225 Works

Parafoveal-on-foveal effects are not an artifact of mislocated saccades

Kennedy, Allan; School Of Psychology, University Of Dundee
Oculomotor error leads to a proportion of saccades during reading missing the intended target. In this paper two kinds of mislocation are identified: either a word is erroneously refixated, or a word that was about to skipped is erroneously fixated. In both cases recorded fixation duration could be influenced by the fact that the overt fixation reflects neither the reader’s intentions, not the current locus of attention. It has been argued that mislocations of this...

Performance of a simple remote video-based eye tracker with GPU acceleration

Jean-Pierre Du Plessis & Blignaut, Pieter; Department Of Computer Science And Informatics, University Of The Free State, South Africa
Eye tracking is a well-established tool that is often utilised in research. There are currently many different types of eye trackers available, but they are either expensive, or provide a relatively low sampling frequency. The eye tracker presented in this paper was developed in an effort to address the lack of low-cost high-speed eye trackers. It utilises the Graphical Processing Unit (GPU) in an attempt to parallelise aspects of the process to localize feature points...

Visual search without central vision – no single pseudofovea location is best

Lingnau, Angelika; University Of Trento, Italy, Albrecht, Thorsten; Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, Germany, Vorberg, Dirk; Westfälische Wilhems-Universität Münster, Germany & Schwarzbach, Jens; University Of Trento, Italy
We typically fixate targets such that they are projected onto the fovea for best spatial resolution. Macular degeneration patients often develop fixation strategies such that targets are projected to an intact eccentric part of the retina, called pseudofovea. A longstanding debate concerns which pseudofovea-location is optimal for non-foveal vision. We examined how pseudofovea position and eccentricity affect performance in visual search, when vision is restricted to an off-foveal retinal region by a gaze-contingent display that...

Detecting expert’s eye using a multiple-kernel Relevance Vector Machine

Boccignone, Giuseppe; Dip. Informatica, Universit`A Di Milano, Italy, De’Sperati, Claudio; LAPCO-Universit`A Vita-Salute San Raffaele, Italy, Ferraro, Mario; Dip. Fisica, Universit`A Di Torino, Italy, Crespi, Sofia; LAPCO-Universit`A Vita-Salute San Raffaele, & CERMAC, Ospedale San Raffaele, Italy & Robino, Carlo; LAPCO-Universit`A Vita-Salute San Raffaele, Italy
Decoding mental states from the pattern of neural activity or overt behavior is an intensely pursued goal. Here we applied machine learning to detect expertise from the oculomotor behavior of novice and expert billiard players during free viewing of a filmed billiard match with no specific task, and in a dynamic trajectory prediction task involving ad-hoc, occluded billiard shots. We have adopted a ground framework for feature space fusion and a Bayesian sparse classifier, namely,...

Accuracy and precision of fixation locations recorded with the low-cost Eye Tribe tracker in different experimental set-ups

Dupont, Lien; Ghent University, Lapon, Lieselot; Ghent University, Ooms, Kristien; Ghent University & Popelka, Stanislav; Palacký University Olomouc
This article compares the accuracy and precision of the low-cost Eye Tribe tracker and a well-established comparable eye tracker: SMI RED 250. Participants were instructed to fixate on predefined point locations on a screen. The accuracy is measured by the distance between the recorded fixation locations and the actual location. Precision is represented by the standard deviation of these measurements. Furthermore, the temporal precision of both eye tracking devices (sampling rate) is evaluated as well....

Telling people where to look in a soccer-based decision task: A nomothetic approach

Kuhn, Gustav; Goldsmiths, London, United Kingdom, Maton, Claire; Brunel University, United Kingdom & Bishop, Daniel; Brunel University, United Kingdom
Research has shown that identifiable visual search patterns characterize skilled performance of anticipation and decision-making tasks in sport. However, to date, the use of experts’ gaze patterns to entrain novices’ performance has been confined to aiming activities. Accordingly, in a first experiment, 40 participants of varying soccer experience viewed static images of oncoming soccer players and attempted to predict the direction in which those players were about to move. Multiple regression analyses showed that the...

Social context modulates basic properties of oculomotor control

Strukelj, Alexander; Centre For Languages And Literature, Lund University, Lund, Sweden, Nyström, Marcus; Lund University Humanities Laboratory, Lund, Sweden & Foulsham, Tom; Department Of Psychology, University Of Essex, Colchester, UK
Experiments performed in a lab are often considered generalizable over both people and social settings. The problems with generalizing over different groups of people are well known, but it is only recently that changes in behavior depending on the social setting have been examined. Large changes in behavior can be seen in trivial cognitive tasks, depending on whether the participant is alone or if other people are present. However, there are very few studies which...

Comparing Experts and Novices on Scaffolded Data Visualizations using Eye-tracking

Stofer, Kathryn; University Of Florida & Che, Xuan; National Institutes Of Health
Spatially-based scientific data visualizations are becoming widely available, yet they are often not optimized for novice audiences. This study follows after an investigation of ex-pert and novice meaning-making from scaffolded data visualizations using clinical inter-views. Using eye-tracking and concurrent interviewing, we examined quantitative fixation and AOI data and qualitative scan path data for two expertise groups (N = 20) on five versions of scaffolded global ocean data visualizations. We found influences of expertise, scaffolding, and...

ScanGraph: A Novel Scanpath Comparison Method Using Visualisation of Graph Cliques

Popelka, Stanislav; Department Of Geoinformatics Palacký University Olomouc & Dolezalova, Jitka; Department Of Geoinformatics Palacký University Olomouc
The article describes a new tool for analyses of eye-movement data. Many different approaches to scanpath comparison exist. One of the most frequently used approaches is String Edit Distance, where the gaze trajectories are replaced by the sequences of visited Areas of Interest. In cartographic literature, the most commonly used software for scanpath comparison is eyePatterns. During the analysis of eyePatterns functionality, we have found that tree-graph visualization of its results is not reliable. Thus,...

Gaze interaction enhances problem solving: Effects of dwell-time based, gaze-augmented, and mouse interaction on problem-solving strategies and user experience

Bednarik, Roman; University Of Joensuu, Finland, Gowases, Tersia; University Of Joensuu, Finland & Tukiainen, Markku; University Of Joensuu, Finland
It is still unknown whether the very application of gaze for interaction has effects on cognitive strategies users employ and how these effects materialize. We conducted a between-subject experiment in which thirty-six participants interacted with a computerized problem-solving game using one of three interaction modalities: dwell-time, gaze-augmented interaction, and the conventional mouse. We observed how using each of the modalities affected performance, problem solving strategies, and user experience. Users with gaze-augmented interaction outperformed the other...

A probabilistic real-time algorithm for detecting blinks, saccades, and fixations from EOG data

Lukander, Kristian; Finnish Institute Of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Pettersson, Kati; Finnish Institute Of Occupational Health, Helsinki & Toivanen, Miika; Finnish Institute Of Occupational Health, Helsinki
We present a computationally light real-time algorithm which automatically detects blinks, saccades, and fixations from electro-oculography (EOG) data and calculates their temporal parameters. The method is probabilistic which allows to consider the uncertainties in the detected events. The method is real-time in the sense that it processes the data sample-by-sample, without a need to process the whole data as a batch. Prior to the actual measurements, a short, unsupervised training period is required. The parameters...

Effects of aging on regular and express latencies of vergence

Yang, Qing; Iris Laboratory, FRE 3154, CNRS, Kapoula, Zoi; Iris Laboratory, FRE 3154, CNRS & Le, Thanh-Thuan; Iris Laboratory, FRE 3154, CNRS
Vergence eye movements are frequent in every day life and important for depth perception. Yet, studies of vergence in elderly are rare. We examined convergence and divergence between targets placed along median line at 20, 40 or 150cm. Thirteen elderly (70±11years) and ten young (25±3years) adults participated in the study. The gap paradigm (i.e., the fixed stimulus is extinguished prior to target onset) and the overlap paradigm (the fixed stimulus remains illuminated after target onset)...

The effect of a temporary absence of target velocity information on visual tracking

Bedell, Harold E.; University Of Houston College Of Optometry, Kasthurirangan, Sanjeev; Abbott Medical Optics, Cisarik, Patricia M.; Southern College Of Optometry, Stevenson, Scott B.; University Of Houston College Of Optometry, Raghunandan, Avesh; Ferris State University, Michigan & Jr., Frank E. Visco; University Of Houston College Of Optometry
Experiments with the Rashbass ‘step-ramp’ paradigm have revealed that the initial catchup saccade that occurs near pursuit onset uses target velocity as well as position information in its programming. Information about both position and motion also influences smooth pursuit. To investigate the timing of velocity sampling near the initiation of saccades and smooth pursuit, we analyzed the eye movements made in nine ‘step-ramp’ conditions, produced by combining –2, 0 and +2 deg steps with –8,...

The global effect: what determines where the eyes land?

Stigchel, Stefan Van Der; Helmholtz Institute, Utrecht University & Nijboer, Tanja C.W.; Helmholtz Institute, Utrecht University
In certain situations, the endpoint of an eye movement is not positioned on the centre of a target element, but deviates in the direction of another element. This phenomenon has been termed 'the global effect' and has proven to constitute a valuable measure of various processes that control and influence our oculomotor behavior. The goal of the current review is to provide insight in the factors that determine where the eyes land. We will focus...


Velichkovsky, Boris M.; Applied Cognitive Research / Institute Of Psychology III, Technische Universität Dresden, Helmert, Jens R.; Applied Cognitive Research / Institute Of Psychology III, Technische Universität Dresden & Pannasch, Sebastian; Applied Cognitive Research / Institute Of Psychology III, Technische Universität Dresden
Editorial to the Special Issue on Eye tracking and Usability Research

Quick Models for Saccade Amplitude Prediction

Ryu, Young Sam; Ingram School Of Engineering Texas State University-San Marcos, Koh, Do H.; Department Of Computer Science Texas State University-San Marcos & Komogortsev, Oleg V.; Department Of Computer Science Texas State University-San Marcos
This paper presents a new saccade amplitude prediction model. The model is based on a Kalman filter and regression analysis. The aim of the model is to predict a saccade’s am-plitude extremely quickly, i.e., within two eye position samples at the onset of a saccade. Specifically, the paper explores saccade amplitude prediction considering one or two sam-ples at the onset of a saccade. The models’ prediction performance was tested with 35 subjects. The amplitude accuracy...

Object Frequency and Predictability Effects on Eye Fixation Durations in Real-World Scene Viewing

Hwang, Alex D.; University Of Massachusetts At Boston, Wang, Hsueh-Cheng; University Of Massachusetts At Boston & Pomplun, Marc; University Of Massachusetts At Boston
During text reading, the durations of eye fixations decrease with greater frequency and predictability of the currently fixated word (Rayner, 1998; 2009). However, it has not been tested whether those results also apply to scene viewing. We computed object frequency and predictability from both linguistic and visual scene analysis (LabelMe, Russell et al., 2008), and Latent Semantic Analysis (Landauer et al., 1998) was applied to estimate predictability. In a scene-viewing experiment, we found that, for...

Vergence tracking: a tool to assess oculomotor performance in stereoscopic displays

Roumes, Corinne; Institut De Recherche Biomédicale Des Armées, Brétigny-Sur-Orge, France, Neveu, Pascaline; Institut De Recherche Biomédicale Des Armées, Brétigny-Sur-Orge, France, Fuchs, Philippe; École Des Mines ParisTech, Paris, France, Priot, Anne-Emmanuelle; Institut De Recherche Biomédicale Des Armées, Brétigny-Sur-Orge, France & Philippe, Matthieu; Institut De Recherche Biomédicale Des Armées, Brétigny-Sur-Orge, France
Oculomotor conflict induced between the accommodative and vergence components in stereoscopic displays represents an unnatural viewing condition. There is now some evidence that stereoscopic viewing may induce discomfort and changes in oculomotor parameters. The present study sought to measure oculomotor performance during stereoscopic viewing. Using a 3D stereo setup and an eye-tracker, vergence responses were measured during 20-min exposure to a virtual visual target oscillating in depth, which participants had to track. The results showed...

Pupil size affects measures of eye position in video eye tracking: implications for recording vergence accuracy

Jaschinski, Wolfgang; Leibniz Research Centre Of Working Environment And Human Factors
Video eye trackers rely on the position of the pupil centre. However, the pupil centre can shift when the pupil size changes. This pupillary artifact is investigated for binocular vergence accuracy (i.e. fixation disparity) in near vision where the pupil is smaller in the binocular test phase than in the monocular calibration. A regression between recordings of pupil size and fixation disparity allows correcting the pupillary artefact. This corrected fixation disparity appeared to be favourable...

Comparing graphs and text: Effects of complexity and task

Kim, Sunjung; University Of Central Arkansas & Lombardino, Linda J.; University Of Florida
Graphs are commonly believed to facilitate users’ compre-hension. We explored the effect of graphs on comprehension compared to text, manipulating content complexity (single bar vs. double bar graphs) and question type (point-locating vs. comparison questions). A total 78 college students viewed graph and text stimuli and answered comprehension questions while their eye movements were recorded. The results indicate that students do not always process graphs more efficiently than text conveying the same information. Students processed...

Image preference estimation with a data-driven approach: A comparative study between gaze and image features

Ozaki, Yasunori; The University Of Tokyo, Japan, Sugano, Yusuke; The University Of Tokyo, Japan, Kasai, Hiroshi; The University Of Tokyo, Japan, Ogaki, Keisuke; The University Of Tokyo, Japan & Sato, Yoichi; The University Of Tokyo, Japan
Understanding how humans subjectively look at and evaluate images is an important task for various applications in the field of multimedia interaction. While it has been repeatedly pointed out that eye movements can be used to infer the internal states of humans, not many successes have been reported concerning image understanding. We investigate the possibility of image preference estimation based on a person’s eye movements in a supervised manner in this paper. A dataset of...

Idiosyncratic Feature-Based Gaze Mapping

Blignaut, Pieter; Department Of Computer Science And Informatics, University Of The Free State, South Africa
It is argued that polynomial expressions that are normally used for remote, video-based, low cost eye tracking systems, are not always ideal to accommodate individual differences in eye cleft, position of the eye in the socket, corneal bulge, astigmatism, etc. A procedure to identify a set of polynomial expressions that will provide the best possible accuracy for a specific individual is proposed. It is also proposed that regression coefficients are recalculated in real-time, based on...

The effect of age on gaze behavior in drivers and pedestrians – a review

Gal Ziv & Ronnie Lidor
Gaze behavior can play an important role in the safety of both older drivers and older pedestrians, and therefore evidence-based knowledge related to gaze behavior in the older population should be communicated to those professionals who regularly work with this group. A review of 25 studies examining the effect of age on gaze behavior in drivers and pedestrians was conducted. A number of differences in gaze behavior in older and younger drivers and pedestrians are...

Evidence Supporting Open-Loop Control During Early Vergence

Semmlow, John; Rutgers University, Granger-Donetti, Bérangère; Essilor International & Alvarez, Tara; New Jersey Institute Of Technology
Disparity vergence eye movements were analyzed to determine if the early component of this response operates under open-loop, or preprogrammed, control. The analysis compares ratios of peak velocity to response amplitude (i.e., main sequence ratios) for the isolated early component and for the entire disparity vergence response. The stimuli were limited a 4 deg step changes in vergence so that any differences in movement dynamics (i.e., peak velocities) were due only to internal noise. Nine...

Culture shapes how we look: Comparison between Chinese and African university students

Duan, Zhaohui; Central China Normal University, Wang, Fuxing; Central China Normal University & Hong, Jianzhong; Central China Normal University
Previous cross-cultural studies find that cultures can shape how we look during scene perception, but don’t mention its condition and limited to the East and West. This study recruited Chinese and African students to testify the cultural effects on two phases. In free-viewing phase: Africans fixated more on the focal objects than Chinese, while Chinese payed more attention to the backgrounds than Africans especially on the first fourth and fifth fixations. In recognition phase, there...

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