225 Works

Learning to search. The importance of eye movements in the decrease of response times during a visual choice reaction time task

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Reaction times are often used as an indicator of the efficiency of the processes in thecentral nervous system. While extensive research has been conducted on the possibleresponse time correlates, the role of eye movements in visual tasks is yet unclear. Here wereport data to support the role of eye movements during visual choice reaction time training.Participant performance, reaction times, and total session duration improved. Eyemovementsshowed expected changes in saccade amplitude and resulted in improvementin visual...

User-Friendly Locations of Error Messages in Web Forms: An Eye Tracking Study

Error messages presented to users are one of the most important elements of Web forms. Error messages are embedded in different parts of the forms available on the Internet and presented in various formats. One of the measures of a user-friendly error message design is the ability to easily capture users’ attention and facilitate fast error correction. In this empirical study, I tested four different locations of error messages frequently used in Web forms on...

Transsaccadic Scene Memory Revisited: A 'Theory of Visual Attention (TVA)' Based Approach to Recognition Memory and Confidence for Objects in Naturalistic Scenes.

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The study presented here introduces a new approach to the investigation of transsaccadic memory for objects in naturalistic scenes. Participants were tested with a whole-report task from which — based on the theory of visual attention (TVA) - processing efficiency parameters were derived, namely visual short-term memory storage capacity and visual processing speed. By combining these processing efficiency parameters with transsaccadic memory data from a previous study, we were able to take a closer look...

SMOOVS: Towards calibration-free text entry by gaze using smooth pursuit movements

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Gaze-based text spellers have proved useful for people with severe motor diseases, but lack acceptance in general human-computer interaction. In order to use gaze spellers for public displays, they need to be robust and provide an intuitive interaction concept. However, traditional dwell- and blink-based systems need accurate calibration which contradicts fast and intuitive interaction. We developed the first gaze speller explicitly utilizing smooth pursuit eye movements and their particular characteristics. The speller achieves sufficient accuracy...

Implicit prosody and contextual bias in silent reading

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Eye-movement research on implicit prosody has found effects of lexical stress on syntactic ambiguity resolution, suggesting that metrical well-formedness constraints interact with syntactic category assignment. Building on these findings, the present eyetracking study investigates whether contextual bias can modulate the effects of metrical structure on syntactic ambiguity resolution in silent reading. Contextual bias and potential stress-clash in the ambiguous region were crossed in a 2 2 design. Participants read biased context sentences followed by temporarily...

Eye typing in application: A comparison of two systems with ALS patients

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A variety of eye typing systems has been developed during the last decades. Such systems can provide support for people who lost the ability to communicate, e.g. patients suffering from motor neuron diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In the current retrospective analysis, two eye typing applications were tested (EyeGaze, GazeTalk) by ALS patients (N = 4) in order to analyze objective performance measures and subjective ratings. An advantage of the EyeGaze system was...

Study of depth bias of observers in free viewing of still stereoscopic synthetic stimuli

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Observers’ fixations exhibit a marked bias towards certain areas on the screen when viewing scenes on computer monitors. For instance, there exists a well-known “center-bias” which means that fixations are biased towards the center of the screen during the viewing of 2D still images. In the viewing of 3D content, stereoscopic displays enhance depth perception by the mean of binocular parallax. This additional depth cue has a great influence on guiding eye movements. Relatively little...

About the global effect and the critical role of retinal eccentricity: Implications for eye movements in reading

In the present paper, I review evidence for the universality of the global effect, i.e. the general tendency to move the eyes towards the centre of gravity of the peripheral configu-ration, and show that the effect is strongly constrained by the retinal location of the stimuli. First, stimuli that are displayed in a central foveal region of a 1-1.5° radius fail to deviate the eyes in a centre-of-gravity manner; this is referred to as the...

Tracking Visual Scanning Techniques in Training Simulation for Helicopter Landing

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Research has shown no consistent findings about how scanning techniques differ between experienced and inexperienced helicopter pilots depending on mission demands. To explore this question, 33 military pilots performed two different landing maneuvers in a flight simulator. The data included scanning data (eye tracking) as well as performance, workload, and a self-assessment of scanning techniques (interviews). Fifty-four percent of scanning-related differences between pilots resulted from the factor combination of expertise and mission demands. A comparison...

Advantage in Reading Lexical Bundles is Reduced in Non-Native Speakers

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Formulaic sequences such as idioms, collocations, and lexical bundles, which may be processed as holistic units, make up a large proportion of natural language. For language learners, however, formulaic patterns are a major barrier to achieving native like competence. The present study investigated the processing of lexical bundles by native speakers and less advanced non-native English speakers using corpus analysis for the identification of lexical bundles and eye-tracking to measure the reading times. The participants...

Abstracts of the 14th European Conference on Eye Movements 2007

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The European Conference on Eye Movements, ECEM2007, is the 14th in a series of international scientific conferences dedicated to transdisciplinary research on eye movements. The series was initiated in 1981 by Rudolf Groner in Bern and is organized every second year by a group of European scientists active in eye movement research. This meeting in Potsdam is the third one in Germany, after Göttingen in 1987 and Ulm in 1997. The broad range of topics...

Comparing Experts and Novices on Scaffolded Data Visualizations using Eye-tracking

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Spatially-based scientific data visualizations are becoming widely available, yet they are often not optimized for novice audiences. This study follows after an investigation of ex-pert and novice meaning-making from scaffolded data visualizations using clinical inter-views. Using eye-tracking and concurrent interviewing, we examined quantitative fixation and AOI data and qualitative scan path data for two expertise groups (N = 20) on five versions of scaffolded global ocean data visualizations. We found influences of expertise, scaffolding, and...

Eye movements in surgery : A literature review

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h recent advances in eye tracking technology, it is now possible to track surgeons’ eye movements while engaged in a surgical task or when surgical residents practice their surgical skills. Several studies have compared eye movements of surgical experts and novices, developed techniques to assess surgical skill on the basis of eye movements, and examined the role of eye movements in surgical training. We here provide an overview of these studies with a focus on...

Telling people where to look in a soccer-based decision task: A nomothetic approach

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Research has shown that identifiable visual search patterns characterize skilled performance of anticipation and decision-making tasks in sport. However, to date, the use of experts’ gaze patterns to entrain novices’ performance has been confined to aiming activities. Accordingly, in a first experiment, 40 participants of varying soccer experience viewed static images of oncoming soccer players and attempted to predict the direction in which those players were about to move. Multiple regression analyses showed that the...

This is it ! : Indicating and looking in collaborative work at distance

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Little is known of the interplay between deixis and eye movements in remote collaboration. This paper presents quantitative results from an experiment where participant pairs had to collaborate at a distance using chat tools that differed in the way messages could be enriched with spatial information from the map in the shared workspace. We studied how the availability of what we defined as an Explicit Referencing mechanism (ER) affected the coordination of the eye movements...

Haptic feedback in eye typing

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Proper feedback is essential in gaze based interfaces, where the same modality is used for both perception and control. We measured how vibrotactile feedback, a form of haptic feedback, compares with the commonly used visual and auditory feedback in eye typing. Haptic feedback was found to produce results that are close to those of auditory feedback; both were easy to perceive and participants liked both the auditory ”click” and the tactile “tap” of the selected...

Comparison of shutter glasses and mirror stereoscope for measuring dynamic and static vergence

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Vergence eye movement recordings in response to disparity step stimuli require to present different stimuli to the two eyes. The traditional method is a mirror stereoscope. Shutter glasses are more convenient, but have disadvantages as limited repetition rate, residual cross task, and reduced luminance. Therefore, we compared both techniques measuring (1) dynamic disparity step responses for stimuli of 1 and 3 deg and (2) fixation disparity, the static vergence error. Shutter glasses and mirror stereoscope...

Rapid learning of pursuit target motion trajectories revealed by responses to randomized transient sinusoids

When humans pursue sinusoidal target motion they rapidly learn to track with minimal phase error despite inherent visuo-motor processing delays; prior evidence suggests that prediction might even occur within the first cycle. Here, this has been examined by evoking reactive responses to single cycle stimuli having randomised periodicity and peak velocity. Periodicity was varied within three specific ranges with differing average periodicity. Initial responses in the first half-cycle were remarkably similar within periodicity ranges, irrespective...

A Simple(r) Tool For Examining Fixations

Francesco Di Nocera, Simon Mastrangelo & Claudio Capobianco
This short paper describes an update of A Simple Tool For Examining Fixations (ASTEF) developed for facilitating the examination of eye-tracking data and for computing a spatial statistics algorithm that has been validated as a measure of mental workload (namely, the Nearest Neighbor Index: NNI). The code is based on Matlab® 2013a and is currently distributed on the web as an open-source project. This implementation of ASTEF got rid of many functionalities included in the...

Visual Fixation Durations and Saccade Amplitudes: Shifting Relationship in a Variety of Conditions

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Is there any relationship between visual fixation durations and saccade amplitudes in free exploration of pictures and scenes? In four experiments with naturalistic stimuli, we compared eye movements during early and late phases of scene perception. Influences of repeated presentation of similar stimuli (Experiment 1), object density (Experiment 2), emotional stimuli (Experiment 3) and mood induction (Experiment 4) were examined. The results demonstrate a systematic increase in the durations of fixations and a decrease for...

Semantic Override of Low-level Features in Image Viewing – Both Initially and Overall

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Guidance of eye-movements in image viewing is believed to be controlled by stimulus driven factors as well as viewer dependent higher level factors such as task and memory. It is currently debated what proportions these factors contribute to gaze guidance, and also how they vary over time after image onset. Overall, the unanimity regarding these issues is surprisingly low and there are results supporting both types of factors as being dominant in eye-movement control under...

A statistical mixture method to reveal bottom-up and top-down factors guiding the eye-movements

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When people gaze at real scenes, their visual attention is driven both by a set of bottom-up processes coming from the signal properties of the scene and also from top-down effects such as the task, the affective state, prior knowledge, or the semantic context. The context of this study is an assessment of manufactured objects (here car cab interior). From this dedicated context, this work describes a set of methods to analyze the eye-movements during...

The influence of emotional picture thematic content on exploratory eye movements

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In picture viewing, emotional vs. neutral stimuli could play a different role in eye movement parameters and in the spatial progression of the scanpath. The aim of this paper is to investigate exploratory behaviour of normal subjects during the vision of emotional vs. non-emotional stimuli, by considering to what extent the thematic content (animate vs. inanimate) is likely to influence the observer’s eye movements. Sixty-five subjects’ eye movement patterns were measured while looking to emotional...

Correction of Saccade-Induced Midline Errors in Responses to Pure Disparity Vergence Stimuli.

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Purely symmetrical vergence stimuli aligned along the midline (cyclopean axis) require only a pure vergence response. Yet, in most responses saccades are observed and these saccades must either produce an error in the desired midline response or correct an error produced by asymmetry in the vergence response. A previous study (Semmlow, et al. 2008) has shown that the first saccade to appear in a response to a pure vergence stimulus usually increased the deviation from...

Conditional co-occurrence probability acts like frequency in predicting fixation durations

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The predictability of an upcoming word has been found to be a useful predictor in eye movement research, but is expensive to collect and subjective in nature. It would be desirable to have other predictors that are easier to collect and objective in nature if these predictors were capable of capturing the information stored in predictability. This paper contributes to this discussion by testing a possible predictor: conditional co-occurrence probability. This measure is a simple...

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