225 Works

Human-Robot Interaction Based on Gaze Gestures for the Drone Teleoperation

Yu, Mingxin; Beijing Institute Of Technology, China, And Northeastern University, USA, Schmidt, David; Northeastern University, USA, Wang, Xiangzhou; Beijing Institute Of Technology, China, Lin, Yingzi; Northeastern University, USA & Wang, Yu; Beijing Institute Of Technology, China
Teleoperation has been widely used to perform tasks in dangerous and unreachable environments by replacing humans with controlled agents. The idea of human-robot interaction (HRI) is very important in teleoperation. Conventional HRI input devices include keyboard, mouse and joystick, etc. However, they are not suitable for handicapped users or people with disabilities. These devices also increase the mental workload of normal users due to simultaneous operation of multiple HRI input devices by hand. Hence, HRI...

Lexical and post-lexical complexity effects on eye movements in reading

Warren, Tessa; University Of Pittsburgh, Patson, Nikole D.; University Of Pittsburgh & Reichle, Erik D.; University Of Pittsburgh
The current study investigated how a post-lexical complexity manipulation followed by a lexical complexity manipulation affects eye movements during reading. Both manipulations caused disruption in all measures on the manipulated words, but the patterns of spillover differed. Critically, the effects of the two kinds of manipulations did not interact, and there was no evidence that post-lexical processing difficulty delayed lexical processing on the next word (c.f. Henderson & Ferreira, 1990). This suggests that post-lexical processing...

Microsaccades and Exploratory Saccades in a Naturalistic Environment

Bridgeman, Bruce; University Of California, Santa Cruz, Pedrotti, Marco; Università Di Torino & Benedetto, Simone; Università Di Torino
Microsaccades, small saccadic eye movements made during fixation, might accompany shifts of visual attention, serve to refresh the retinal image, or have some other function. We tested the relative importance of these functions by recording exploratory saccades and microsaccades with a free head during a lane-change task in a simulated driving environment, accompanied by a simultaneous visual search task in which drivers searched for a target among similar distractors on a panel to the driver's...

A Unifying Model-Based Hypothesis for the Diverse Waveforms of Infantile Nystagmus Syndrome

Wang, Zhong I.; Daroff-Dell'Osso Ocular Motility Laboratory, Cleveland, OH, USA & Dell'Osso, Louis F.; Daroff-Dell'Osso Ocular Motility Laboratory, Cleveland, OH, USA
We expanded the original behavioral Ocular Motor System (OMS) model for Infantile Nystagmus Syndrome (INS) by incorporating common types of jerk waveforms within a unifying mechanism. Alexander’s law relationships were used to produce desired INS null positions and sharpness. At various gaze angles, these relationships influenced the IN slow-phase amplitudes differently, thereby mimicking the gaze-angle effects of INS patients. Transitions from pseudopendular with foveating saccades to jerk waveforms required replacing braking saccades with foveating fast...

Optically induced refractive errors reduces fixation stability but saccade latency remains stable

Langaas, Trine; University College Of Southeast Norway & Vikesdal, Gro Horgen; University College Of Southeast Norway
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of optically induced refractive errors on saccade latency and fixation stability.Sixteen healthy, young adults (two males), with normal visual acuity and normal accommodation, performed a saccade task and a fixation task wearing a range of contact lenses (from +3.00 to -5.00 diopters) which induced visual blur and accommodation. The results showed that mean (± standard error) saccade latency was 207 (± 5) milliseconds (ms) and...

Microsaccade characterization using the continuous wavelet transform and principal component analysis

Kliegl, Reinhold; University Of Potsdam, Bettenbühl, Mario; University Of Potsdam, Paladini, Claudia; University Of Potsdam, Holschneider, Matthias; University Of Potsdam, Engbert, Ralf; University Of Potsdam & Mergenthaler, Konstantin; University Of Potsdam
During visual fixation on a target, humans perform miniature (or fixational) eye movements consisting of three components, i.e., tremor, drift, and microsaccades. Microsaccades are high velocity components with small amplitudes within fixational eye movements. However, microsaccade shapes and statistical properties vary between individual observers. Here we show that microsaccades can be formally represented with two significant shapes which we identfied using the mathematical definition of singularities for the detection of the former in real data...

Schedule of the 13th European Conference on Eye Movements 2005

Groner, Marina; University Of Bern, Müri, R.; University Of Bern, Raess, Simon; University Of Bern, P., P; Suri, Koga, Kazuo; Nagoya University & Groner, Rudolf; University Of Bern
This document contains the schedule of the 13th European Conference on Eye Movements, August 14-18 2005 in Bern, Switzerland

Abstracts of the 16th European Conference on Eye Movements 2011

Vitu, Françoise; CNRS, Université De Provence, Castet, Eric; CNRS, Université De La Méditerranée & Goffart, Laurent; CNRS, Université De La Méditerranée
This document contains all abstracts of the 16th European Conference on Eye Movements, August 21-25 2011 in Marseille, France. It was a real honour and a great pleasure to welcome more than 500 delegates to Marseille for the 16th edition of the European Conference on Eye Movements. The series of ECEM conferences started in 1981 under the auspices of Rudolf Groner in Bern. This year, we therefore celebrated the 30th Anniversary of ECEM. For this...

Visual vs. Spatial Contributions to Microsaccades and Visual-Spatial Working Memory

Bridgeman, Bruce; Department Of Psychology, University Of California, Santa Cruz, USA & Gaunt, Joshua T.; Department Of Psychology, University Of California, Santa Cruz, USA
Microsaccade rates and directions were monitored while observers performed a visual working memory task at varying retinal eccentricities. We show that microsaccades generate no interference in a working memory task, indicating that spatial working memory is at least partially insulated from oculomotor activity. Intervening tasks during the memory interval affected microsaccade patterns; microsaccade frequency was consistently higher during concurrent spatial tapping (no visual component) than during exposure to dynamic visual noise (no task). Average microsaccade...

User-Friendly Locations of Error Messages in Web Forms: An Eye Tracking Study

Inal, Yavuz; Department Of Information Systems Engineering, Faculty Of Engineering, Atılım University, Ankara, Turkey.
Error messages presented to users are one of the most important elements of Web forms. Error messages are embedded in different parts of the forms available on the Internet and presented in various formats. One of the measures of a user-friendly error message design is the ability to easily capture users’ attention and facilitate fast error correction. In this empirical study, I tested four different locations of error messages frequently used in Web forms on...

The effect of expertise in music reading: cross-modal competence

Drai-Zerbib, Véronique; University Of Pierre & Marie Curie, Paris, France & Baccino, Thierry; University Of Paris 8, France
We hypothesize that the fundamental difference between expert and learner musicians is the capacity to efficiently integrate cross-modal information. This capacity might be an index of an expert memory using both auditory and visual cues built during many years of learning and extensive practice. Investigating this issue through an eye-tracking experiment, two groups of musicians, experts and non-experts, were required to report whether a fragment of classical music, successively displayed both auditorily and visually on...

Conditional co-occurrence probability acts like frequency in predicting fixation durations

Ong, James K. Y.; Upper Austria University Of Applied Sciences & Kliegl, Reinhold; University Of Potsdam
The predictability of an upcoming word has been found to be a useful predictor in eye movement research, but is expensive to collect and subjective in nature. It would be desirable to have other predictors that are easier to collect and objective in nature if these predictors were capable of capturing the information stored in predictability. This paper contributes to this discussion by testing a possible predictor: conditional co-occurrence probability. This measure is a simple...

Microsaccades under monocular viewing conditions

Kloke, Wilhelm Bernhard; Leibniz-Institut Für Arbeitsforschung An Der TU Dortmund, Jaschinski, Wolfgang; Leibniz-Institut Für Arbeitsforschung An Der TU Dortmund & Jainta, Stephanie; Leibniz-Institut Für Arbeitsforschung An Der TU Dortmund
Among the eye movements during fixation, the function of small saccades occuring quite commonly at fixation is still unclear. It has been reported that a substantial number of these microsaccades seem to occur in only one of the eyes. The aim of the present study is to investigate microsaccades in monocular stimulation conditions. Although this is an artificial test condition which does not occur in natural vision, this monocular presentation paradigm allows for a critical...

Children’s attention to online adverts is related to low-level saliency factors and individual level of gaze control

Sandberg, Helena; Lund University, Holmqvist, Kenneth; Lund University & Holmberg, Nils; Lund University
Twenty-six children in 3rd grade were observed while surfing freely on their favourite websites. Eye movement data were recorded, as well as synchronized screen recordings. Each online advert was analyzed in order to quantify low-level saliency features, such as motion, luminance and edge density. The eye movement data were used to register if the children had attended to the online adverts. A mixed-effects multiple regression analysis was performed in order to test the relationship between...

Culture shapes how we look: Comparison between Chinese and African university students

Duan, Zhaohui; Central China Normal University, Wang, Fuxing; Central China Normal University & Hong, Jianzhong; Central China Normal University
Previous cross-cultural studies find that cultures can shape how we look during scene perception, but don’t mention its condition and limited to the East and West. This study recruited Chinese and African students to testify the cultural effects on two phases. In free-viewing phase: Africans fixated more on the focal objects than Chinese, while Chinese payed more attention to the backgrounds than Africans especially on the first fourth and fifth fixations. In recognition phase, there...

When East meets West: gaze-contingent Blindspots abolish cultural diversity in eye movements for faces

He, Lingnan; Sun Yat-Sen University, Miellet, Sébastien; University Of Fribourg, Caldara, Roberto; University Of Fribourg, Lao, Junpeng; University Of Glasgow & Zhou, Xinyue; Sun Yat-Sen University
Culture impacts on how people sample visual information for face processing. Westerners deploy fixations towards the eyes and the mouth to achieve face recognition. In contrast, Easterners reach equal performance by deploying more central fixations, suggesting an effective extrafoveal information use. However, this hypothesis has not been yet directly investigated, i.e. by providing only extrafoveal information to both groups of observers. We used a parametric gaze-contingent technique dynamically masking central vision - the Blindspot –...

Learning to search. The importance of eye movements in the decrease of response times during a visual choice reaction time task

Mak, Monika; Independent Clinical Psychology Unit, Department Of Psychiatry, Pomeranian Medical University, Szczecin, Poland, Kroll, Aleksandra; Independent Clinical Psychology Unit, Department Of Psychiatry, Pomeranian Medical University, Szczecin, Poland & Samochowiec, Jerzy; Department Of Psychiatry, Pomeranian Medical University, Szczecin, Poland
Reaction times are often used as an indicator of the efficiency of the processes in thecentral nervous system. While extensive research has been conducted on the possibleresponse time correlates, the role of eye movements in visual tasks is yet unclear. Here wereport data to support the role of eye movements during visual choice reaction time training.Participant performance, reaction times, and total session duration improved. Eyemovementsshowed expected changes in saccade amplitude and resulted in improvementin visual...

Effectiveness of a Virtual Reality Head-Mounted Display System-based Developmental Eye Movement Test

Kim, Jung-Ho; Kwangwoon University, Son, Ho-Jun; Kwangwoon University, Lee, Sung-Jin; Kwangwoon University Duksung Women's University, Yun, Deok-Young; Kwangwoon University, Lee, Seung-Hyun; Kwangwoon University & Kwon, Soon-Chul; Kwangwoon University
By transplanting the Developmental Eye Movement (DEM) test chart to a virtual reality head-mounted display (VR HMD) system, this study sought to evaluate the effectiveness of the DEM test for measuring dynamic visual acuity.Thirty-nine adults aged 20–39 years of both genders were the subjects of the study. After undergoing measurement of their visual function, through medical questionnaire, interpupillary distance, near point of convergence (NPC), near point of accommodation (NPA), and far and near phoria, the...

Aftereffects of Saccades Explored in a Dynamic Neural Field Model of the Superior Colliculus

Trappenberg, Thomas P.; Dalhousie University, Satel, Jason; Dalhousie University, Klein, Raymond M.; Dalhousie University & Wang, Zhiguo; Dalhousie University & Chinese Academy Of Sciences
When viewing a scene or searching for a target, an observer usually makes a series of saccades that quickly shift the orientation of the eyes. The present study explored how one saccade affects subsequent saccades within a dynamic neural field model of the superior colliculus (SC). The SC contains an oculocentric motor map that encodes the vector of saccades and remaps to the new fixation location after each saccade. Our simulations demonstrated that the observation...

Localizing the Neural Substrate of Reflexive Covert Orienting

Hwang, Joshua R.; University Of Western Ontario, Munoz, Douglas P.; Centre For Neuroscience Studies, Queen’s University, Higenell, Valerie; Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University & White, Brian J.; Centre For Neuroscience Studies, Queen’s University
The capture of covert spatial attention by salient visual events influences subsequent gaze behavior. A task irrelevant stimulus (cue) can reduce (Attention capture) or prolong (Inhi-bition of return) saccade reaction time to a subsequent target stimulus depending on the cue-target delay. Here we investigated the mechanisms that underlie the sensory-based account of AC/IOR by manipulating the visual processing stage where the cue and target interact. In Experiment 1, liquid crystal shutter goggles were used to...

A pragmatic approach to multi-modality and non-normality in fixation duration studies of cognitive processes

Leeuwen, Cees Van; RIKEN Brain Science Institute, Laboratory For Perceptual Dynamics & Nakatani, Chie; RIKEN Brain Science Institute, Laboratory For Perceptual Dynamics
Interpreting eye-fixation durations in terms of cognitive processing load is complicated by the multimodality of their distribution. An important source of multimodality is the distinction between single and multiple fixations to the same object. Based on the distinction, we separated a log-transformed distribution made to an object in non-reading task. We could reasonably conclude that the separated distributions belong to the same, general logistic distribution, which has a finite population mean and variance. This allowed...

Mapping the Pupil-Glint Vector to Gaze Coordinates in a Simple Video-Based Eye Tracker

Blignaut, Pieter; University Of The Free State, South Africa
In a video-based eye tracker, the normalized pupil-glint vector changes as the eyes move. Using an appropriate model, the pupil-glint vector can be mapped to gaze coordinates. Using a simple hardware configuration with one camera and one infrared source, several mapping functions – some from literature and some derived here – were compared with one another with respect to the accuracy that could be achieved. The study served to confirm the results of a previous...

Transsaccadic Scene Memory Revisited: A 'Theory of Visual Attention (TVA)' Based Approach to Recognition Memory and Confidence for Objects in Naturalistic Scenes.

Võ, Melissa L.-H.; Department Of Psychology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Germany, Schneider, Werner X.; Department Of Psychology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Germany Department Of Psychology, Bielefeld University, Germany & Matthias, Ellen; Department Of Psychology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Germany
The study presented here introduces a new approach to the investigation of transsaccadic memory for objects in naturalistic scenes. Participants were tested with a whole-report task from which — based on the theory of visual attention (TVA) - processing efficiency parameters were derived, namely visual short-term memory storage capacity and visual processing speed. By combining these processing efficiency parameters with transsaccadic memory data from a previous study, we were able to take a closer look...

ScanGraph: A Novel Scanpath Comparison Method Using Visualisation of Graph Cliques

Popelka, Stanislav; Department Of Geoinformatics Palacký University Olomouc & Dolezalova, Jitka; Department Of Geoinformatics Palacký University Olomouc
The article describes a new tool for analyses of eye-movement data. Many different approaches to scanpath comparison exist. One of the most frequently used approaches is String Edit Distance, where the gaze trajectories are replaced by the sequences of visited Areas of Interest. In cartographic literature, the most commonly used software for scanpath comparison is eyePatterns. During the analysis of eyePatterns functionality, we have found that tree-graph visualization of its results is not reliable. Thus,...

Why do we look at people's eyes?

Birmingham, Elina; University Of British Columbia, Kingstone, Alan; University Of British Columbia & Bischof, Walter F.; University Of Alberta
We have previously shown that when observers are presented with complex natural scenes that contain a number of objects and people, observers look mostly at the eyes of the people. Why is this? It cannot be because eyes are merely the most salient area in a scene, as relative to other objects they are fairly inconspicuous. We hypothesized that people look at the eyes because they consider the eyes to be a rich source of...

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