225 Works

Performance of a simple remote video-based eye tracker with GPU acceleration

Jean-Pierre Du Plessis & Blignaut, Pieter; Department Of Computer Science And Informatics, University Of The Free State, South Africa
Eye tracking is a well-established tool that is often utilised in research. There are currently many different types of eye trackers available, but they are either expensive, or provide a relatively low sampling frequency. The eye tracker presented in this paper was developed in an effort to address the lack of low-cost high-speed eye trackers. It utilises the Graphical Processing Unit (GPU) in an attempt to parallelise aspects of the process to localize feature points...

Comparing scanpaths during scene encoding and recognition: A multi-dimensional approach

Jarodzka, Halszka; Centre For Learning Sciences, Heerlen, The Netherlands, Dewhurst, Richard; Humanities Lab, Lund University, Sweden, Nyström, Marcus; Humanities Lab, Lund University, Sweden, Johansson, Roger; Humanities Lab, Lund University, Sweden, Underwood, Geoffrey; School Of Psychology, University Of Nottingham, UK, Foulsham, Tom; Department Of Psychology, University Of Essex, UK & Holmqvist, Kenneth; Humanities Lab, Lund University, Sweden
Complex stimuli and tasks elicit particular eye movement sequences. Previous research has focused on comparing between these scanpaths, particularly in memory and imagery research where it has been proposed that observers reproduce their eye movements when recognizing or imagining a stimulus. However, it is not clear whether scanpath similarity is related to memory performance and which particular aspects of the eye movements recur. We therefore compared eye movements in a picture memory task, using a...

Advantage in Reading Lexical Bundles is Reduced in Non-Native Speakers

Saage, Sven; The Centre For Media And Interactivity, Justus-Liebig University Of Giessen, Germany, Valsecchi, Matteo; Department Of General Psychology, Justus-Liebig-University Of Giessen, Germany, Gegenfurtner, Karl R.; Department Of General Psychology, Justus-Liebig-University Of Giessen, Germany, White, Brian J.; Centre For Neuroscience Studies, Queen’s University Kingston, Ontario, Canada, Mukherjee, Joybrato; Department Of English, Justus-Liebig-University Of Giessen, Germany & Künstler, Viktoria; The Centre For Media And Interactivity, Justus-Liebig University Of Giessen, Germany
Formulaic sequences such as idioms, collocations, and lexical bundles, which may be processed as holistic units, make up a large proportion of natural language. For language learners, however, formulaic patterns are a major barrier to achieving native like competence. The present study investigated the processing of lexical bundles by native speakers and less advanced non-native English speakers using corpus analysis for the identification of lexical bundles and eye-tracking to measure the reading times. The participants...

Lexical and post-lexical complexity effects on eye movements in reading

Warren, Tessa; University Of Pittsburgh, Patson, Nikole D.; University Of Pittsburgh & Reichle, Erik D.; University Of Pittsburgh
The current study investigated how a post-lexical complexity manipulation followed by a lexical complexity manipulation affects eye movements during reading. Both manipulations caused disruption in all measures on the manipulated words, but the patterns of spillover differed. Critically, the effects of the two kinds of manipulations did not interact, and there was no evidence that post-lexical processing difficulty delayed lexical processing on the next word (c.f. Henderson & Ferreira, 1990). This suggests that post-lexical processing...

Examining the validity of the total dwell time of eye fixations to identify landmarks in a building

Alain De Wulf, Viaene, Pepijn; Ghent University-Geography Department, Lenoir, Matthieu; Ghent University, Vansteenkiste, Pieter; Ghent University & Philippe De Maeyer
It is uncertain to what extent the duration of eye fixations reflects the use of landmarks during navigation. Therefore, a study was conducted in which eye tracking data and route descriptions were collected of 23 participants who were highly familiar with the indoor test environment. Based on the total fixation time on different landmark categories, two measures were calculated, namely the calculated landmark category use and the probable landmark category use. Based on the ratio...

Gaze interaction enhances problem solving: Effects of dwell-time based, gaze-augmented, and mouse interaction on problem-solving strategies and user experience

Bednarik, Roman; University Of Joensuu, Finland, Gowases, Tersia; University Of Joensuu, Finland & Tukiainen, Markku; University Of Joensuu, Finland
It is still unknown whether the very application of gaze for interaction has effects on cognitive strategies users employ and how these effects materialize. We conducted a between-subject experiment in which thirty-six participants interacted with a computerized problem-solving game using one of three interaction modalities: dwell-time, gaze-augmented interaction, and the conventional mouse. We observed how using each of the modalities affected performance, problem solving strategies, and user experience. Users with gaze-augmented interaction outperformed the other...

Eye Pointing in Stereoscopic Displays

Lin, Chiuhsiang Joe; Department Of Industrial Management- National Taiwan University Of Science And Technology & Widyaningrum, Retno; Department Of Industrial Management- National Taiwan University Of Science And Technology
This study investigated eye pointing in stereoscopic displays. Ten participants performed 18 tapping tasks in stereoscopic displays with three different levels of parallax (at the screen, 20 cm and 50 cm in front of the screen). The results showed that parallax had significant effects on hand movement time, eye movement time, index of performance in hand click and eye gaze. The movement time was shorter and the performance was better when the target was at...

Culture shapes how we look: Comparison between Chinese and African university students

Duan, Zhaohui; Central China Normal University, Wang, Fuxing; Central China Normal University & Hong, Jianzhong; Central China Normal University
Previous cross-cultural studies find that cultures can shape how we look during scene perception, but don’t mention its condition and limited to the East and West. This study recruited Chinese and African students to testify the cultural effects on two phases. In free-viewing phase: Africans fixated more on the focal objects than Chinese, while Chinese payed more attention to the backgrounds than Africans especially on the first fourth and fifth fixations. In recognition phase, there...

Parsing eye movement analysis of scanpaths of naïve viewers of art: How do we differentiate art from non-art pictures?

Zangemeister, Wolfgang H.; Neuroophthalmology Unit, Department Of Neurology, University Hamburg, FRG & Privitera, Claudio; Dept. Of Physiological Optics And Optometry, UC Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
Relating to G. Buswell’s early work we posed the questions: How do art-naïve people look at pairs of artful pictures and similarly looking snapshots? Does the analysis of their eye movement recordings reveal a difference in their perception? Parsing eye scanpaths using string editing, similarity coefficients can be sorted out and represented for the two measures ‘Sp’ (Similarities of position) and ‘Ss’ (Similarities of sequences). 25 picture pairs were shown 5 times to 7 subjects...

Silent reading of music and texts; eye movements and integrative reading mechanisms

Cara, Michel André; Music Institute (IMUS), Pontifical Catholic University Of Valparaíso. Pilcomayo 478 Cerro Concepción-Valparaíso CHILE Tel: +56 9 52195419 & Gómez, Gabriela; Universidad De Chile Periodista José Carrasco Tapia, 75 Santiago
This study investigates to what extent structural units defined by physical and structural markers elicit different eye movement patterns when reading contrasting stimuli of music and verbal texts. Eye movements were tracked and compared in ten musicians undergoing Bachelor’s degrees as they silently read six texts and six pieces of music for piano: the music was contemporary, in modal style, and the style of the texts was informative and literary. Participants were music students at...

Abstracts of the 18th European Conference on Eye Movements 2015

Ansorge, Ulrich; University Of Vienna, Florack, Arnd; University Of Vienna, Ditye, Thomas; University Of Vienna & Leder, Helmut; University Of Vienna
This document contains all abstracts of the 18th European Conference on Eye Movements, August 16-21 2015 in Vienna, Austria

The influence of emotional picture thematic content on exploratory eye movements

Manfredi, Valentina; University Of Pavia, Caputi, Marcella; University Of Pavia, Carniglia, Elena; University Of Pavia, Pessa, Eliano; University Of Pavia & Zambarbieri, Daniela; University Of Pavia
In picture viewing, emotional vs. neutral stimuli could play a different role in eye movement parameters and in the spatial progression of the scanpath. The aim of this paper is to investigate exploratory behaviour of normal subjects during the vision of emotional vs. non-emotional stimuli, by considering to what extent the thematic content (animate vs. inanimate) is likely to influence the observer’s eye movements. Sixty-five subjects’ eye movement patterns were measured while looking to emotional...

Evidence for a Structural Analysis of Target Selection in Picture Viewing

Tatler, Benjamin W.; University Of Dundee, Scotland & Rasche, Christoph; Justus-Liebig-Universität Giessen, Germany
Spontaneous fixations onto shapes are driven by a structural analysis. But is such analysis also carried out during free viewing of real-world scenes? Here, we analyze how fixation locations in such scenes are related to their region using the region's symmetric axes as a reference. Each fixation location is compared with respect to its nearest symmetric-axis segment by a latitude and a longitude measure. Analyzing the distributions for the two measures we find that there...

Measuring Attention in Second Language Reading Using Eye-tracking: The Case of the Noticing Hypothesis

Dolgunsöz, Emrah; Bayburt University
Taking Schmidt’s (1990) noticing hypothesis as point of departure this study aims to measure attention and learning gains during second language (L2) reading by making use of eye-tracking methodology. Relying on Robinson’s hierarchical memory model (1995, 2003), it is hypothesized that vocabulary learning and attention are closely associated. After a vocabulary pre-test, seventy-five learners of English read a standard text individually while their eye movements were being recorded followed by an immediate post-test. The results...

Rapid learning of pursuit target motion trajectories revealed by responses to randomized transient sinusoids

Barnes, Graham R.; University Of Manchester
When humans pursue sinusoidal target motion they rapidly learn to track with minimal phase error despite inherent visuo-motor processing delays; prior evidence suggests that prediction might even occur within the first cycle. Here, this has been examined by evoking reactive responses to single cycle stimuli having randomised periodicity and peak velocity. Periodicity was varied within three specific ranges with differing average periodicity. Initial responses in the first half-cycle were remarkably similar within periodicity ranges, irrespective...

Spoken language-mediated anticipatory eye-movements are modulated by reading ability - Evidence from Indian low and high literates

Pandey, Aparna; University Of Allahabad, India, Huettig, Falk; Max Planck Institute For Psycholinguistics & Radboud University, Nijmegen, Singh, Niharika; University Of Allahabad, India & Mishra, Ramesh K.; University Of Allahabad, India
We investigated whether levels of reading ability attained through formal literacy are related to anticipatory language-mediated eye movements. Indian low and high literates listened to simple spoken sentences containing a target word (e.g., "door") while at the same time looking at a visual display of four objects (a target, i.e. the door, and three distractors). The spoken sentences were constructed in such a way that participants could use semantic, associative, and syntactic information from adjectives...

Comparing the Difficulty of Tasks Using Eye Tracking Combined with Subjective and Behavioural Criteria

Stolińska, Anna; Pedagogical University Of Cracow & Andrzejewska, Magdalena; Pedagogical University Of Cracow
In this article, we attempted to examine the issue of the existence of differences in eye move-ment of school-age students as they solve tasks of different difficulty levels in the sciences and natural sciences (computer science, mathematics, physics, biology). Categories of the task’s difficulty level were established on the basis of two types of criteria: subjective (an evaluation made by the subjects) and behavioural (connected to the correctness of their solution). The relationships of these...

A Vertical Asymmetry in Saccades

Pianezzi, Dario; Department Of Ophthalmology, University Of Bern, Barton, Jason J.S.; Departments Of Neurology, Ophthalmology And Visual Sciences, University Of British Columbia, Vancouver & Abegg, Mathias; Department Of Ophthalmology, University Of Bern
Visual exploration of natural scenes imposes demands that differ between the upper and the lower visual hemifield. Yet little is known about how ocular motor performance is affected by the location of visual stimuli or the direction of a behavioural response. We compared saccadic latencies between upper and lower hemifield in a variety of conditions, including short-latency prosaccades, long-latency prosaccades, antisaccades, memory-guided saccades and saccades with increased attentional and selection demand. All saccade types, except...

Tracking eye movements when solving geometry problems with handwriting devices

Lin, Sunny S. J.; Institute Of Education, National Chiao Tung University, Taiwan & Lin, John J. H.; Institute Of Education, National Chiao Tung University, Taiwan
The present study investigated the following issues: (1) whether differences are evident in the eye movement measures of successful and unsuccessful problem-solvers; (2) what is the relationship between perceived difficulty and eye movement measures; and (3) whether eye movements in various AOIs differ when solving problems. Sixty-three 11th grade students solved five geometry problems about the properties of similar triangles. A digital drawing tablet and sensitive pressure pen were used to record the responses. The...

Inhibition of Return after Color Singletons

Born, Sabine; Université De Genève, Priess, Heinz-Werner; University Of Vienna & Ansorge, Ulrich; University Of Vienna
Inhibition of return (IOR) is the faster selection of hitherto unattended than previously attended positions. Some previous studies failed to find evidence for IOR after attention capture by color singletons. Others, however, did report IOR effects after color singletons. The current study examines the role of cue relevance for obtaining IOR effects. By using a potentially more sensitive method – saccadic IOR – we tested and found IOR after relevant color singleton cues that required...

Integration and prediction difficulty in Hindi sentence comprehension: Evidence from an eye-tracking corpus

Srinivasan, Narayanan; CBCS, University Of Allahabad, India, Husain, Samar; Indian Institute Of Technology, Delhi, India & Vasishth, Shravan; University Of Potsdam, Germany
This is the first attempt at characterizing reading difficulty in Hindi using naturally occurring sentences. We created the Potsdam-Allahabad Hindi Eyetracking Corpus by recording eye-movement data from 30 participants at the University of Allahabad, India. The target stimuli were 153 sentences selected from the beta version of the Hindi-Urdu treebank. We find that word- or low-level predictors (syllable length, unigram and bigram frequency) affect first-pass reading times, regression path duration, total reading time, and outgoing...

Eye Movement Patterns in Solving Science Ordering Problems

Kendhammer, Lisa; The University Of Georgia, Pienta, Norbert J; The University Of Georgia, Moore, James N; The University Of Georgia, Day, Elizabeth; The University Of Georgia, Tang, Hui; The University Of Georgia & Brown, Scott A; The University Of Georgia
Dynamic biological processes, such as intracellular signaling pathways, commonly are taught in science courses using static representations of individual steps in the pathway. As a result, students often memorize these steps for examination purposes, but fail to appreciate either the cascade nature of the pathway. In this study, we compared eye movement patterns for students who correctly ordered the components of an important pathway responsible for vasoconstriction against those who did not. Similarly, we compared...

Anticipation of physical causality guides eye movements

Wende, Kim; Université Catholique De Louvain, Missal, Marcus; Université Catholique De Louvain & Theunissen, Laetitia; Université Catholique De Louvain
Causality is a unique feature of human perception. We present here a behavioral investigation of the influence of physical causality during visual pursuit of object collisions. Pursuit and saccadic eye movements of human subjects were recorded during ocular pursuit of two concurrently launched targets, one that moved according to the laws of Newtonian mechanics (the causal target) and the other one that moved in a physically implausible direction (the non-causal target). We found that anticipation...

Speed and Accuracy of Gaze Gestures

Räihä, Kari-Jouko; Unit For Computer-Human Interaction (TAUCHI), Department Of Computer Sciences University Of Tampere, Finland & Heikkilä, Henna; Unit For Computer-Human Interaction (TAUCHI), Department Of Computer Sciences University Of Tampere, Finland
We conducted an experiment where participants carried out six gaze gesture tasks. The gaze paths were analyzed to find out the speed and accuracy of the gaze gestures. As a result, the gaze gestures took more time than we anticipated and only the very fastest participants got close to what was expected. There was not much difference in performance times between small and large gaze gestures, because the participants reached significantly faster speed when making...

Comparing graphs and text: Effects of complexity and task

Kim, Sunjung; University Of Central Arkansas & Lombardino, Linda J.; University Of Florida
Graphs are commonly believed to facilitate users’ compre-hension. We explored the effect of graphs on comprehension compared to text, manipulating content complexity (single bar vs. double bar graphs) and question type (point-locating vs. comparison questions). A total 78 college students viewed graph and text stimuli and answered comprehension questions while their eye movements were recorded. The results indicate that students do not always process graphs more efficiently than text conveying the same information. Students processed...

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