225 Works

Scanpath Eye Movements during Visual Mental Imagery in a Simulated Hemianopia Paradigm

Liman, Thomas G.; Department Of Neurology And Center For Stroke Research, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Germany & Zangemeister, Wolfgang H.; Department Of Neurology, Clinical Neuroscience Unit, University Of Hamburg, Germany
Several studies have shown that eye movements (EM) are functionally involved in visual imagery. In this study we investigate the impact of a simulated homonymous hemianopia paradigm (SH) with and without foveal masking on scanpath eye movements during visual mental imagery. EM of twenty subjects were recorded under SH condition during viewing and subsequent visual imagery of complex pictures. Using evaluated string editing methods viewing and imagery scanpaths were compared. Our results show that scanpath...

Fixation sequences in imagery and in recognition during the processing of pictures of real-world scenes

Humphrey, Katherine; University Of Nottingham & Underwood, Geoffrey; University Of Nottingham
Thirty photographs of real-world scenes were presented for encoding, and half the participants then performed a recognition test, deciding whether each of 60 images were old (from the original set) or new. The other participants performed an imagery task immediately after encoding each of the 30 images. After completing this task, the recognition group then performed the imagery task in response to prompts that were unique verbal descriptors, and the imagery group performed the recognition...

Editorial

Velichkovsky, Boris M.; Applied Cognitive Research / Institute Of Psychology III, Technische Universität Dresden, Helmert, Jens R.; Applied Cognitive Research / Institute Of Psychology III, Technische Universität Dresden & Pannasch, Sebastian; Applied Cognitive Research / Institute Of Psychology III, Technische Universität Dresden
Editorial to the Special Issue on Eye tracking and Usability Research

“Trait” and “state” aspects of fixation disparity during reading

Jaschinski, Wolfgang; Leibniz Research Centre For Working Environment And Human Factors & Jainta, Stephanie; Leibniz Research Centre For Working Environment And Human Factors
In our study, 14 subjects read 60 sentences from the Potsdam Sentence Corpus twice (viewing distance: 60 cm), while eye movements were measured with the EyeLink II. We analyzed fixation disparities for complete sentence replications (N=388). After subtracting the average fixation disparity of each sentence from each observation (which gave the “state” fixation disparity), 99% of all remaining fixation disparities were aligned, i.e. smaller than one character width (20 min arc) – depending mostly on...

The Effects of Age-of-Acquisition on Ambiguity Resolution: Evidence from Eye Movements

Shesler, Leah W.; Wesleyan University, Gullick, Margaret M.; Dartmouth College & Juhasz, Barbara J.; Wesleyan University
Words that are rated as acquired earlier in life receive shorter fixation durations than later acquired words, even when word frequency is adequately controlled (Juhasz & Rayner, 2003; 2006). Some theories posit that age-of-acquisition (AoA) affects the semantic representation of words (e.g., Steyvers & Tenenbaum, 2005), while others suggest that AoA should have an influence at multiple levels in the mental lexicon (e.g. Ellis & Lambon Ralph, 2000). In past studies, early and late AoA...

Collecting and Analyzing Eye-Tracking Data in Outdoor Environments

Jacobs, Robert A.; University Of Rochester, Pelz, Jeff B.; Rochester Institute Of Technology, Evans, Karen M.; Rochester Institute Of Technology & Tarduno, John A.; University Of Rochester
Natural outdoor conditions pose unique obstacles for researchers, above and beyond those inherent to all mobile eye-tracking research. During analyses of a large set of eye-tracking data collected on geologists examining outdoor scenes, we have found that the nature of calibration, pupil identification, fixation detection, and gaze analysis all require procedures different from those typically used for indoor studies. Here, we discuss each of these challenges and present solutions, which together define a general method...

Why do we look at people's eyes?

Birmingham, Elina; University Of British Columbia, Kingstone, Alan; University Of British Columbia & Bischof, Walter F.; University Of Alberta
We have previously shown that when observers are presented with complex natural scenes that contain a number of objects and people, observers look mostly at the eyes of the people. Why is this? It cannot be because eyes are merely the most salient area in a scene, as relative to other objects they are fairly inconspicuous. We hypothesized that people look at the eyes because they consider the eyes to be a rich source of...

Influence of soundtrack on eye movements during video exploration

Guyader, Nathalie; Gipsa Laboratory-CNRS UMR 5216, Grenoble University, France, Caplier, Alice; Gipsa Laboratory-CNRS UMR 5216, Grenoble University, France, Ionescu, Gelu; Gipsa Laboratory-CNRS UMR 5216, Grenoble University, France & Coutrot, Antoine; Gipsa Laboratory-CNRS UMR 5216, Grenoble University, France
Models of visual attention rely on visual features such as orientation, intensity or motion to predict which regions of complex scenes attract the gaze of observers. So far, sound has never been considered as a possible feature that might influence eye movements. Here, we evaluate the impact of non-spatial sound on the eye movements of observers watching videos. We recorded eye movements of 40 participants watching assorted videos with and without their related soundtracks. We...

EyeMMV toolbox: An eye movement post-analysis tool based on a two-step spatial dispersion threshold for fixation identification

Filippakopoulou, Vassiliki; National Technical University Of Athens, Krassanakis, Vassilios; National Technical University Of Athens & Nakos, Byron; National Technical University Of Athens
Eye movement recordings and their analysis constitute an effective way to examine visual perception. There is a special need for the design of computer software for the performance of data analysis. The present study describes the development of a new toolbox, called EyeMMV (Eye Movements Metrics & Visualizations), for post experimental eye movement analysis. The detection of fixation events is performed with the use of an introduced algorithm based on a two-step spatial dispersion threshold....

Music sight-reading expertise, visually disrupted score and eye movements

Blom, Diana; School Of Communication Arts (Music) University Of Western Sydney, Australia, Arthur, Patricia; School Of Optometry And Vision Science University Of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia & Khuu, Sieu; School Of Optometry And Vision Science University Of New South Wales Sydney, Australia
Previous studies have shown that performance at a defined level of music sight reading for pianists (6th Grade) is predictive of eye movement patterns (Waters, 1998) and that such patterns resemble those of text reading experts (Furneaux & Land, 1999; Sloboda, 1974; Truitt, 1997; Wolf, 1976). However, little is known about how expertise might affect eye movement patterns when the score has been visually disrupted using notational features that are unexpected or outside conventional presentation.The...

Influences of dwell time and cursor control on the performance in gaze driven typing

Helmert, Jens R.; Applied Cognitive Research / Institute Of Psychology III, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Velichkovsky, Boris M.; Applied Cognitive Research / Institute Of Psychology III, Technische Universitaet Dresden & Pannasch, Sebastian; Applied Cognitive Research / Institute Of Psychology III, Technische Universitaet Dresden
In gaze controlled computer interfaces the dwell time is often used as selection criterion. But this solution comes along with several problems, especially in the temporal domain: Eye movement studies on scene perception could demonstrate that fixations of different durations serve different purposes and should therefore be differentiated. The use of dwell time for selection implies the need to distinguish intentional selections from merely per-ceptual processes, described as the Midas touch problem. Moreover, the feedback...

Optically induced refractive errors reduces fixation stability but saccade latency remains stable

Langaas, Trine; University College Of Southeast Norway & Vikesdal, Gro Horgen; University College Of Southeast Norway
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of optically induced refractive errors on saccade latency and fixation stability.Sixteen healthy, young adults (two males), with normal visual acuity and normal accommodation, performed a saccade task and a fixation task wearing a range of contact lenses (from +3.00 to -5.00 diopters) which induced visual blur and accommodation. The results showed that mean (± standard error) saccade latency was 207 (± 5) milliseconds (ms) and...

Eye movements and attention in visual feature search with graded target-distractor-similarity

Heße, Uta; Department Of Psychology, Martin-Luther-University Halle, Germany, Wienrich, Carolin; Department Of Psychology, Martin-Luther-University Halle, Germany & Müller-Plath, Gisela; Department Of Psychology, Martin-Luther-University Halle, Germany
We conducted a visual feature search experiment in which we varied the target-distractor-similarity in four steps, the number of items (4, 6, and 8), and the presence of the target. In addition to classical search parameters like error rate and reaction time (RT), we analyzed saccade amplitudes, fixation durations, and the portion of reinspections (recurred fixation on an item with at least one different item fixated in between) and refixations (recurred fixation on an item...

Eye typing in application: A comparison of two systems with ALS patients

Pannasch, Sebastian; Applied Cognitive Research/Psychology III, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Velichkovsky, Boris M.; Applied Cognitive Research/Psychology III, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Malischke, Susann; Applied Cognitive Research/Psychology III, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Helmert, Jens R.; Applied Cognitive Research/Psychology III, Technische Universitaet Dresden & Storch, Alexander; Department Of Neurology, Technische Universitaet Dresden
A variety of eye typing systems has been developed during the last decades. Such systems can provide support for people who lost the ability to communicate, e.g. patients suffering from motor neuron diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In the current retrospective analysis, two eye typing applications were tested (EyeGaze, GazeTalk) by ALS patients (N = 4) in order to analyze objective performance measures and subjective ratings. An advantage of the EyeGaze system was...

Different types of sounds influence gaze differently in videos

Granjon, Lionel; LPP, CNRS UMR 8158, Paris Descartes University, France, Song, Guanghan; GIPSA-Lab, CNRS UMR 5216, Grenoble University, France & Pellerin, Denis; GIPSA-Lab, CNRS UMR 5216, Grenoble University, France
This paper presents an analysis of the effect of different types of sounds on visual gaze when a person is looking freely at videos, which would be helpful to predict eye position. In order to test the effect of sound, an audio-visual experiment was designed with two groups of participants, with audio-visual (AV) and visual (V) conditions. By using statistical tools, we analyzed the difference between eye position of participants with AV and V conditions....

The effect of fixational eye movements on fixation identification with a dispersion-based fixation detection algorithm

Blignaut, Pieter; University Of The Free State & Beelders, Tanya; University Of The Free State
Gaze data of 31 participants of a memory recall experiment was analyzed and the I-DT dispersion based algorithm of Salvucci and Goldberg (2000) was used to identify fixations. It was found that individuals differ considerably with regard to the stability of eye gaze and that fixational eye movements affect the accuracy of fixation identification and the optimum dispersion threshold. It was also found that fixation radius and the distance between the points in a fixation...

Combining EEG and Eye Tracking: Using Fixation-Locked Potentials in Visual Search

Johnston, Matthew; Design Interactive, Inc., Carpenter, Angela; Design Interactive, Inc., Flint, Jesse; Design Interactive, Inc., Tomasetti, David; Design Interactive, Inc., Wang, Xuezhong; Design Interactive, Inc., Winslow, Brent; Design Interactive, Inc. & Hale, Kelly; Design Interactive, Inc.
Visual search is a complex task that involves many neural pathways to identify relevant areas of interest within a scene. Humans remain a critical component in visual search tasks, as they can effectively perceive anomalies within complex scenes. However, this task can be challenging, particularly under time pressure. In order to improve visual search training and performance, an objective, process-based measure is needed. Eye tracking technology can be used to drive real-time parsing of EEG...

Did Javal measure eye movements during reading?

Wade, Nicholas J.; University Of Dundee & Tatler, Benjamin W.; University Of Dundee
Louis-Émile Javal is widely credited as the first person to record eye movements in read-ing. This is so despite the fact that Javal himself never made that claim but it is perpetu-ated in contemporary text books, scientific articles and on the internet. Javal did coin the term ‘saccades’ in the context of eye movements during reading but he did not measure them. In this article we suggest that a misreading of Huey’s (1908) book on...

Gaze Tracking in Semi-Autonomous Grasping

Castellini, Claudio; LIRA-Lab, University Of Genova, Italy
In critical human/robotic interactions such as, e.g., teleoperation by a disabled master or with insufficient bandwidth, it is highly desirable to have semi-autonomous robotic artifacts interact with a human being. Semi-autonomous grasping, for instance, consists of having a smart slave able to guess the master’s intentions and initiating a grasping sequence whenever the master wants to grasp an object in the slave’s workspace. In this paper we investigate the possibility of building such an intelligent...

A statistical mixture method to reveal bottom-up and top-down factors guiding the eye-movements

Dubois, Michel; LPS, Grenoble II University, Guérin-Dugué, Anne; Gipsa-Lab, INPG, Grenoble, Marendaz, Christian; LPNC, Grenoble II University, Couronné, Thomas; Gipsa-Lab, INPG, Grenoble, France & Faye, Pauline; PSA Peugeot-Citroen, Paris
When people gaze at real scenes, their visual attention is driven both by a set of bottom-up processes coming from the signal properties of the scene and also from top-down effects such as the task, the affective state, prior knowledge, or the semantic context. The context of this study is an assessment of manufactured objects (here car cab interior). From this dedicated context, this work describes a set of methods to analyze the eye-movements during...

Editorial

Walker, Robin; Royal Holloway, University Of London & Liversedge, Simon P.; University Of Southampton
Editorial to the Special Issue in Honour of John M. Findlay

Visual vs. Spatial Contributions to Microsaccades and Visual-Spatial Working Memory

Bridgeman, Bruce; Department Of Psychology, University Of California, Santa Cruz, USA & Gaunt, Joshua T.; Department Of Psychology, University Of California, Santa Cruz, USA
Microsaccade rates and directions were monitored while observers performed a visual working memory task at varying retinal eccentricities. We show that microsaccades generate no interference in a working memory task, indicating that spatial working memory is at least partially insulated from oculomotor activity. Intervening tasks during the memory interval affected microsaccade patterns; microsaccade frequency was consistently higher during concurrent spatial tapping (no visual component) than during exposure to dynamic visual noise (no task). Average microsaccade...

Semantic Override of Low-level Features in Image Viewing – Both Initially and Overall

Nyström, Marcus; Lund University & Holmqvist, Kenneth; Lund University
Guidance of eye-movements in image viewing is believed to be controlled by stimulus driven factors as well as viewer dependent higher level factors such as task and memory. It is currently debated what proportions these factors contribute to gaze guidance, and also how they vary over time after image onset. Overall, the unanimity regarding these issues is surprisingly low and there are results supporting both types of factors as being dominant in eye-movement control under...

Rapid learning of pursuit target motion trajectories revealed by responses to randomized transient sinusoids

Barnes, Graham R.; University Of Manchester
When humans pursue sinusoidal target motion they rapidly learn to track with minimal phase error despite inherent visuo-motor processing delays; prior evidence suggests that prediction might even occur within the first cycle. Here, this has been examined by evoking reactive responses to single cycle stimuli having randomised periodicity and peak velocity. Periodicity was varied within three specific ranges with differing average periodicity. Initial responses in the first half-cycle were remarkably similar within periodicity ranges, irrespective...

Measuring Attention in Second Language Reading Using Eye-tracking: The Case of the Noticing Hypothesis

Dolgunsöz, Emrah; Bayburt University
Taking Schmidt’s (1990) noticing hypothesis as point of departure this study aims to measure attention and learning gains during second language (L2) reading by making use of eye-tracking methodology. Relying on Robinson’s hierarchical memory model (1995, 2003), it is hypothesized that vocabulary learning and attention are closely associated. After a vocabulary pre-test, seventy-five learners of English read a standard text individually while their eye movements were being recorded followed by an immediate post-test. The results...

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