movement” is required, yet almost all responses include saccadic eye movements, a rapid tandem movement of the eyes. When saccades occur, they must either produce an error in the desired symmetrical response or correct...

The Effects of Age-of-Acquisition on Ambiguity Resolution: Evidence from Eye Movements

Shesler, Leah W.; Wesleyan University, Gullick, Margaret M.; Dartmouth College & Juhasz, Barbara J.; Wesleyan University
Words that are rated as acquired earlier in life receive shorter fixation durations than later acquired words, even when word frequency is adequately controlled (Juhasz & Rayner, 2003; 2006). Some theories posit that age-of-acquisition (AoA) affects the semantic representation of words (e.g., Steyvers & Tenenbaum, 2005), while others suggest that AoA should have an influence at multiple levels in the mental lexicon (e.g. Ellis & Lambon Ralph, 2000). In past studies, early and late AoA...

On-line syntactic and semantic influences in reading revisited

New, Boris; Université Paris-Descartes, CNRS, Pynte, Joel; Université Paris-Descartes, CNRS & Kennedy, Alan; Université Paris-Descartes, CNRS, University Of Dundee
This study is a follow-up to Pynte, New and Kennedy (2008), Journal of Eye Movement Research . 2(1):4, 1-11. A new series of multiple regression analyses were conducted on the French part of the Dundee corpus, using a new set of syntactic and semantic predictors. In line with our prior study, quite different patterns of results were obtained for function and content words. We conclude that syntactic processing operations during reading mainly concern function words...

“Trait” and “state” aspects of fixation disparity during reading

Jaschinski, Wolfgang; Leibniz Research Centre For Working Environment And Human Factors & Jainta, Stephanie; Leibniz Research Centre For Working Environment And Human Factors
In our study, 14 subjects read 60 sentences from the Potsdam Sentence Corpus twice (viewing distance: 60 cm), while eye movements were measured with the EyeLink II. We analyzed fixation disparities for complete sentence replications (N=388). After subtracting the average fixation disparity of each sentence from each observation (which gave the “state” fixation disparity), 99% of all remaining fixation disparities were aligned, i.e. smaller than one character width (20 min arc) – depending mostly on...

A simple way to estimate similarity between pairs of eye movement sequences

Gilchrist, Iain D.; University Of Bristol, Cristino, Filipe; Bangor University, Theeuwes, Jan; Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam & Mathôt, Sebastiaan; Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam
We propose a novel algorithm to estimate the similarity between a pair of eye movement sequences. The proposed algorithm relies on a straight-forward geometric representation of eye movement data. The algorithm is considerably simpler to implement and apply than existing similarity measures, and is particularly suited for exploratory analyses. To validate the algorithm, we conducted a benchmark experiment using realistic artificial eye movement data. Based on similarity ratings obtained from the proposed algorithm, we defined...

Eye Movements in Reading: Models and Data

Rayner, Keith; Department Of Psychology, University Of California, San Diego
Models of eye movement control in reading and their impact on the field are discussed. Differences between the E-Z Reader model and the SWIFT model are reviewed, as are benchmark data that need to be accounted for by any model of eye movement control. Predictions made by the models and how models can sometimes account for counterintuitive findings are also discussed. Finally, the role of models and data in further understanding the reading process is...

Binocular coordination during smooth pursuit in dyslexia: a multiple case study

Bucci, Maria-Pia; IRIS Laboratory, FRE 3154, CNRS, Yang, Qing; IRIS Laboratory, FRE 3154, CNRS, Vernet, Marine; IRIS Laboratory, FRE 3154, CNRS & Kapoula, Zoe; IRIS Laboratory, FRE 3154, CNRS
Smooth pursuit (SP) was explored in dyslexics and non-dyslexics. Dyslexic children show similar gain of SP, and number and amplitude of catch-up saccades (CUS) as non-dyslexic children. The quality of binocular coordination is good for both groups; the only significant exception is for pursuit to the right for both smooth phase and CUS; dyslexics show higher disconjugacy. Decrement of binocular control during rightward pursuit only could reflect immaturity of oculomotor learning mechanisms needed to optimize...

The interference effect of concurrent working memory task on visual inhibitory control

Kouh, Minjoon; Drew University, Weiner, Susan; Drew University, Brad M. Hong & Clancy, Michael; Drew University
We examined the interference between inhibitory control of a saccadic eye movement and a working memory task. This study was motivated by the observation that people are suscep-tible to cognitive errors when they are preoccupied. Subjects were instructed to make an anti-saccade, or to look in the opposite direction of a visual stimulus, thereby exercising inhibito-ry control over the reflexive eye movement towards a salient object. At the same time, the subjects were instructed to...

Idiosyncratic Feature-Based Gaze Mapping

Blignaut, Pieter; Department Of Computer Science And Informatics, University Of The Free State, South Africa
It is argued that polynomial expressions that are normally used for remote, video-based, low cost eye tracking systems, are not always ideal to accommodate individual differences in eye cleft, position of the eye in the socket, corneal bulge, astigmatism, etc. A procedure to identify a set of polynomial expressions that will provide the best possible accuracy for a specific individual is proposed. It is also proposed that regression coefficients are recalculated in real-time, based on...

Effect of target type on near point of convergence in a healthy, active, young adult population

Phillips, Jacqueline; Temple University & Tierney, Ryan; Temple University
Purpose: Measuring near point of convergence (NPC) has recently emerged as a concussion assessment tool. Differences in administration of the test can be seen within the literature, which may affect results and normative values. There has been little investigation examining if clinically accessible target types affects NPC and no examination of NPC in a healthy, active young adult population. Methods: NPC was measured in 39 subjects using 5 different targets two times each with an...

Adaptation and mislocalization fields for saccadic outward adaptation in humans

Schnier, Fabian; Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, Germany, Zimmermann, Eckart; Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, Germany & Lappe, Markus; Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, Germany
Adaptive shortening of a saccade influences the metrics of other saccades within a spatial window around the adapted target. Within this adaptation field visual stimuli presented before an adapted saccade are mislocalized in proportion to the change of the saccade metric. We investigated the saccadic adaptation field and associated localization changes for saccade lengthening, or outward adaptation. We measured the adaptation field for two different saccade adaptations (14 deg to 20 deg and 20 deg...

Schedule of the 13th European Conference on Eye Movements 2005

Groner, Marina; University Of Bern, Müri, R.; University Of Bern, Raess, Simon; University Of Bern, P., P; Suri, Koga, Kazuo; Nagoya University & Groner, Rudolf; University Of Bern
This document contains the schedule of the 13th European Conference on Eye Movements, August 14-18 2005 in Bern, Switzerland

Quick Models for Saccade Amplitude Prediction

Ryu, Young Sam; Ingram School Of Engineering Texas State University-San Marcos, Koh, Do H.; Department Of Computer Science Texas State University-San Marcos & Komogortsev, Oleg V.; Department Of Computer Science Texas State University-San Marcos
This paper presents a new saccade amplitude prediction model. The model is based on a Kalman filter and regression analysis. The aim of the model is to predict a saccade’s am-plitude extremely quickly, i.e., within two eye position samples at the onset of a saccade. Specifically, the paper explores saccade amplitude prediction considering one or two sam-ples at the onset of a saccade. The models’ prediction performance was tested with 35 subjects. The amplitude accuracy...

Eye-tracking Deaf and hearing viewing of sign language interpreted news broadcasts

Wehrmeyer, Jennifer; North-West University, South Africa
In this study, the viewing habits of deaf and hearing adults are investigated using eye tracking while they watched interpreted news broadcasts. The study shows that deaf viewers primarily focus on the interpreter and secondarily access picture material, but make very little use of subtitles or lip-reading. In contrast, hearing viewers prioritise pictorial content but also spend significant proportions of time examining subtitles, lip-reading and even watching the interpreter. Viewing patterns are dependent on pictorial...

The Central Bias in Day-to-Day Viewing

Frouke Hermens, Timothy L Hodgson & Flora Ioannidou
Eye tracking studies have suggested that, when viewing images centrally presented on a computer screen, observers tend to fixate the middle of the image. This so-called `central bias' was later also observed in mobile eye tracking during outdoors navigation, where observers were found to fixate the middle of the head-centered video image. It is unclear, however, whether the extension of the central bias to mobile eye tracking in outdoors navigation may have been due to...

Collecting and Analyzing Eye-Tracking Data in Outdoor Environments

Jacobs, Robert A.; University Of Rochester, Pelz, Jeff B.; Rochester Institute Of Technology, Evans, Karen M.; Rochester Institute Of Technology & Tarduno, John A.; University Of Rochester
Natural outdoor conditions pose unique obstacles for researchers, above and beyond those inherent to all mobile eye-tracking research. During analyses of a large set of eye-tracking data collected on geologists examining outdoor scenes, we have found that the nature of calibration, pupil identification, fixation detection, and gaze analysis all require procedures different from those typically used for indoor studies. Here, we discuss each of these challenges and present solutions, which together define a general method...

Examining the validity of the total dwell time of eye fixations to identify landmarks in a building

Vansteenkiste, Pieter; Ghent University, Alain De Wulf, Viaene, Pepijn; Ghent University-Geography Department, Philippe De Maeyer & Lenoir, Matthieu; Ghent University
It is uncertain to what extent the duration of eye fixations reflects the use of landmarks during navigation. Therefore, a study was conducted in which eye tracking data and route descriptions were collected of 23 participants who were highly familiar with the indoor test environment. Based on the total fixation time on different landmark categories, two measures were calculated, namely the calculated landmark category use and the probable landmark category use. Based on the ratio...

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