225 Works

Time-Dependent Changes In Viewing Behavior On Similarly Structured Web Pages

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This article focuses on the impact of observation time and web page structure on viewing behavior. 63 subjects observed similarly structured pages of a popular commercial internet shop. Eye movements were recorded and analyzed regarding several saccade parameters, the individual fixation distribution by means of a progressive entropy approach, and the within- as well as between-subject congruency of fixation distributions. Our results show that viewing behavior significantly changed while subjects observed individual web pages. In...

Control of Visual Selection during Visual Search in the Human Brain

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How do we find a target object in a cluttered visual scene? Targets carrying unique salient features can be found in parallel without directing attention, whereas targets defined by feature conjunctions or non-salient features need to be scrutinized in a serial attentional process in order to be identified. In this article, we review a series of experiments in which we used fMRI to probe the neural basis of this active search process in the human...

Gaze Path Stimulation in Retrospective Think-Aloud

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For a long time, eye tracking has been thought of as a promising method for usability testing. During the last couple of years, eye tracking has finally started to live up to these expectations, at least in terms of its use in usability laboratories. We know that the user’s gaze path can reveal usability issues that would otherwise go unnoticed, but a common understanding of how best to make use of eye movement data has...

Audio-visual integration during overt visual attention

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How do different sources of information arising from different modalities interact to control where we look? To answer this question with respect to real-world operational conditions we presented natural images and spatially localized sounds in (V)isual, Audio-visual (AV) and (A)uditory conditions and measured subjects' eye-movements. Our results demonstrate that eye-movements in AV conditions are spatially biased towards the part of the image corresponding to the sound source. Interestingly, this spatial bias is dependent on the...

Gaze interaction enhances problem solving: Effects of dwell-time based, gaze-augmented, and mouse interaction on problem-solving strategies and user experience

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It is still unknown whether the very application of gaze for interaction has effects on cognitive strategies users employ and how these effects materialize. We conducted a between-subject experiment in which thirty-six participants interacted with a computerized problem-solving game using one of three interaction modalities: dwell-time, gaze-augmented interaction, and the conventional mouse. We observed how using each of the modalities affected performance, problem solving strategies, and user experience. Users with gaze-augmented interaction outperformed the other...

Integration and prediction difficulty in Hindi sentence comprehension: Evidence from an eye-tracking corpus

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This is the first attempt at characterizing reading difficulty in Hindi using naturally occurring sentences. We created the Potsdam-Allahabad Hindi Eyetracking Corpus by recording eye-movement data from 30 participants at the University of Allahabad, India. The target stimuli were 153 sentences selected from the beta version of the Hindi-Urdu treebank. We find that word- or low-level predictors (syllable length, unigram and bigram frequency) affect first-pass reading times, regression path duration, total reading time, and outgoing...

What determines the direction of microsaccades?

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During visual fixation, our eyes are not entirely still. Instead, small eye movements, such as microsaccades, can be observed. We here investigate what determines the direction and frequency of these microsaccades, as this information might help to clarify what purpose they serve. The relative contribution of three possible factors was examined: (1) the orienting of covert attention, (2) the spatial distribution of possible target locations, and (3) whether monocular or binocular microsaccades are considered. The...

Children’s attention to online adverts is related to low-level saliency factors and individual level of gaze control

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Twenty-six children in 3rd grade were observed while surfing freely on their favourite websites. Eye movement data were recorded, as well as synchronized screen recordings. Each online advert was analyzed in order to quantify low-level saliency features, such as motion, luminance and edge density. The eye movement data were used to register if the children had attended to the online adverts. A mixed-effects multiple regression analysis was performed in order to test the relationship between...

Eye Tracking Analysis in Reading Online Newspapers

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Reading online newspapers is increasingly becoming more common, so that thousands of newspapers are published online today. Despite this development, there are many unanswered questions concerning subjects’ behaviour during reading an online newspapers. Recording eye movements when a subject is navigating within a news website can provide quantitative and objective information on subject’s behaviour and combined with other methodologies – usability testing, focus groups, log analysis - represents a powerful tool for improving news websites...

Eye fixations to figures in a four-choice situation with luminance balanced areas: Evaluating practice effects

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Contingency analyses of eye movements may reveal variables that are relevant to the stimulus control of observing behavior. The present research tracked the eye movements of four adults exposed to a simultaneous discrimination among four stimuli, two two-dimensional (square and circle) and two three-dimensional (cube and cylinder) mono-chromatic figures with approximately equal luminance. On each discrimination trial, the stimuli were displayed in the four corners of a video monitor and participants chose among them by...

Gaze transitions when learning with multimedia

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Eye tracking methodology is used to examine the influence of interactive multimedia on the allocation of visual attention and its dynamics during learning. We hypothesized that an interactive simulation promotes more organized switching of attention between different elements of multimedia learning material, e.g., textual description and pictorial visualization. Participants studied a description of an algorithm accompanied either by an interactive simulation, self-paced animation, or static illustration. Using a novel framework for entropy-based comparison of gaze...

A Unifying Model-Based Hypothesis for the Diverse Waveforms of Infantile Nystagmus Syndrome

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We expanded the original behavioral Ocular Motor System (OMS) model for Infantile Nystagmus Syndrome (INS) by incorporating common types of jerk waveforms within a unifying mechanism. Alexander’s law relationships were used to produce desired INS null positions and sharpness. At various gaze angles, these relationships influenced the IN slow-phase amplitudes differently, thereby mimicking the gaze-angle effects of INS patients. Transitions from pseudopendular with foveating saccades to jerk waveforms required replacing braking saccades with foveating fast...

LCD vs. E-ink: An Analysis of the Reading Behavior

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Electronic books (e-book) are an interesting option compared to classic paper books. Most e-reading devices of the first generation were based on e-ink technology. With the appearance of the Apple iPad on the market, TFT-LCDs became important in the field of e-reading. Both technologies have advantages and disadvantages but the question remains whether one or the other technology is better for reading. In the present study we analyzed and compared reading behavior when reading on...

Functionally sequenced scanpath similarity method (FuncSim): Comparing and evaluating scanpath similarity based on a task’s inherent sequence of functional (action) units

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Measures of scanpath similarity are essential in many domains of eye tracking research. Depending on the question, different calculations are adequate. We (Foerster, Carbone, Koesling, & Schneider, 2011) developed a method with a functional matching procedure suitable for sequential tasks. Here, we report two extensions. We introduced an alignment variant making the method more robust across tasks. We added the possibility to compare scanpaths according to multiple characteristics. The extended method, here called “functionally sequenced...

Localizing the Neural Substrate of Reflexive Covert Orienting

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The capture of covert spatial attention by salient visual events influences subsequent gaze behavior. A task irrelevant stimulus (cue) can reduce (Attention capture) or prolong (Inhi-bition of return) saccade reaction time to a subsequent target stimulus depending on the cue-target delay. Here we investigated the mechanisms that underlie the sensory-based account of AC/IOR by manipulating the visual processing stage where the cue and target interact. In Experiment 1, liquid crystal shutter goggles were used to...

Speed and Accuracy of Gaze Gestures

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We conducted an experiment where participants carried out six gaze gesture tasks. The gaze paths were analyzed to find out the speed and accuracy of the gaze gestures. As a result, the gaze gestures took more time than we anticipated and only the very fastest participants got close to what was expected. There was not much difference in performance times between small and large gaze gestures, because the participants reached significantly faster speed when making...

A simple way to estimate similarity between pairs of eye movement sequences

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We propose a novel algorithm to estimate the similarity between a pair of eye movement sequences. The proposed algorithm relies on a straight-forward geometric representation of eye movement data. The algorithm is considerably simpler to implement and apply than existing similarity measures, and is particularly suited for exploratory analyses. To validate the algorithm, we conducted a benchmark experiment using realistic artificial eye movement data. Based on similarity ratings obtained from the proposed algorithm, we defined...

Binocular coordination during smooth pursuit in dyslexia: a multiple case study

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Smooth pursuit (SP) was explored in dyslexics and non-dyslexics. Dyslexic children show similar gain of SP, and number and amplitude of catch-up saccades (CUS) as non-dyslexic children. The quality of binocular coordination is good for both groups; the only significant exception is for pursuit to the right for both smooth phase and CUS; dyslexics show higher disconjugacy. Decrement of binocular control during rightward pursuit only could reflect immaturity of oculomotor learning mechanisms needed to optimize...

Effectiveness of a Virtual Reality Head-Mounted Display System-based Developmental Eye Movement Test

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By transplanting the Developmental Eye Movement (DEM) test chart to a virtual reality head-mounted display (VR HMD) system, this study sought to evaluate the effectiveness of the DEM test for measuring dynamic visual acuity.Thirty-nine adults aged 20–39 years of both genders were the subjects of the study. After undergoing measurement of their visual function, through medical questionnaire, interpupillary distance, near point of convergence (NPC), near point of accommodation (NPA), and far and near phoria, the...

ScanGraph: A Novel Scanpath Comparison Method Using Visualisation of Graph Cliques

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The article describes a new tool for analyses of eye-movement data. Many different approaches to scanpath comparison exist. One of the most frequently used approaches is String Edit Distance, where the gaze trajectories are replaced by the sequences of visited Areas of Interest. In cartographic literature, the most commonly used software for scanpath comparison is eyePatterns. During the analysis of eyePatterns functionality, we have found that tree-graph visualization of its results is not reliable. Thus,...

Comparing the Difficulty of Tasks Using Eye Tracking Combined with Subjective and Behavioural Criteria

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In this article, we attempted to examine the issue of the existence of differences in eye move-ment of school-age students as they solve tasks of different difficulty levels in the sciences and natural sciences (computer science, mathematics, physics, biology). Categories of the task’s difficulty level were established on the basis of two types of criteria: subjective (an evaluation made by the subjects) and behavioural (connected to the correctness of their solution). The relationships of these...

A probabilistic approach for eye-tracking based process tracing in catalog browsing

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Eye movements are an important cue to understand consumer decision processes. Findings from existing studies suggest that the consumer decision process consists of a few different browsing states such as screening and evaluation. This study proposes a hidden Markov-based gaze model to reveal the characteristics and temporal changes of browsing states in catalog browsing situations. Unlike previous models that employ a heuristic rule-based approach, our model learns the browsing states in a bottom-up manner. Our...

Culture shapes how we look: Comparison between Chinese and African university students

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Previous cross-cultural studies find that cultures can shape how we look during scene perception, but don’t mention its condition and limited to the East and West. This study recruited Chinese and African students to testify the cultural effects on two phases. In free-viewing phase: Africans fixated more on the focal objects than Chinese, while Chinese payed more attention to the backgrounds than Africans especially on the first fourth and fifth fixations. In recognition phase, there...

Optically induced refractive errors reduces fixation stability but saccade latency remains stable

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The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of optically induced refractive errors on saccade latency and fixation stability.Sixteen healthy, young adults (two males), with normal visual acuity and normal accommodation, performed a saccade task and a fixation task wearing a range of contact lenses (from +3.00 to -5.00 diopters) which induced visual blur and accommodation. The results showed that mean (± standard error) saccade latency was 207 (± 5) milliseconds (ms) and...

Music sight-reading expertise, visually disrupted score and eye movements

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Previous studies have shown that performance at a defined level of music sight reading for pianists (6th Grade) is predictive of eye movement patterns (Waters, 1998) and that such patterns resemble those of text reading experts (Furneaux & Land, 1999; Sloboda, 1974; Truitt, 1997; Wolf, 1976). However, little is known about how expertise might affect eye movement patterns when the score has been visually disrupted using notational features that are unexpected or outside conventional presentation.The...

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