225 Works

Comparing Experts and Novices on Scaffolded Data Visualizations using Eye-tracking

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Spatially-based scientific data visualizations are becoming widely available, yet they are often not optimized for novice audiences. This study follows after an investigation of ex-pert and novice meaning-making from scaffolded data visualizations using clinical inter-views. Using eye-tracking and concurrent interviewing, we examined quantitative fixation and AOI data and qualitative scan path data for two expertise groups (N = 20) on five versions of scaffolded global ocean data visualizations. We found influences of expertise, scaffolding, and...

Fixation Region Overlap: A quantitative method for the analysis of fixational eye movement patterns

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This article presents a new method for the quantitative analyses of fixation patterns in eye tracking data. The Fixation Region Overlap Analysis (FROA) uses thresholded spatial distributions of fixation frequency or duration to determine regions-of-interest (ROIs). The locations of these ROIs are contrasted with fixation regions of other empirically-derived, or modelled, data patterns by comparing region pixel overlap. A Monte Carlo procedure is used to assess the statistical significance of fixation region overlap based on...

Dummy eye measurements of microsaccades: Testing the influence of system noise and head movements on microsaccade detection in a popular video-based eye tracker

Whereas early studies of microsaccades have predominantly relied on custom-built eye trackers and manual tagging of microsaccades, more recent work tends to use video-based eye tracking and automated algorithms for microsaccade detection. While data from these newer studies suggest that microsaccades can be reliably detected with video-based systems, this has not been systematically evaluated. I here present a method and data examining microsaccade detection in an often used video-based system (the Eyelink II system) and...

Error Correction in Vergence Eye Movements: Evidence Supporting Hering’s Law

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In pure symmetrical vergence eye movements, a fusion initiating component quickly brings the eyes close to the desired position. A small error usually remains after this response which must be corrected to attain the small final vergence error (i.e., fixation disparity). Error correction will usually involve both version and version movements so possible mechanisms include: small saccades, smooth pursuit, symmetrical vergence, or some combination. Alternatively, an asymmetrical vergence or uniocular slow eye movement could be...

A statistical mixture method to reveal bottom-up and top-down factors guiding the eye-movements

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When people gaze at real scenes, their visual attention is driven both by a set of bottom-up processes coming from the signal properties of the scene and also from top-down effects such as the task, the affective state, prior knowledge, or the semantic context. The context of this study is an assessment of manufactured objects (here car cab interior). From this dedicated context, this work describes a set of methods to analyze the eye-movements during...

The influence of emotional picture thematic content on exploratory eye movements

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In picture viewing, emotional vs. neutral stimuli could play a different role in eye movement parameters and in the spatial progression of the scanpath. The aim of this paper is to investigate exploratory behaviour of normal subjects during the vision of emotional vs. non-emotional stimuli, by considering to what extent the thematic content (animate vs. inanimate) is likely to influence the observer’s eye movements. Sixty-five subjects’ eye movement patterns were measured while looking to emotional...

Conditional co-occurrence probability acts like frequency in predicting fixation durations

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The predictability of an upcoming word has been found to be a useful predictor in eye movement research, but is expensive to collect and subjective in nature. It would be desirable to have other predictors that are easier to collect and objective in nature if these predictors were capable of capturing the information stored in predictability. This paper contributes to this discussion by testing a possible predictor: conditional co-occurrence probability. This measure is a simple...

Correction of Saccade-Induced Midline Errors in Responses to Pure Disparity Vergence Stimuli.

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Purely symmetrical vergence stimuli aligned along the midline (cyclopean axis) require only a pure vergence response. Yet, in most responses saccades are observed and these saccades must either produce an error in the desired midline response or correct an error produced by asymmetry in the vergence response. A previous study (Semmlow, et al. 2008) has shown that the first saccade to appear in a response to a pure vergence stimulus usually increased the deviation from...

Eye-tracking Deaf and hearing viewing of sign language interpreted news broadcasts

In this study, the viewing habits of deaf and hearing adults are investigated using eye tracking while they watched interpreted news broadcasts. The study shows that deaf viewers primarily focus on the interpreter and secondarily access picture material, but make very little use of subtitles or lip-reading. In contrast, hearing viewers prioritise pictorial content but also spend significant proportions of time examining subtitles, lip-reading and even watching the interpreter. Viewing patterns are dependent on pictorial...

The effect of a temporary absence of target velocity information on visual tracking

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Experiments with the Rashbass ‘step-ramp’ paradigm have revealed that the initial catchup saccade that occurs near pursuit onset uses target velocity as well as position information in its programming. Information about both position and motion also influences smooth pursuit. To investigate the timing of velocity sampling near the initiation of saccades and smooth pursuit, we analyzed the eye movements made in nine ‘step-ramp’ conditions, produced by combining –2, 0 and +2 deg steps with –8,...

Heterophoria: Vergence stability and visual acuity after asymmetric saccades

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Many patients with heterophoria report on symptoms related to impaired vision. To investigate whether these symptoms are provoked by saccades this study examines whether in heterophoria effects on intrasaccadic and postsaccadic vergence movements are linked to effects on visual performance. Visual acuity was measured in 35 healthy subjects during fixation and immediately after asymmetric diverging saccades. Binocular position traces were recorded by video-oculography. Subjects with exophoria showed larger intrasaccadic divergence amplitudes, which in turn led...

“Trait” and “state” aspects of fixation disparity during reading

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In our study, 14 subjects read 60 sentences from the Potsdam Sentence Corpus twice (viewing distance: 60 cm), while eye movements were measured with the EyeLink II. We analyzed fixation disparities for complete sentence replications (N=388). After subtracting the average fixation disparity of each sentence from each observation (which gave the “state” fixation disparity), 99% of all remaining fixation disparities were aligned, i.e. smaller than one character width (20 min arc) – depending mostly on...

Influences of dwell time and cursor control on the performance in gaze driven typing

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In gaze controlled computer interfaces the dwell time is often used as selection criterion. But this solution comes along with several problems, especially in the temporal domain: Eye movement studies on scene perception could demonstrate that fixations of different durations serve different purposes and should therefore be differentiated. The use of dwell time for selection implies the need to distinguish intentional selections from merely per-ceptual processes, described as the Midas touch problem. Moreover, the feedback...

Task-relevant spatialized auditory cues enhance attention orientation and peripheral target detection in natural scenes

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Concurrent auditory stimuli have been shown to enhance detection of abstract visual targets in experimental setups with little ecological validity. We presented 11 participants, wearing an eye-tracking device, with a visual detection task in an immersive audiovisual environment replicating a real-world environment. The participants were to fixate on a visual target and to press a key when they were confident of having detected the target. The visual world was accompanied by a task-relevant or task-irrelevant...

Examining the visual screening patterns of emotional facial expressions with gender, age and lateralization

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The main objective of the study is to investigate the effects of age of model, gender of observer, and lateralization on visual screening patterns while looking at the emotional facial expressions. Data were collected through eye tracking methodology. The areas of interests were set to include eyes, nose and mouth. The selected eye metrics were first fixation duration, fixation duration and fixation count. Those eye tracking metrics were recorded for different emotional expressions (sad, happy,...

Semantic Override of Low-level Features in Image Viewing – Both Initially and Overall

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Guidance of eye-movements in image viewing is believed to be controlled by stimulus driven factors as well as viewer dependent higher level factors such as task and memory. It is currently debated what proportions these factors contribute to gaze guidance, and also how they vary over time after image onset. Overall, the unanimity regarding these issues is surprisingly low and there are results supporting both types of factors as being dominant in eye-movement control under...

Visual Fixation Durations and Saccade Amplitudes: Shifting Relationship in a Variety of Conditions

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Is there any relationship between visual fixation durations and saccade amplitudes in free exploration of pictures and scenes? In four experiments with naturalistic stimuli, we compared eye movements during early and late phases of scene perception. Influences of repeated presentation of similar stimuli (Experiment 1), object density (Experiment 2), emotional stimuli (Experiment 3) and mood induction (Experiment 4) were examined. The results demonstrate a systematic increase in the durations of fixations and a decrease for...

Eye-tracking multi-word units: some methodological questions

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Eye-tracking in linguistics has focused mainly on reading at the level of the word or sentence. In this paper we discuss how the phenomenon of formulaic language might best be examined using this methodology. Formulaic language is fundamentally multi-word in nature, therefore an approach to eye-tracking that considers the “word” as the basic unit of analysis may require re-evaluation. We review the existing literature on single word and sentence processing, and also those studies that...

Abstracts of the 17th European Conference on Eye Movements 2013

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This document contains all abstracts of the 17th European Conference on Eye Movements, August 11-16 2013 in Lund, Sweden ECEM 2013 has been the 17th European Conference on Eye Movements, with the original aims ‘to exchange information on current research, equipment and software’ remaining at the forefront. ECEM is transdisciplinary, promoting new approaches, co-operation between research fields and communication between researchers. It has grown from it’s origins as a small, specialist conference to a large...

Vergence tracking: a tool to assess oculomotor performance in stereoscopic displays

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Oculomotor conflict induced between the accommodative and vergence components in stereoscopic displays represents an unnatural viewing condition. There is now some evidence that stereoscopic viewing may induce discomfort and changes in oculomotor parameters. The present study sought to measure oculomotor performance during stereoscopic viewing. Using a 3D stereo setup and an eye-tracker, vergence responses were measured during 20-min exposure to a virtual visual target oscillating in depth, which participants had to track. The results showed...

Anticipation of physical causality guides eye movements

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Causality is a unique feature of human perception. We present here a behavioral investigation of the influence of physical causality during visual pursuit of object collisions. Pursuit and saccadic eye movements of human subjects were recorded during ocular pursuit of two concurrently launched targets, one that moved according to the laws of Newtonian mechanics (the causal target) and the other one that moved in a physically implausible direction (the non-causal target). We found that anticipation...

Do Graph Readers Prefer the Graph Type Most Suited to a Given Task? Insights from Eye Tracking

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Research on graph comprehension suggests that point differences are easier to read in bar graphs, while trends are easier to read in line graphs. But are graph readers able to detect and use the most suited graph type for a given task? In this study, we applied a dual repre-sentation paradigm and eye tracking methodology to determine graph readers’ preferential processing of bar and line graphs while solving both point difference and trend tasks. Data...

Investigating the Spatial Pattern of Older Drivers’ Eye Fixation Behaviour and Associations with Their Visual Capacity

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Visual capacity generally declines as people age, yet its impact on visual search patterns along different road sections of actual driving still remains undocumented. In this on-road driving study, we simultaneously recorded 30 older drivers’ eye movement and precise vehicle movement trajectories. The vehicle positions were linked to every eye fixation of individual drivers so that we know the locations of a driver's gaze origin in geospatial coordinates. Spatial distribution pattern of drivers’ eye fixations...

The Central Bias in Day-to-Day Viewing

Frouke Hermens, Timothy L Hodgson & Flora Ioannidou
Eye tracking studies have suggested that, when viewing images centrally presented on a computer screen, observers tend to fixate the middle of the image. This so-called `central bias' was later also observed in mobile eye tracking during outdoors navigation, where observers were found to fixate the middle of the head-centered video image. It is unclear, however, whether the extension of the central bias to mobile eye tracking in outdoors navigation may have been due to...

Effects of conversation content on viewing dyadic conversations

, Piia Astikainen, Otto Loberg, Jari K Hietanen & Lauri Nummenmaa
People typically follow conversations closely with their gaze. We asked whether this viewing is influenced by what is actually said in the conversation and by the viewer’s psychological condition. We recorded the eye movements of healthy (N = 16) and depressed (N = 25) participants while they were viewing video clips. Each video showed two people, each speaking one line of dialogue about socio-emotionally important (i.e., personal) or unimportant topics (matter-of-fact). Between the spoken lines,...

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