225 Works

Schedule of the 13th European Conference on Eye Movements 2005

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This document contains the schedule of the 13th European Conference on Eye Movements, August 14-18 2005 in Bern, Switzerland

Individual Differences in Eye-Movements During Reading: Working Memory and Speed-of-Processing Effects

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Mathematical models of eye-movement control do not yet incorporate individual differences as a source of variation in reading. These models nonetheless provide an excellent foundation for describing and explaining how and why patterns of eye-movements differ across readers (e.g., Rayner et al., 2006). We focus in this article on two aspects of individual variation: global processing speed (e.g., Salthouse, 1996) and working-memory capacity (e.g., Just & Carpenter, 1992). Using Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) (Raudenbush &...

Parsing eye movement analysis of scanpaths of naïve viewers of art: How do we differentiate art from non-art pictures?

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Relating to G. Buswell’s early work we posed the questions: How do art-naïve people look at pairs of artful pictures and similarly looking snapshots? Does the analysis of their eye movement recordings reveal a difference in their perception? Parsing eye scanpaths using string editing, similarity coefficients can be sorted out and represented for the two measures ‘Sp’ (Similarities of position) and ‘Ss’ (Similarities of sequences). 25 picture pairs were shown 5 times to 7 subjects...

Probing Bottom-up Processing with Multistable Images

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The selection of fixation targets involves a combination of top-down and bottom-up processing. The role of bottom-up processing can be enhanced by using multistable stimuli because their constantly changing appearance seems to depend predominantly on stimulusdriven factors. We used this approach to investigate whether visual processing models based on V1 need to be extended to incorporate specific computations attributed to V4. Eye movements of 8 subjects were recorded during free viewing of the Marroquin pattern...

Gaze transitions when learning with multimedia

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Eye tracking methodology is used to examine the influence of interactive multimedia on the allocation of visual attention and its dynamics during learning. We hypothesized that an interactive simulation promotes more organized switching of attention between different elements of multimedia learning material, e.g., textual description and pictorial visualization. Participants studied a description of an algorithm accompanied either by an interactive simulation, self-paced animation, or static illustration. Using a novel framework for entropy-based comparison of gaze...

Functionally sequenced scanpath similarity method (FuncSim): Comparing and evaluating scanpath similarity based on a task’s inherent sequence of functional (action) units

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Measures of scanpath similarity are essential in many domains of eye tracking research. Depending on the question, different calculations are adequate. We (Foerster, Carbone, Koesling, & Schneider, 2011) developed a method with a functional matching procedure suitable for sequential tasks. Here, we report two extensions. We introduced an alignment variant making the method more robust across tasks. We added the possibility to compare scanpaths according to multiple characteristics. The extended method, here called “functionally sequenced...

A Unifying Model-Based Hypothesis for the Diverse Waveforms of Infantile Nystagmus Syndrome

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We expanded the original behavioral Ocular Motor System (OMS) model for Infantile Nystagmus Syndrome (INS) by incorporating common types of jerk waveforms within a unifying mechanism. Alexander’s law relationships were used to produce desired INS null positions and sharpness. At various gaze angles, these relationships influenced the IN slow-phase amplitudes differently, thereby mimicking the gaze-angle effects of INS patients. Transitions from pseudopendular with foveating saccades to jerk waveforms required replacing braking saccades with foveating fast...

Spoken language-mediated anticipatory eye-movements are modulated by reading ability - Evidence from Indian low and high literates

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We investigated whether levels of reading ability attained through formal literacy are related to anticipatory language-mediated eye movements. Indian low and high literates listened to simple spoken sentences containing a target word (e.g., "door") while at the same time looking at a visual display of four objects (a target, i.e. the door, and three distractors). The spoken sentences were constructed in such a way that participants could use semantic, associative, and syntactic information from adjectives...

Localizing the Neural Substrate of Reflexive Covert Orienting

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The capture of covert spatial attention by salient visual events influences subsequent gaze behavior. A task irrelevant stimulus (cue) can reduce (Attention capture) or prolong (Inhi-bition of return) saccade reaction time to a subsequent target stimulus depending on the cue-target delay. Here we investigated the mechanisms that underlie the sensory-based account of AC/IOR by manipulating the visual processing stage where the cue and target interact. In Experiment 1, liquid crystal shutter goggles were used to...

Eye Movements in Gaze Interaction

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Gaze as a sole input modality must support complex navigation and selection tasks. Gaze interaction combines specific eye movements and graphic display objects (GDOs). This paper suggests a unifying taxonomy of gaze interaction principles. The taxonomy deals with three types of eye movements: fixations, saccades and smooth pursuits and three types of GDOs: static, dynamic, or absent. This taxonomy is qualified through related research and is the first main contribution of this paper. The second...

Evaluation of accurate eye corner detection methods for gaze estimation

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Accurate detection of iris center and eye corners appears to be a promising approach for low cost gaze estimation. In this paper we propose novel eye inner corner detection methods. Appearance and feature based segmentation approaches are suggested. All these methods are exhaustively tested on a realistic dataset containing images of subjects gazing at different points on a screen. We have demonstrated that a method based on a neural network presents the best performance even...

A pragmatic approach to multi-modality and non-normality in fixation duration studies of cognitive processes

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Interpreting eye-fixation durations in terms of cognitive processing load is complicated by the multimodality of their distribution. An important source of multimodality is the distinction between single and multiple fixations to the same object. Based on the distinction, we separated a log-transformed distribution made to an object in non-reading task. We could reasonably conclude that the separated distributions belong to the same, general logistic distribution, which has a finite population mean and variance. This allowed...

Entering PIN codes by smooth pursuit eye movements

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Despite its potential gaze interaction is still not a widely-used interaction concept. Major drawbacks as the calibration, strain of the eyes and the high number of false alarms are associated with gaze based interaction and limit its practicability for every-day human computer interaction. In this paper two experiments are described which use smooth pursuit eye movements on moving display buttons. The first experiment was conducted to extract an easy and fast interaction concept and at...

Time-Dependent Changes In Viewing Behavior On Similarly Structured Web Pages

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This article focuses on the impact of observation time and web page structure on viewing behavior. 63 subjects observed similarly structured pages of a popular commercial internet shop. Eye movements were recorded and analyzed regarding several saccade parameters, the individual fixation distribution by means of a progressive entropy approach, and the within- as well as between-subject congruency of fixation distributions. Our results show that viewing behavior significantly changed while subjects observed individual web pages. In...

Control of Visual Selection during Visual Search in the Human Brain

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How do we find a target object in a cluttered visual scene? Targets carrying unique salient features can be found in parallel without directing attention, whereas targets defined by feature conjunctions or non-salient features need to be scrutinized in a serial attentional process in order to be identified. In this article, we review a series of experiments in which we used fMRI to probe the neural basis of this active search process in the human...

A cheap portable eye-tracker solution for common setups

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We analyze the feasibility of a cheap eye-tracker where the hardware consists of a single webcam and a Raspberry Pi device. Our aim is to discover the limits of such a system and to see whether it provides an acceptable performance. We base our work on the open source Opengazer (Zielinski, 2013) and we propose several improvements to create a robust, real-time system which can work on a computer with 30Hz sampling rate. After assessing...

Adaptation and mislocalization fields for saccadic outward adaptation in humans

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Adaptive shortening of a saccade influences the metrics of other saccades within a spatial window around the adapted target. Within this adaptation field visual stimuli presented before an adapted saccade are mislocalized in proportion to the change of the saccade metric. We investigated the saccadic adaptation field and associated localization changes for saccade lengthening, or outward adaptation. We measured the adaptation field for two different saccade adaptations (14 deg to 20 deg and 20 deg...

On-line syntactic and semantic influences in reading revisited

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This study is a follow-up to Pynte, New and Kennedy (2008), Journal of Eye Movement Research . 2(1):4, 1-11. A new series of multiple regression analyses were conducted on the French part of the Dundee corpus, using a new set of syntactic and semantic predictors. In line with our prior study, quite different patterns of results were obtained for function and content words. We conclude that syntactic processing operations during reading mainly concern function words...

The global effect: what determines where the eyes land?

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In certain situations, the endpoint of an eye movement is not positioned on the centre of a target element, but deviates in the direction of another element. This phenomenon has been termed 'the global effect' and has proven to constitute a valuable measure of various processes that control and influence our oculomotor behavior. The goal of the current review is to provide insight in the factors that determine where the eyes land. We will focus...

Cueing Visual Attention to Spatial Locations With Auditory Cues

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We investigated exogenous and endogenous orienting of visual attention to the spatial loca-tion of an auditory cue. In Experiment 1, significantly faster saccades were observed to vis-ual targets appearing ipsilateral, compared to contralateral, to the peripherally-presented cue. This advantage was greatest in an 80% target-at-cue (TAC) condition but equivalent in 20% and 50% TAC conditions. In Experiment 2, participants maintained central fixation while making an elevation judgment of the peripheral visual target. Performance was significantly...

EyeMMV toolbox: An eye movement post-analysis tool based on a two-step spatial dispersion threshold for fixation identification

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Eye movement recordings and their analysis constitute an effective way to examine visual perception. There is a special need for the design of computer software for the performance of data analysis. The present study describes the development of a new toolbox, called EyeMMV (Eye Movements Metrics & Visualizations), for post experimental eye movement analysis. The detection of fixation events is performed with the use of an introduced algorithm based on a two-step spatial dispersion threshold....

Editorial

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Editorial to the Special Issue in Honour of John M. Findlay

Effect of memory load on eye movement control: A study using the reading span test

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We investigated the effect of memory load on attentional control using the Reading Span Test (RST), a task that requires working memory capacity. Previous studies have shown that a shortage of working memory resources leads to a deficit of inhibition of taskirrelevant information and that memory load affects eye movement control. Here, we recorded eye movement and integrated it with RST performance. Total fixation time and the number of regressions showed a memory load effect...

What determines the direction of microsaccades?

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During visual fixation, our eyes are not entirely still. Instead, small eye movements, such as microsaccades, can be observed. We here investigate what determines the direction and frequency of these microsaccades, as this information might help to clarify what purpose they serve. The relative contribution of three possible factors was examined: (1) the orienting of covert attention, (2) the spatial distribution of possible target locations, and (3) whether monocular or binocular microsaccades are considered. The...

Children’s attention to online adverts is related to low-level saliency factors and individual level of gaze control

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Twenty-six children in 3rd grade were observed while surfing freely on their favourite websites. Eye movement data were recorded, as well as synchronized screen recordings. Each online advert was analyzed in order to quantify low-level saliency features, such as motion, luminance and edge density. The eye movement data were used to register if the children had attended to the online adverts. A mixed-effects multiple regression analysis was performed in order to test the relationship between...

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