225 Works

Functionally sequenced scanpath similarity method (FuncSim): Comparing and evaluating scanpath similarity based on a task’s inherent sequence of functional (action) units

Schneider, Werner X.; University Of Bielefeld & Foerster, Rebecca M.; University Of Bielefeld
Measures of scanpath similarity are essential in many domains of eye tracking research. Depending on the question, different calculations are adequate. We (Foerster, Carbone, Koesling, & Schneider, 2011) developed a method with a functional matching procedure suitable for sequential tasks. Here, we report two extensions. We introduced an alignment variant making the method more robust across tasks. We added the possibility to compare scanpaths according to multiple characteristics. The extended method, here called “functionally sequenced...

Gaze Tracking in Semi-Autonomous Grasping

Castellini, Claudio; LIRA-Lab, University Of Genova, Italy
In critical human/robotic interactions such as, e.g., teleoperation by a disabled master or with insufficient bandwidth, it is highly desirable to have semi-autonomous robotic artifacts interact with a human being. Semi-autonomous grasping, for instance, consists of having a smart slave able to guess the master’s intentions and initiating a grasping sequence whenever the master wants to grasp an object in the slave’s workspace. In this paper we investigate the possibility of building such an intelligent...

Human-Robot Interaction Based on Gaze Gestures for the Drone Teleoperation

Yu, Mingxin; Beijing Institute Of Technology, China, And Northeastern University, USA, Schmidt, David; Northeastern University, USA, Wang, Xiangzhou; Beijing Institute Of Technology, China, Lin, Yingzi; Northeastern University, USA & Wang, Yu; Beijing Institute Of Technology, China
Teleoperation has been widely used to perform tasks in dangerous and unreachable environments by replacing humans with controlled agents. The idea of human-robot interaction (HRI) is very important in teleoperation. Conventional HRI input devices include keyboard, mouse and joystick, etc. However, they are not suitable for handicapped users or people with disabilities. These devices also increase the mental workload of normal users due to simultaneous operation of multiple HRI input devices by hand. Hence, HRI...

Gaze transitions when learning with multimedia

Krejtz, Krzysztof; University Of Social Sciences And Humanities,And National Information Processing Institute, Warsaw, Kopacz, Agata; National Information Processing Institute, Warsaw, Poland, Chrząstowski-Wachtel, Piotr; Math, Informatics, And Mechanics, Institute Of Informatics, University Of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland, Duchowski, Andrew T.; Clemson University, Clemson, USA & Krejtz, Izabela; University Of Social Sciences And Humanities, Warsaw, Poland
Eye tracking methodology is used to examine the influence of interactive multimedia on the allocation of visual attention and its dynamics during learning. We hypothesized that an interactive simulation promotes more organized switching of attention between different elements of multimedia learning material, e.g., textual description and pictorial visualization. Participants studied a description of an algorithm accompanied either by an interactive simulation, self-paced animation, or static illustration. Using a novel framework for entropy-based comparison of gaze...

The behavioural and neurophysiological modulation of microsaccades in monkeys

Bell, Andrew H.; Queen’s University, Fecteau, Jillian H.; Queen’s University, Corneil, Brian D.; University Of Western Ontario, Munoz, Douglas P.; Queen’s University & Brien, Donald C.; Queen’s University
Systematic modulations of microsaccades have been observed in humans during covert orienting. We show here that monkeys are a suitable model for studying the neurophysiology governing these modulations of microsaccades. Using various cue-target saccade tasks, we observed the effects of visual and auditory cues on microsaccades in monkeys. As in human studies, following visual cues there was an early bias in cue-congruent microsaccades followed by a later bias in cue-incongruent microsaccades. Following auditory cues there...

Combining EEG and Eye Tracking: Using Fixation-Locked Potentials in Visual Search

Johnston, Matthew; Design Interactive, Inc., Carpenter, Angela; Design Interactive, Inc., Flint, Jesse; Design Interactive, Inc., Tomasetti, David; Design Interactive, Inc., Wang, Xuezhong; Design Interactive, Inc., Winslow, Brent; Design Interactive, Inc. & Hale, Kelly; Design Interactive, Inc.
Visual search is a complex task that involves many neural pathways to identify relevant areas of interest within a scene. Humans remain a critical component in visual search tasks, as they can effectively perceive anomalies within complex scenes. However, this task can be challenging, particularly under time pressure. In order to improve visual search training and performance, an objective, process-based measure is needed. Eye tracking technology can be used to drive real-time parsing of EEG...

Cueing Visual Attention to Spatial Locations With Auditory Cues

Crawford, Trevor J.; Lancaster University & Kean, Matthew; University Of Manchester
We investigated exogenous and endogenous orienting of visual attention to the spatial loca-tion of an auditory cue. In Experiment 1, significantly faster saccades were observed to vis-ual targets appearing ipsilateral, compared to contralateral, to the peripherally-presented cue. This advantage was greatest in an 80% target-at-cue (TAC) condition but equivalent in 20% and 50% TAC conditions. In Experiment 2, participants maintained central fixation while making an elevation judgment of the peripheral visual target. Performance was significantly...

Orienting during gaze guidance in a letter-identification task

Rasche, Christoph; Bucharest Politechnica University, Romania & Gegenfurtner, Karl; Justus-Liebig-Universität Giessen, Germany
The idea of gaze guidance is to lead a viewer’s gaze through a visual display in order to facilitate the viewer’s search for specific information in a least-obtrusive manner. This study investigates saccadic orienting when a viewer is guided in a fast-paced, low-contrast letter identification task. Despite the task’s difficulty and although guiding cues were ad-justed to gaze eccentricity, observers preferred attentional over saccadic shifts to obtain a letter identification judgment; and if a saccade...

Task-relevant spatialized auditory cues enhance attention orientation and peripheral target detection in natural scenes

Rummukainen, Olli; Aalto University, Espoo, Finland & Mendonça, Catarina; Aalto University, Espoo, Finland
Concurrent auditory stimuli have been shown to enhance detection of abstract visual targets in experimental setups with little ecological validity. We presented 11 participants, wearing an eye-tracking device, with a visual detection task in an immersive audiovisual environment replicating a real-world environment. The participants were to fixate on a visual target and to press a key when they were confident of having detected the target. The visual world was accompanied by a task-relevant or task-irrelevant...

Dummy eye measurements of microsaccades: Testing the influence of system noise and head movements on microsaccade detection in a popular video-based eye tracker

Hermens, Frouke; University Of Aberdeen, UK
Whereas early studies of microsaccades have predominantly relied on custom-built eye trackers and manual tagging of microsaccades, more recent work tends to use video-based eye tracking and automated algorithms for microsaccade detection. While data from these newer studies suggest that microsaccades can be reliably detected with video-based systems, this has not been systematically evaluated. I here present a method and data examining microsaccade detection in an often used video-based system (the Eyelink II system) and...

Localizing the Neural Substrate of Reflexive Covert Orienting

Hwang, Joshua R.; University Of Western Ontario, Munoz, Douglas P.; Centre For Neuroscience Studies, Queen’s University, Higenell, Valerie; Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University & White, Brian J.; Centre For Neuroscience Studies, Queen’s University
The capture of covert spatial attention by salient visual events influences subsequent gaze behavior. A task irrelevant stimulus (cue) can reduce (Attention capture) or prolong (Inhi-bition of return) saccade reaction time to a subsequent target stimulus depending on the cue-target delay. Here we investigated the mechanisms that underlie the sensory-based account of AC/IOR by manipulating the visual processing stage where the cue and target interact. In Experiment 1, liquid crystal shutter goggles were used to...

Influence of number, location and size of faces on gaze in video

Houzet, Dominique; GIPSA-Lab, UMR 5216, Grenoble, France, Pellerin, Denis; GIPSA-Lab, UMR 5216, Grenoble, France & Rahman, Anis; National University Of Sciences And Technology (NUST), Islamabad, Pakistan
Many studies have reported the preference for faces and influence of faces on gaze, most of them in static images and a few in videos. In this paper, we study the influence of faces in complex free-viewing videos, with respect to the effects of number, location and size of the faces. This knowledge could be used to enrich a face pathway in a visual saliency model. We used eye fixation data from an eye movement...

Bonnard´s representation of the perception of substance

Privitera, C. M.; University Of California Berkeley, School Of Optometry, Zangemeister, W. H.; University Of California Berkeley, School Of Optometry & Stark, L. W.; University Of California Berkeley, School Of Optometry
Artists are said to be like neuroscientists able to exploit the capacities of the brain to generate aesthetic experience (Zeki, 2001). Pierre Bonnard (1867-1947) has been recognized as one of the greatest and most enigmatic masters of the 20th century painting. For his understanding of the eye movements, attentional shifts mechanism and the representation in his paintings of the complexity of the physiological process of vision perception, something that he famously referred to as "the...

A statistical mixture method to reveal bottom-up and top-down factors guiding the eye-movements

Dubois, Michel; LPS, Grenoble II University, Guérin-Dugué, Anne; Gipsa-Lab, INPG, Grenoble, Marendaz, Christian; LPNC, Grenoble II University, Couronné, Thomas; Gipsa-Lab, INPG, Grenoble, France & Faye, Pauline; PSA Peugeot-Citroen, Paris
When people gaze at real scenes, their visual attention is driven both by a set of bottom-up processes coming from the signal properties of the scene and also from top-down effects such as the task, the affective state, prior knowledge, or the semantic context. The context of this study is an assessment of manufactured objects (here car cab interior). From this dedicated context, this work describes a set of methods to analyze the eye-movements during...

Hearing loss and a supportive tactile signal in a navigation system: Effects on driving behavior and eye movements

Lyxell, Björn; Linnaeus Centre HEAD, University Of Linköping, Sweden, Herbert, Nicholas; Institute For Transport Studies, University Of Leeds, UK, Holmqvist, Kenneth; University Of Lund, Sweden, Thorslund, Birgitta; VTI (Swedish National Road And Transport Research Institute), Sweden, Lidestam, Björn; Linnaeus Centre HEAD, University Of Linköping, Sweden, Peters, Björn; VTI (Swedish National Road And Transport Research Institute), Sweden & Black, Alexander; School Of Optometry, Queensland University Of Technology, Brisbane, Australia
An on-road study was conducted to evaluate a complementary tactile navigation signal on driving behaviour and eye movements for drivers with hearing loss (HL) compared to drivers with normal hearing (NH). 32 participants (16 HL and 16 NH) performed two preprogrammed navigation tasks. In one, participants received only visual information, while the other also included a vibration in the seat to guide them in the correct direction. SMI glasses were used for eye tracking, recording...

Scanpath Eye Movements during Visual Mental Imagery in a Simulated Hemianopia Paradigm

Liman, Thomas G.; Department Of Neurology And Center For Stroke Research, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Germany & Zangemeister, Wolfgang H.; Department Of Neurology, Clinical Neuroscience Unit, University Of Hamburg, Germany
Several studies have shown that eye movements (EM) are functionally involved in visual imagery. In this study we investigate the impact of a simulated homonymous hemianopia paradigm (SH) with and without foveal masking on scanpath eye movements during visual mental imagery. EM of twenty subjects were recorded under SH condition during viewing and subsequent visual imagery of complex pictures. Using evaluated string editing methods viewing and imagery scanpaths were compared. Our results show that scanpath...

Binocular coordination of saccades: development, aging and cerebral substrate

Bucci, Maria Pia; Iris Laboratory, FRE 3154, CNRS, Yang, Qing; Iris Laboratory, FRE 3154, CNRS, Vernet, Marine; Iris Laboratory, FRE 3154, CNRS & Kapoula, Zoë; Iris Laboratory, FRE 3154, CNRS
The origin of binocular coordination of saccades (central, peripheral) and the role of learning remain controversial (Hering vs Helmholtz). We will present evidence for learning: in young children (5 years) horizontal saccades are poorly yoked, coordination improves slowly with age particularly at near viewing distances. In dyslexic teenagers coordination of horizontal saccades is poor relative to non-dyslexics, suggesting slower learning. On the other hand, in healthy elderly participants (73 years) coordination of vertical saccades is...

The Effects of Age-of-Acquisition on Ambiguity Resolution: Evidence from Eye Movements

Shesler, Leah W.; Wesleyan University, Gullick, Margaret M.; Dartmouth College & Juhasz, Barbara J.; Wesleyan University
Words that are rated as acquired earlier in life receive shorter fixation durations than later acquired words, even when word frequency is adequately controlled (Juhasz & Rayner, 2003; 2006). Some theories posit that age-of-acquisition (AoA) affects the semantic representation of words (e.g., Steyvers & Tenenbaum, 2005), while others suggest that AoA should have an influence at multiple levels in the mental lexicon (e.g. Ellis & Lambon Ralph, 2000). In past studies, early and late AoA...

Culture shapes how we look: Comparison between Chinese and African university students

Duan, Zhaohui; Central China Normal University, Wang, Fuxing; Central China Normal University & Hong, Jianzhong; Central China Normal University
Previous cross-cultural studies find that cultures can shape how we look during scene perception, but don’t mention its condition and limited to the East and West. This study recruited Chinese and African students to testify the cultural effects on two phases. In free-viewing phase: Africans fixated more on the focal objects than Chinese, while Chinese payed more attention to the backgrounds than Africans especially on the first fourth and fifth fixations. In recognition phase, there...

Microsaccade-induced prolongation of saccade latencies depends on microsaccade amplitude

Laubrock, Jochen; University Of Potsdam, Kliegl, Reinhold; University Of Potsdam & Rolfs, Martin; University Of Potsdam
Fixations consist of small movements including microsaccades, i.e., rapid flicks in eye position that replace the retinal image by up to 1 degree of visual angle. Recently, we showed in a delayed-saccade task (1) that the rate of microsaccades decreased in the course of saccade preparation and (2) that microsaccades occurring around the time of a go signal were associated with prolonged saccade latencies (Rolfs et al., 2006). A re-analysis of the same data set...

Eye tracking study of attention to print advertisements: Effects of typeface figuration

Možina, Klementina; University Of Ljubljana, Faculty Of Natural Sciences And Engineering, Department Of Textiles, Graphic Arts And Design, Nedeljković, Uroš; University Of Novi Sad, Faculty Of Technical Sciences, Department Of Graphic Engineering And Design, Puškarević, Irma; University Of Novi Sad, Faculty Of Technical Sciences, Department Of Graphic Engineering And Design & Dimovski, Vladimir; University Of Novi Sad, Faculty Of Technical Sciences, Department Of Graphic Engineering And Design
The use of rhetorical figures has become a widely–accepted method for capturing attention and positively increasing cognitive effort in print advertisements. So far research studies mostly analyzed the effect of rhetorical figures in the written as well as pictorial elements of an ad. However, there have been few studies addressing the effect of rhetorical figuration in the specific area of typeface design. This study analyzes the effects of typeface figuration (i.e., regular vs. irregular stylization...

It's all about the transient: Intra-saccadic onset stimuli do not capture attention

Theeuwes, Jan; Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam & Mathôt, Sebastiaan; Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam
An abrupt onset stimulus was presented while the participants' eyes were in motion. Because of saccadic suppression, participants did not perceive the visual transient that normally accompanies the sudden appearance of a stimulus. In contrast to the typical finding that the presentation of an abrupt onset captures attention and interferes with the participants' responses, we found that an intra-saccadic abrupt onset does not capture attention: It has no effect beyond that of increasing the set-size...

What determines the direction of microsaccades?

Walker, Robin; University Of London & Hermens, Frouke; University Of London, University Of Leuven
During visual fixation, our eyes are not entirely still. Instead, small eye movements, such as microsaccades, can be observed. We here investigate what determines the direction and frequency of these microsaccades, as this information might help to clarify what purpose they serve. The relative contribution of three possible factors was examined: (1) the orienting of covert attention, (2) the spatial distribution of possible target locations, and (3) whether monocular or binocular microsaccades are considered. The...

Effects of Vowel Length on Gaze Durations in Silent and Oral Reading

Huestegge, Lynn; RWTH Aachen University
Vowel length is known to affect reaction times in single word reading. Eye movement studies involving silent sentence reading showed that phonological information of a word can be acquired even before it is fixated. However, it remained an open question whether vowel length directly influences oculomotor control in sentence reading. In the present eye tracking study, subjects read sentences that included target words of varying vowel length and frequency. In Experiment 1, subjects read silently...

Optically induced refractive errors reduces fixation stability but saccade latency remains stable

Langaas, Trine; University College Of Southeast Norway & Vikesdal, Gro Horgen; University College Of Southeast Norway
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of optically induced refractive errors on saccade latency and fixation stability.Sixteen healthy, young adults (two males), with normal visual acuity and normal accommodation, performed a saccade task and a fixation task wearing a range of contact lenses (from +3.00 to -5.00 diopters) which induced visual blur and accommodation. The results showed that mean (± standard error) saccade latency was 207 (± 5) milliseconds (ms) and...

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