225 Works

Examining the visual screening patterns of emotional facial expressions with gender, age and lateralization

Altun, Arif; Hacettepe University, Baran, Zeynel; Hacettepe University, Mazman, Sacide Güzin; Hacettepe University, Aşkar, Petek; TED University & Cangöz, Banu; Hacettepe University
The main objective of the study is to investigate the effects of age of model, gender of observer, and lateralization on visual screening patterns while looking at the emotional facial expressions. Data were collected through eye tracking methodology. The areas of interests were set to include eyes, nose and mouth. The selected eye metrics were first fixation duration, fixation duration and fixation count. Those eye tracking metrics were recorded for different emotional expressions (sad, happy,...

Discriminating cognitive processes with eye movements in a decision-making driving task.

Brémond, Roland; Laboratory For Road Operations,Perception, Simulators And Simulations IFSTTAR, France, Baccino, Thierry; Laboratory Of Human And Artificial Cognition, LUTIN, Université Paris 8, France & Lemonnier, Sophie; Laboratory For Road Operations,Perception, Simulators And Simulations IFSTTAR And Université Paris 8, France
An experiment was conducted in a driving simulator to test how eye-movements patterns evolve over time according to the decision-making processes involved in a driving task. Participants had to drive up to crossroads and decide to stop or not. The decision-making task was considered as the succession of two phases associated with cognitive processes: Differentiation (leading to a prior decision) and Consolidation (leading to a final decision). Road signs (Stop, Priority and GiveWay) varied across...

Multimodal Comprehension of Language and Graphics: Graphs with and without annotations

Cagiltay, Kursat; Middle East Technical University, Alacam, Ozge; Middle East Technical University, Habel, Christopher; University Of Hamburg & Acarturk, Cengiz; University Of Hamburg
An experimental investigation into interaction between language and information graphics in multimodal documents served as the basis for this study. More specifically, our purpose was to investigate the role of linguistic annotations in graph-text documents. Participants were presented with three newspaper articles in the following conditions: one text-only, one text plus non-annotated graph, and one text plus annotated graph. Results of the experiment showed that, on one hand, annotations play a bridging role for integration...

Do you look where I look? Attention shifts and response preparation following dynamic social cues

Walker, Robin; Department Of Psychology, Royal Holloway, University Of London, UK, & Hermens, Frouke; Department Of Psychology, Royal Holloway, University Of London & University Of Aberdeen, UK
Studies investigating the effects of observing a gaze shift in another person often apply static images of a person with an averted gaze, while measuring response times to a peripheral target. Static images, however, are unlike how we normally perceive gaze shifts of others. Moreover, response times might only reveal the effects of a cue on covert attention and might fail to uncover cueing effects on overt attention or response preparation. We therefore extended the...

Binocular coordination during smooth pursuit in dyslexia: a multiple case study

Bucci, Maria-Pia; IRIS Laboratory, FRE 3154, CNRS, Yang, Qing; IRIS Laboratory, FRE 3154, CNRS, Vernet, Marine; IRIS Laboratory, FRE 3154, CNRS & Kapoula, Zoe; IRIS Laboratory, FRE 3154, CNRS
Smooth pursuit (SP) was explored in dyslexics and non-dyslexics. Dyslexic children show similar gain of SP, and number and amplitude of catch-up saccades (CUS) as non-dyslexic children. The quality of binocular coordination is good for both groups; the only significant exception is for pursuit to the right for both smooth phase and CUS; dyslexics show higher disconjugacy. Decrement of binocular control during rightward pursuit only could reflect immaturity of oculomotor learning mechanisms needed to optimize...

The Effect of Different Text Presentation Formats on Eye Movement Metrics in Reading

Räihä, Kari-Jouko; University Of Tampere, Finland, Sharmin, Selina; University Of Tampere, Finland & Špakov, Oleg; University Of Tampere, Finland
Eye movement data were collected and analyzed from 16 participants while they read text from a computer screen. Several text presentation formats were compared, including sentences as part of a full paragraph, sentences presented one by one, sentences presented in chunks of at most 30 characters at a predefined rate, and line-by-line presentation fitting the width of the computer screen. The goal of the experiment was to study how these different text presentation modes affect...

Eye movements in surgery : A literature review

Ahmed, Irfan; Aberdeen Royal Infirmary & University Of Aberdeen, Hermens, Frouke; School Of Psychology, University Of Aberdeen & Flin, Rhona; School Of Psychology, University Of Aberdeen
h recent advances in eye tracking technology, it is now possible to track surgeons’ eye movements while engaged in a surgical task or when surgical residents practice their surgical skills. Several studies have compared eye movements of surgical experts and novices, developed techniques to assess surgical skill on the basis of eye movements, and examined the role of eye movements in surgical training. We here provide an overview of these studies with a focus on...

Microsaccade characterization using the continuous wavelet transform and principal component analysis

Kliegl, Reinhold; University Of Potsdam, Bettenbühl, Mario; University Of Potsdam, Paladini, Claudia; University Of Potsdam, Holschneider, Matthias; University Of Potsdam, Engbert, Ralf; University Of Potsdam & Mergenthaler, Konstantin; University Of Potsdam
During visual fixation on a target, humans perform miniature (or fixational) eye movements consisting of three components, i.e., tremor, drift, and microsaccades. Microsaccades are high velocity components with small amplitudes within fixational eye movements. However, microsaccade shapes and statistical properties vary between individual observers. Here we show that microsaccades can be formally represented with two significant shapes which we identfied using the mathematical definition of singularities for the detection of the former in real data...

Repeated Web Page Visits and the Scanpath Theory: A Recurrent Pattern Detection Approach

Burmester, Michael; Stuttgart Media University & Mast, Marcus; Stuttgart Media University
This paper investigates the eye movement sequences of users visiting web pages repeatedly. We are interested in potential habituation due to repeated exposure. The scanpath theory posits that every person learns an idiosyncratic gaze sequence on first exposure to a stimulus and re-applies it on subsequent exposures. Josephson and Holmes (2002) tested the applicability of this hypothesis to web page revisitation but results were inconclusive. With a recurrent temporal pattern detection technique, we examine additional...

An easy iris center detection method for eye gaze tracking system

Yu, Mingxin; Northeastern University, Boston, USA, & Beijing Institute Of Technology, China, Xu, Jing; Northeastern University, USA, Wang, Xiangzhou; Beijing Institute Of Technology, China, Tang, Xiaoying; Beijing Institute Of Technology, China, Guo, Yikang; Beijing Institute Of Technology, China, Lin, Yingzi; Northeastern University, USA & Schmidt, David; Northeastern University, USA
Iris center detection accuracy has great impact on eye gaze tracking system performance. This paper proposes an easy and efficient iris center detection method based on modeling the geometric relationship between the detected rough iris center and the two corners of the eye. The method fully considers four states of iris within the eye region, i.e. center, left, right, and upper. The proposed active edge detection algorithm is utilized to extract iris edge points for...

Abstracts of the 18th European Conference on Eye Movements 2015

Ansorge, Ulrich; University Of Vienna, Florack, Arnd; University Of Vienna, Ditye, Thomas; University Of Vienna & Leder, Helmut; University Of Vienna
This document contains all abstracts of the 18th European Conference on Eye Movements, August 16-21 2015 in Vienna, Austria

Direction Estimation Model for Gaze Controlled Systems

Pawanesh Abrol & Sharma, Anjana; University Of Jammu
Detection of gaze requires estimation of the position and the relation between user’s pupil and glint. This position is mapped into the region of interest using different edge detectors by detecting the glint coordinates and further gaze direction. In this research paper, a Gaze Direction Estimation (GDE) model has been proposed for the comparative analysis of two standard edge detectors Canny and Sobel for estimating automatic detection of the glint, its coordinates and subsequently the...

Learning to search. The importance of eye movements in the decrease of response times during a visual choice reaction time task

Mak, Monika; Independent Clinical Psychology Unit, Department Of Psychiatry, Pomeranian Medical University, Szczecin, Poland, Kroll, Aleksandra; Independent Clinical Psychology Unit, Department Of Psychiatry, Pomeranian Medical University, Szczecin, Poland & Samochowiec, Jerzy; Department Of Psychiatry, Pomeranian Medical University, Szczecin, Poland
Reaction times are often used as an indicator of the efficiency of the processes in thecentral nervous system. While extensive research has been conducted on the possibleresponse time correlates, the role of eye movements in visual tasks is yet unclear. Here wereport data to support the role of eye movements during visual choice reaction time training.Participant performance, reaction times, and total session duration improved. Eyemovementsshowed expected changes in saccade amplitude and resulted in improvementin visual...

Aftereffects of Saccades Explored in a Dynamic Neural Field Model of the Superior Colliculus

Trappenberg, Thomas P.; Dalhousie University, Satel, Jason; Dalhousie University, Klein, Raymond M.; Dalhousie University & Wang, Zhiguo; Dalhousie University & Chinese Academy Of Sciences
When viewing a scene or searching for a target, an observer usually makes a series of saccades that quickly shift the orientation of the eyes. The present study explored how one saccade affects subsequent saccades within a dynamic neural field model of the superior colliculus (SC). The SC contains an oculocentric motor map that encodes the vector of saccades and remaps to the new fixation location after each saccade. Our simulations demonstrated that the observation...

On object selection in gaze controlled environments

Urbina, Mario H.; Bauhaus-Universität Weimar & Huckauf, Anke; Bauhaus-Universität Weimar
In the past twenty years, gaze control has become a reliable alternative input method not only for handicapped users. The selection of objects, however, which is of highest importance and of highest frequency in computer control, requires explicit control not inherent in eye movements. Objects have been therefore usually selected via prolonged fixations (dwell times). Dwell times seemed to be for many years the unique reliable method for selection. In this paper, we review pros...

Abstracts of the 14th European Conference on Eye Movements 2007

Kliegl, Reinhold; University Of Potsdam & Engbert, R.; University Of Potsdam
The European Conference on Eye Movements, ECEM2007, is the 14th in a series of international scientific conferences dedicated to transdisciplinary research on eye movements. The series was initiated in 1981 by Rudolf Groner in Bern and is organized every second year by a group of European scientists active in eye movement research. This meeting in Potsdam is the third one in Germany, after Göttingen in 1987 and Ulm in 1997. The broad range of topics...

Recurrence Metrics for Assessing Eye Movements in Perceptual Experiments

Vaidyanathan, Preethi; Rochester Institute Of Technology, Pelz, Jeff B.; Rochester Institute Of Technology & Farnand, Susan; Rochester Institute Of Technology
In a recent study evaluating the impact of image content on the consistency of eye movements in perceptual experiments (Farnand, 2013) image complexity was inversely related to scanpath consistency. This work involved a qualitative analysis of eye movements along with analysis of the number and duration of fixations. No quantitative analysis of scan path consistency was performed. Recently, Anderson et al. developed a quantitative tool - Recurrence Quantification Analysis - for analyzing eye movement patterns...

A Simple(r) Tool For Examining Fixations

Francesco Di Nocera, Simon Mastrangelo & Claudio Capobianco
This short paper describes an update of A Simple Tool For Examining Fixations (ASTEF) developed for facilitating the examination of eye-tracking data and for computing a spatial statistics algorithm that has been validated as a measure of mental workload (namely, the Nearest Neighbor Index: NNI). The code is based on Matlab® 2013a and is currently distributed on the web as an open-source project. This implementation of ASTEF got rid of many functionalities included in the...

Correction of Saccade-Induced Midline Errors in Responses to Pure Disparity Vergence Stimuli.

Semmlow, John L.; Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, University Of Medicine And Dentistry Of New Jersey (UMDNJ), New Brunswick, New Jersey USA, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey USA, Chen, Yung-Fu; Department Of Computer Science And Information Engineering, Dayeh University, Changhua, Taiwan, Alvarez, Tara L.; Department Of Biomedical Engineering, New Jersey Institute Of Technology (NJIT), Newark, New Jersey, USA & Granger-Donnetti, Bérangère; Essilor International, St. Maur, FRANCE
Purely symmetrical vergence stimuli aligned along the midline (cyclopean axis) require only a pure vergence response. Yet, in most responses saccades are observed and these saccades must either produce an error in the desired midline response or correct an error produced by asymmetry in the vergence response. A previous study (Semmlow, et al. 2008) has shown that the first saccade to appear in a response to a pure vergence stimulus usually increased the deviation from...

Spoken language-mediated anticipatory eye-movements are modulated by reading ability - Evidence from Indian low and high literates

Pandey, Aparna; University Of Allahabad, India, Huettig, Falk; Max Planck Institute For Psycholinguistics & Radboud University, Nijmegen, Singh, Niharika; University Of Allahabad, India & Mishra, Ramesh K.; University Of Allahabad, India
We investigated whether levels of reading ability attained through formal literacy are related to anticipatory language-mediated eye movements. Indian low and high literates listened to simple spoken sentences containing a target word (e.g., "door") while at the same time looking at a visual display of four objects (a target, i.e. the door, and three distractors). The spoken sentences were constructed in such a way that participants could use semantic, associative, and syntactic information from adjectives...

When East meets West: gaze-contingent Blindspots abolish cultural diversity in eye movements for faces

He, Lingnan; Sun Yat-Sen University, Miellet, Sébastien; University Of Fribourg, Caldara, Roberto; University Of Fribourg, Lao, Junpeng; University Of Glasgow & Zhou, Xinyue; Sun Yat-Sen University
Culture impacts on how people sample visual information for face processing. Westerners deploy fixations towards the eyes and the mouth to achieve face recognition. In contrast, Easterners reach equal performance by deploying more central fixations, suggesting an effective extrafoveal information use. However, this hypothesis has not been yet directly investigated, i.e. by providing only extrafoveal information to both groups of observers. We used a parametric gaze-contingent technique dynamically masking central vision - the Blindspot –...

Eye Movements in Reading: Models and Data

Rayner, Keith; Department Of Psychology, University Of California, San Diego
Models of eye movement control in reading and their impact on the field are discussed. Differences between the E-Z Reader model and the SWIFT model are reviewed, as are benchmark data that need to be accounted for by any model of eye movement control. Predictions made by the models and how models can sometimes account for counterintuitive findings are also discussed. Finally, the role of models and data in further understanding the reading process is...

Implicit prosody and contextual bias in silent reading

Kentner, Gerrit; University Of Frankfurt, Germany, McCurdy, Kate; University Of Potsdam, Germany & Vasishth, Shravan; University Of Potsdam, Germany
Eye-movement research on implicit prosody has found effects of lexical stress on syntactic ambiguity resolution, suggesting that metrical well-formedness constraints interact with syntactic category assignment. Building on these findings, the present eyetracking study investigates whether contextual bias can modulate the effects of metrical structure on syntactic ambiguity resolution in silent reading. Contextual bias and potential stress-clash in the ambiguous region were crossed in a 2 2 design. Participants read biased context sentences followed by temporarily...

The Influence of Distractors on Saccade-Target Selection: Saccade Trajectory Effects

Walker, Robin; Royal Holloway, University Of London & McSorley, Eugene; University Of Reading
It has long been known that the path (trajectory) taken by the eye to land on a target is rarely straight (Yarbus, 1967). Furthermore, the magnitude and direction of this natural tendency for curvature can be modulated by the presence of a competing distractor stimulus presented along with the saccade target. The distractor-related modulation of saccade trajectories provides a subtle measure of the underlying competitive processes involved in saccade target selection. Here we review some...

Microsaccades under monocular viewing conditions

Kloke, Wilhelm Bernhard; Leibniz-Institut Für Arbeitsforschung An Der TU Dortmund, Jaschinski, Wolfgang; Leibniz-Institut Für Arbeitsforschung An Der TU Dortmund & Jainta, Stephanie; Leibniz-Institut Für Arbeitsforschung An Der TU Dortmund
Among the eye movements during fixation, the function of small saccades occuring quite commonly at fixation is still unclear. It has been reported that a substantial number of these microsaccades seem to occur in only one of the eyes. The aim of the present study is to investigate microsaccades in monocular stimulation conditions. Although this is an artificial test condition which does not occur in natural vision, this monocular presentation paradigm allows for a critical...

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