225 Works

Examining the validity of the total dwell time of eye fixations to identify landmarks in a building

Alain De Wulf, , , & Philippe De Maeyer
It is uncertain to what extent the duration of eye fixations reflects the use of landmarks during navigation. Therefore, a study was conducted in which eye tracking data and route descriptions were collected of 23 participants who were highly familiar with the indoor test environment. Based on the total fixation time on different landmark categories, two measures were calculated, namely the calculated landmark category use and the probable landmark category use. Based on the ratio...

Performance of a simple remote video-based eye tracker with GPU acceleration

Jean-Pierre Du Plessis &
Eye tracking is a well-established tool that is often utilised in research. There are currently many different types of eye trackers available, but they are either expensive, or provide a relatively low sampling frequency. The eye tracker presented in this paper was developed in an effort to address the lack of low-cost high-speed eye trackers. It utilises the Graphical Processing Unit (GPU) in an attempt to parallelise aspects of the process to localize feature points...

Covert Attention Tracking: Towards Two-Dimensional Real-Time Recordings

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Achieving attention tracking as easily as recording eye movements is still beyond reach. However, by exploiting Steady-State Visual Evoked Potentials (SSVEPs) we could recently record in a satisfactory way the horizontal trajectory of covert visuospatial attention in single trials, both when attending target motion and during mental motion extrapolation. Here we show that, despite the different cortical functional architecture for horizontal and vertical motion processing, the same result is obtained for vertical attention tracking. Thus,...

Direction Estimation Model for Gaze Controlled Systems

Pawanesh Abrol &
Detection of gaze requires estimation of the position and the relation between user’s pupil and glint. This position is mapped into the region of interest using different edge detectors by detecting the glint coordinates and further gaze direction. In this research paper, a Gaze Direction Estimation (GDE) model has been proposed for the comparative analysis of two standard edge detectors Canny and Sobel for estimating automatic detection of the glint, its coordinates and subsequently the...

User-Friendly Locations of Error Messages in Web Forms: An Eye Tracking Study

Error messages presented to users are one of the most important elements of Web forms. Error messages are embedded in different parts of the forms available on the Internet and presented in various formats. One of the measures of a user-friendly error message design is the ability to easily capture users’ attention and facilitate fast error correction. In this empirical study, I tested four different locations of error messages frequently used in Web forms on...

Learning to search. The importance of eye movements in the decrease of response times during a visual choice reaction time task

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Reaction times are often used as an indicator of the efficiency of the processes in thecentral nervous system. While extensive research has been conducted on the possibleresponse time correlates, the role of eye movements in visual tasks is yet unclear. Here wereport data to support the role of eye movements during visual choice reaction time training.Participant performance, reaction times, and total session duration improved. Eyemovementsshowed expected changes in saccade amplitude and resulted in improvementin visual...

Examining the validity of the total dwell time of eye fixations to identify landmarks in a building

, Alain De Wulf, , Philippe De Maeyer &
It is uncertain to what extent the duration of eye fixations reflects the use of landmarks during navigation. Therefore, a study was conducted in which eye tracking data and route descriptions were collected of 23 participants who were highly familiar with the indoor test environment. Based on the total fixation time on different landmark categories, two measures were calculated, namely the calculated landmark category use and the probable landmark category use. Based on the ratio...

A Simple(r) Tool For Examining Fixations

Francesco Di Nocera, Simon Mastrangelo & Claudio Capobianco
This short paper describes an update of A Simple Tool For Examining Fixations (ASTEF) developed for facilitating the examination of eye-tracking data and for computing a spatial statistics algorithm that has been validated as a measure of mental workload (namely, the Nearest Neighbor Index: NNI). The code is based on Matlab® 2013a and is currently distributed on the web as an open-source project. This implementation of ASTEF got rid of many functionalities included in the...

This is it ! : Indicating and looking in collaborative work at distance

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Little is known of the interplay between deixis and eye movements in remote collaboration. This paper presents quantitative results from an experiment where participant pairs had to collaborate at a distance using chat tools that differed in the way messages could be enriched with spatial information from the map in the shared workspace. We studied how the availability of what we defined as an Explicit Referencing mechanism (ER) affected the coordination of the eye movements...

Comparison of shutter glasses and mirror stereoscope for measuring dynamic and static vergence

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Vergence eye movement recordings in response to disparity step stimuli require to present different stimuli to the two eyes. The traditional method is a mirror stereoscope. Shutter glasses are more convenient, but have disadvantages as limited repetition rate, residual cross task, and reduced luminance. Therefore, we compared both techniques measuring (1) dynamic disparity step responses for stimuli of 1 and 3 deg and (2) fixation disparity, the static vergence error. Shutter glasses and mirror stereoscope...

Evidence for a Structural Analysis of Target Selection in Picture Viewing

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Spontaneous fixations onto shapes are driven by a structural analysis. But is such analysis also carried out during free viewing of real-world scenes? Here, we analyze how fixation locations in such scenes are related to their region using the region's symmetric axes as a reference. Each fixation location is compared with respect to its nearest symmetric-axis segment by a latitude and a longitude measure. Analyzing the distributions for the two measures we find that there...

Haptic feedback in eye typing

, , , , , &
Proper feedback is essential in gaze based interfaces, where the same modality is used for both perception and control. We measured how vibrotactile feedback, a form of haptic feedback, compares with the commonly used visual and auditory feedback in eye typing. Haptic feedback was found to produce results that are close to those of auditory feedback; both were easy to perceive and participants liked both the auditory ”click” and the tactile “tap” of the selected...

Transsaccadic Scene Memory Revisited: A 'Theory of Visual Attention (TVA)' Based Approach to Recognition Memory and Confidence for Objects in Naturalistic Scenes.

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The study presented here introduces a new approach to the investigation of transsaccadic memory for objects in naturalistic scenes. Participants were tested with a whole-report task from which — based on the theory of visual attention (TVA) - processing efficiency parameters were derived, namely visual short-term memory storage capacity and visual processing speed. By combining these processing efficiency parameters with transsaccadic memory data from a previous study, we were able to take a closer look...

Implicit prosody and contextual bias in silent reading

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Eye-movement research on implicit prosody has found effects of lexical stress on syntactic ambiguity resolution, suggesting that metrical well-formedness constraints interact with syntactic category assignment. Building on these findings, the present eyetracking study investigates whether contextual bias can modulate the effects of metrical structure on syntactic ambiguity resolution in silent reading. Contextual bias and potential stress-clash in the ambiguous region were crossed in a 2 2 design. Participants read biased context sentences followed by temporarily...

SMOOVS: Towards calibration-free text entry by gaze using smooth pursuit movements

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Gaze-based text spellers have proved useful for people with severe motor diseases, but lack acceptance in general human-computer interaction. In order to use gaze spellers for public displays, they need to be robust and provide an intuitive interaction concept. However, traditional dwell- and blink-based systems need accurate calibration which contradicts fast and intuitive interaction. We developed the first gaze speller explicitly utilizing smooth pursuit eye movements and their particular characteristics. The speller achieves sufficient accuracy...

Comparing graphs and text: Effects of complexity and task

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Graphs are commonly believed to facilitate users’ compre-hension. We explored the effect of graphs on comprehension compared to text, manipulating content complexity (single bar vs. double bar graphs) and question type (point-locating vs. comparison questions). A total 78 college students viewed graph and text stimuli and answered comprehension questions while their eye movements were recorded. The results indicate that students do not always process graphs more efficiently than text conveying the same information. Students processed...

Eye movements in surgery : A literature review

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h recent advances in eye tracking technology, it is now possible to track surgeons’ eye movements while engaged in a surgical task or when surgical residents practice their surgical skills. Several studies have compared eye movements of surgical experts and novices, developed techniques to assess surgical skill on the basis of eye movements, and examined the role of eye movements in surgical training. We here provide an overview of these studies with a focus on...

Telling people where to look in a soccer-based decision task: A nomothetic approach

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Research has shown that identifiable visual search patterns characterize skilled performance of anticipation and decision-making tasks in sport. However, to date, the use of experts’ gaze patterns to entrain novices’ performance has been confined to aiming activities. Accordingly, in a first experiment, 40 participants of varying soccer experience viewed static images of oncoming soccer players and attempted to predict the direction in which those players were about to move. Multiple regression analyses showed that the...

Rapid learning of pursuit target motion trajectories revealed by responses to randomized transient sinusoids

When humans pursue sinusoidal target motion they rapidly learn to track with minimal phase error despite inherent visuo-motor processing delays; prior evidence suggests that prediction might even occur within the first cycle. Here, this has been examined by evoking reactive responses to single cycle stimuli having randomised periodicity and peak velocity. Periodicity was varied within three specific ranges with differing average periodicity. Initial responses in the first half-cycle were remarkably similar within periodicity ranges, irrespective...

Eye typing in application: A comparison of two systems with ALS patients

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A variety of eye typing systems has been developed during the last decades. Such systems can provide support for people who lost the ability to communicate, e.g. patients suffering from motor neuron diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In the current retrospective analysis, two eye typing applications were tested (EyeGaze, GazeTalk) by ALS patients (N = 4) in order to analyze objective performance measures and subjective ratings. An advantage of the EyeGaze system was...

About the global effect and the critical role of retinal eccentricity: Implications for eye movements in reading

In the present paper, I review evidence for the universality of the global effect, i.e. the general tendency to move the eyes towards the centre of gravity of the peripheral configu-ration, and show that the effect is strongly constrained by the retinal location of the stimuli. First, stimuli that are displayed in a central foveal region of a 1-1.5° radius fail to deviate the eyes in a centre-of-gravity manner; this is referred to as the...

Study of depth bias of observers in free viewing of still stereoscopic synthetic stimuli

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Observers’ fixations exhibit a marked bias towards certain areas on the screen when viewing scenes on computer monitors. For instance, there exists a well-known “center-bias” which means that fixations are biased towards the center of the screen during the viewing of 2D still images. In the viewing of 3D content, stereoscopic displays enhance depth perception by the mean of binocular parallax. This additional depth cue has a great influence on guiding eye movements. Relatively little...

Tracking Visual Scanning Techniques in Training Simulation for Helicopter Landing

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Research has shown no consistent findings about how scanning techniques differ between experienced and inexperienced helicopter pilots depending on mission demands. To explore this question, 33 military pilots performed two different landing maneuvers in a flight simulator. The data included scanning data (eye tracking) as well as performance, workload, and a self-assessment of scanning techniques (interviews). Fifty-four percent of scanning-related differences between pilots resulted from the factor combination of expertise and mission demands. A comparison...

Advantage in Reading Lexical Bundles is Reduced in Non-Native Speakers

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Formulaic sequences such as idioms, collocations, and lexical bundles, which may be processed as holistic units, make up a large proportion of natural language. For language learners, however, formulaic patterns are a major barrier to achieving native like competence. The present study investigated the processing of lexical bundles by native speakers and less advanced non-native English speakers using corpus analysis for the identification of lexical bundles and eye-tracking to measure the reading times. The participants...

Abstracts of the 14th European Conference on Eye Movements 2007

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The European Conference on Eye Movements, ECEM2007, is the 14th in a series of international scientific conferences dedicated to transdisciplinary research on eye movements. The series was initiated in 1981 by Rudolf Groner in Bern and is organized every second year by a group of European scientists active in eye movement research. This meeting in Potsdam is the third one in Germany, after Göttingen in 1987 and Ulm in 1997. The broad range of topics...

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