225 Works

Repeated Web Page Visits and the Scanpath Theory: A Recurrent Pattern Detection Approach

Burmester, Michael; Stuttgart Media University & Mast, Marcus; Stuttgart Media University
This paper investigates the eye movement sequences of users visiting web pages repeatedly. We are interested in potential habituation due to repeated exposure. The scanpath theory posits that every person learns an idiosyncratic gaze sequence on first exposure to a stimulus and re-applies it on subsequent exposures. Josephson and Holmes (2002) tested the applicability of this hypothesis to web page revisitation but results were inconclusive. With a recurrent temporal pattern detection technique, we examine additional...

Estimation of a focused object using a corneal surface image for eye-based interaction

Ogasawara, Tsukasa; Nara Institute Of Science And Technology, Japan, Yamakawa, Tomohisa; Nara Institute Of Science And Technology, Japan, Takemura, Kentaro; Tokai University, Japan & Takamatsu, Jun; Nara Institute Of Science And Technology, Japan
Researchers are considering the use of eye tracking in head-mounted camera systems, such as Google’s Project Glass. Typical methods require detailed calibration in advance, but long periods of use disrupt the calibration record between the eye and the scene camera. In addition, the focused object might not be estimated even if the point-of-regard is estimated using a portable eye-tracker. Therefore, we propose a novel method for estimating the object that a user is focused upon,...

High working memory performers have efficient eye movement control systems under Reading Span Test

Azuma, Miyuki; Osaka University, Osaka, Naoyuki; Kyoto University, Minamoto, Takehiro; Kyoto University, Ikeda, Takashi; Osaka University & Osaka, Mariko; Osaka University
Controlled eye movements are critical in performing highly goal oriented behavior such as text reading. Previous studies have examined the relationship between working memory capacity and eye movement control during working memory task. However, the results were inconsistent, due to a methodological issue including the predictability of target location. In the present study, we used Japanese version of reading span test, where the position of to-be-remembered word is not predictable so that more efficient attentional...

Abstracts of the 18th European Conference on Eye Movements 2015

Ansorge, Ulrich; University Of Vienna, Florack, Arnd; University Of Vienna, Ditye, Thomas; University Of Vienna & Leder, Helmut; University Of Vienna
This document contains all abstracts of the 18th European Conference on Eye Movements, August 16-21 2015 in Vienna, Austria

Effect of Saccadic Adaptation on Sequences of Saccades

Pélisson, Denis; ImpAct Team, CRNL-INSERM U1028-CNRS UMR5292-Lyon University, Panouillères, Muriel; ImpAct Team, CRNL-INSERM U1028-CNRS UMR5292-Lyon University, Urquizar, Christian; ImpAct Team, CRNL-INSERM U1028-CNRS UMR5292-Lyon University & Salemme, Roméo; ImpAct Team, CRNL-INSERM U1028-CNRS UMR5292-Lyon University
Accuracy of saccadic eye movements is maintained thanks to adaptation mechanisms. The adaptive lengthening and shortening of reactive and voluntary saccades rely on partially separate neural substrates. Although in daily-life we mostly perform sequences of saccades, the effect of saccadic adaptation has been mainly evaluated on single saccades. Here, sequences of two saccades were recorded before and after adaptation of rightward saccades. In 4 separate sessions, reactive and voluntary saccades were adaptively shortened or lengthened....

Idiosyncratic Feature-Based Gaze Mapping

Blignaut, Pieter; Department Of Computer Science And Informatics, University Of The Free State, South Africa
It is argued that polynomial expressions that are normally used for remote, video-based, low cost eye tracking systems, are not always ideal to accommodate individual differences in eye cleft, position of the eye in the socket, corneal bulge, astigmatism, etc. A procedure to identify a set of polynomial expressions that will provide the best possible accuracy for a specific individual is proposed. It is also proposed that regression coefficients are recalculated in real-time, based on...

The Effects of Age-of-Acquisition on Ambiguity Resolution: Evidence from Eye Movements

Shesler, Leah W.; Wesleyan University, Gullick, Margaret M.; Dartmouth College & Juhasz, Barbara J.; Wesleyan University
Words that are rated as acquired earlier in life receive shorter fixation durations than later acquired words, even when word frequency is adequately controlled (Juhasz & Rayner, 2003; 2006). Some theories posit that age-of-acquisition (AoA) affects the semantic representation of words (e.g., Steyvers & Tenenbaum, 2005), while others suggest that AoA should have an influence at multiple levels in the mental lexicon (e.g. Ellis & Lambon Ralph, 2000). In past studies, early and late AoA...

An easy iris center detection method for eye gaze tracking system

Yu, Mingxin; Northeastern University, Boston, USA, & Beijing Institute Of Technology, China, Xu, Jing; Northeastern University, USA, Wang, Xiangzhou; Beijing Institute Of Technology, China, Tang, Xiaoying; Beijing Institute Of Technology, China, Guo, Yikang; Beijing Institute Of Technology, China, Lin, Yingzi; Northeastern University, USA & Schmidt, David; Northeastern University, USA
Iris center detection accuracy has great impact on eye gaze tracking system performance. This paper proposes an easy and efficient iris center detection method based on modeling the geometric relationship between the detected rough iris center and the two corners of the eye. The method fully considers four states of iris within the eye region, i.e. center, left, right, and upper. The proposed active edge detection algorithm is utilized to extract iris edge points for...

How form and structure of Chinese characters affect eye movement control

Ma, Min-Yuan; National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (R.O.C) & Chuang, Hsien-Chih; National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (R.O.C)
This study investigated the correlations between the form features and legibility of Chinese characters by employing the eye tracking method in two experiments: Experiment 1 examined factors affecting Chinese character legibility with character modules and identified the correlations between character form and legibility of crossing strokes; and Experiment 2 examined the effect of crossing strokes on subjective complicacy perception in both Chinese characters and English letters. This study determined that enclosed Chinese characters affect subjective...

Do Graph Readers Prefer the Graph Type Most Suited to a Given Task? Insights from Eye Tracking

Saß, Steffani; Leibniz Institute For Science And Mathematics Education (IPN), Kiel, Strobel, Benjamin; Leibniz Institute For Science And Mathematics Education (IPN), Kiel, Lindner, Marlit Annalena; Leibniz Institute For Science And Mathematics Education (IPN), Kiel & Köller, Olaf; Leibniz Institute For Science And Mathematics Education (IPN), Kiel
Research on graph comprehension suggests that point differences are easier to read in bar graphs, while trends are easier to read in line graphs. But are graph readers able to detect and use the most suited graph type for a given task? In this study, we applied a dual repre-sentation paradigm and eye tracking methodology to determine graph readers’ preferential processing of bar and line graphs while solving both point difference and trend tasks. Data...

Quick Models for Saccade Amplitude Prediction

Ryu, Young Sam; Ingram School Of Engineering Texas State University-San Marcos, Koh, Do H.; Department Of Computer Science Texas State University-San Marcos & Komogortsev, Oleg V.; Department Of Computer Science Texas State University-San Marcos
This paper presents a new saccade amplitude prediction model. The model is based on a Kalman filter and regression analysis. The aim of the model is to predict a saccade’s am-plitude extremely quickly, i.e., within two eye position samples at the onset of a saccade. Specifically, the paper explores saccade amplitude prediction considering one or two sam-ples at the onset of a saccade. The models’ prediction performance was tested with 35 subjects. The amplitude accuracy...

Effects of conversation content on viewing dyadic conversations

Hautala, Jarkko; University Of Jyväskylä, Piia Astikainen, Otto Loberg, Jari K Hietanen & Lauri Nummenmaa
People typically follow conversations closely with their gaze. We asked whether this viewing is influenced by what is actually said in the conversation and by the viewer’s psychological condition. We recorded the eye movements of healthy (N = 16) and depressed (N = 25) participants while they were viewing video clips. Each video showed two people, each speaking one line of dialogue about socio-emotionally important (i.e., personal) or unimportant topics (matter-of-fact). Between the spoken lines,...

On-line syntactic and semantic influences in reading revisited

New, Boris; Université Paris-Descartes, CNRS, Pynte, Joel; Université Paris-Descartes, CNRS & Kennedy, Alan; Université Paris-Descartes, CNRS, University Of Dundee
This study is a follow-up to Pynte, New and Kennedy (2008), Journal of Eye Movement Research . 2(1):4, 1-11. A new series of multiple regression analyses were conducted on the French part of the Dundee corpus, using a new set of syntactic and semantic predictors. In line with our prior study, quite different patterns of results were obtained for function and content words. We conclude that syntactic processing operations during reading mainly concern function words...

Idiosyncratic Feature-Based Gaze Mapping

Blignaut, Pieter; Department Of Computer Science And Informatics, University Of The Free State, South Africa
It is argued that polynomial expressions that are normally used for remote, video-based, low cost eye tracking systems, are not always ideal to accommodate individual differences in eye cleft, position of the eye in the socket, corneal bulge, astigmatism, etc. A procedure to identify a set of polynomial expressions that will provide the best possible accuracy for a specific individual is proposed. It is also proposed that regression coefficients are recalculated in real-time, based on...

A statistical mixture method to reveal bottom-up and top-down factors guiding the eye-movements

Dubois, Michel; LPS, Grenoble II University, Guérin-Dugué, Anne; Gipsa-Lab, INPG, Grenoble, Marendaz, Christian; LPNC, Grenoble II University, Couronné, Thomas; Gipsa-Lab, INPG, Grenoble, France & Faye, Pauline; PSA Peugeot-Citroen, Paris
When people gaze at real scenes, their visual attention is driven both by a set of bottom-up processes coming from the signal properties of the scene and also from top-down effects such as the task, the affective state, prior knowledge, or the semantic context. The context of this study is an assessment of manufactured objects (here car cab interior). From this dedicated context, this work describes a set of methods to analyze the eye-movements during...

Parafoveal-on-foveal effects are not an artifact of mislocated saccades

Kennedy, Allan; School Of Psychology, University Of Dundee
Oculomotor error leads to a proportion of saccades during reading missing the intended target. In this paper two kinds of mislocation are identified: either a word is erroneously refixated, or a word that was about to skipped is erroneously fixated. In both cases recorded fixation duration could be influenced by the fact that the overt fixation reflects neither the reader’s intentions, not the current locus of attention. It has been argued that mislocations of this...

The effect of fixational eye movements on fixation identification with a dispersion-based fixation detection algorithm

Blignaut, Pieter; University Of The Free State & Beelders, Tanya; University Of The Free State
Gaze data of 31 participants of a memory recall experiment was analyzed and the I-DT dispersion based algorithm of Salvucci and Goldberg (2000) was used to identify fixations. It was found that individuals differ considerably with regard to the stability of eye gaze and that fixational eye movements affect the accuracy of fixation identification and the optimum dispersion threshold. It was also found that fixation radius and the distance between the points in a fixation...

Saccade Latency and Fixation Stability: Repeatability and Reliability

Langaas, Trine; University College Of Southeast Norway & Horgen, Gro; Vikesdal University College Of Southeast Norway, Norwegian University Of Life Sciences
This study aimed to investigate the repeatability and reliability of saccadic latency and fixation stability as a function of sighting-dominance and contact lens wear. Eye movements were recorded in 12 healthy adults who performed a pro- saccade and a fixation task in four conditions; baseline, retest, non-sighting eye viewing and plano contact lens wear. The re-sults showed that saccadic latency and fixation stability (indexed via logBCEA) have good internal consistency, reliability and repeatability, which are...

Measuring Attention in Second Language Reading Using Eye-tracking: The Case of the Noticing Hypothesis

Dolgunsöz, Emrah; Bayburt University
Taking Schmidt’s (1990) noticing hypothesis as point of departure this study aims to measure attention and learning gains during second language (L2) reading by making use of eye-tracking methodology. Relying on Robinson’s hierarchical memory model (1995, 2003), it is hypothesized that vocabulary learning and attention are closely associated. After a vocabulary pre-test, seventy-five learners of English read a standard text individually while their eye movements were being recorded followed by an immediate post-test. The results...

On object selection in gaze controlled environments

Urbina, Mario H.; Bauhaus-Universität Weimar & Huckauf, Anke; Bauhaus-Universität Weimar
In the past twenty years, gaze control has become a reliable alternative input method not only for handicapped users. The selection of objects, however, which is of highest importance and of highest frequency in computer control, requires explicit control not inherent in eye movements. Objects have been therefore usually selected via prolonged fixations (dwell times). Dwell times seemed to be for many years the unique reliable method for selection. In this paper, we review pros...

Eye tracking scanpath analysis techniques on web pages: A survey, evaluation and comparison

Eraslan, Sukru; University Of Manchester, UK, & Middle East Technical University, Northern Cyprus Campus, Kalkanli, Guzelyurt, Turkey, Yesilada, Yeliz; Middle East Technical University, Northern Cyprus Campus, 99738 Kalkanli, Guzelyurt, Mersin 10, Turkey & Harper, Simon; School Of Computer Science, University Of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom
Eye tracking has commonly been used to investigate how users interact with web pages, with the goal of improving their usability. This article comprehensively revisits the techniques that could be applicable to eye tracking data for analysing user scanpaths on web pages. It also uses a third-party eye tracking study to compare these techniques. This allows researchers to recognise existing techniques for their goals, understand how they work and know their strengths and limitations so...

Effects of Processing Difficulty on Eye Movements in Reading: A Review of Behavioral and Neural Observations

Yang, Shun-Nan; Vision Performance Institute, Pacific University
In reading, text difficulties increase the duration of eye fixation and the frequency of refixation and regression. The present article reviews previous attempts to quantify these effects based on the frequency of effect theory (FET), and links these effects to results from microstimulation of primate supple-mentary eye fields. Observed stimulation effects on the latency and frequency of visually-guided saccades depend on the onset time of electric current relative to target onset, and the strength of...

Effect of target type on near point of convergence in a healthy, active, young adult population

Phillips, Jacqueline; Temple University & Tierney, Ryan; Temple University
Purpose: Measuring near point of convergence (NPC) has recently emerged as a concussion assessment tool. Differences in administration of the test can be seen within the literature, which may affect results and normative values. There has been little investigation examining if clinically accessible target types affects NPC and no examination of NPC in a healthy, active young adult population. Methods: NPC was measured in 39 subjects using 5 different targets two times each with an...

On the Structure of Measurement Noise in Eye-Tracking

Orden, Guy Van; Center For Cognition, Action, And Perception, University Of Cincinnati, Wallot, Sebastian; MINDLab, Aarhus University, And Center For Cognition, Action, And Perception, University Of Cincinnati, Coey, Charles A.; Perceptual-Motor Dynamics Lab, Center For Cognition, Action, And Perception, University Of Cincinnati & Richardson, Michael J.; Perceptual-Motor Dynamics Lab, Center For Cognition, Action, And Perception, University Of Cincinnati
Past research has discovered fractal structure in eye movement variability and interpreted this result as having theoretical ramifications. No research has, however, investigated how properties of the eye-tracking instrument might affect the structure of measurement varia-bility. The current experiment employed fractal and multifractal methods to investigate whether an eye-tracker produced intrinsic random variation and how features of the data recording procedure affected the structure measurement variability. The results of this experiment revealed that the structure...

Spoken language-mediated anticipatory eye-movements are modulated by reading ability - Evidence from Indian low and high literates

Pandey, Aparna; University Of Allahabad, India, Huettig, Falk; Max Planck Institute For Psycholinguistics & Radboud University, Nijmegen, Singh, Niharika; University Of Allahabad, India & Mishra, Ramesh K.; University Of Allahabad, India
We investigated whether levels of reading ability attained through formal literacy are related to anticipatory language-mediated eye movements. Indian low and high literates listened to simple spoken sentences containing a target word (e.g., "door") while at the same time looking at a visual display of four objects (a target, i.e. the door, and three distractors). The spoken sentences were constructed in such a way that participants could use semantic, associative, and syntactic information from adjectives...

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