225 Works

EyeMMV toolbox: An eye movement post-analysis tool based on a two-step spatial dispersion threshold for fixation identification

Filippakopoulou, Vassiliki; National Technical University Of Athens, Krassanakis, Vassilios; National Technical University Of Athens & Nakos, Byron; National Technical University Of Athens
Eye movement recordings and their analysis constitute an effective way to examine visual perception. There is a special need for the design of computer software for the performance of data analysis. The present study describes the development of a new toolbox, called EyeMMV (Eye Movements Metrics & Visualizations), for post experimental eye movement analysis. The detection of fixation events is performed with the use of an introduced algorithm based on a two-step spatial dispersion threshold....

Is poor coordination of saccades in dyslexics a consequence of reading difficulties? A study case

Ghassemi, Elham; IRIS Group, Centre D’Études De La Sensori-Motricité, UMR 8194, CNRS, Université Paris Descartes, Paris, France & Kapoula, Zoë; IRIS Group, Centre D’Études De La Sensori-Motricité, CNRS, Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou, Paris, France
We hypothesize that the high quality of binocular coordination of saccades in reading is progressively learned during childhood, and this oculomotor learning is based on a synergy between saccades and vergence. In present work deficits in the binocular control of saccades in six dyslexic children (mean age was 11±2.48 years) are studied for two tasks (text reading and Xs-C scanning), and at two viewing distances (40 cm and 100 cm). Fixation durations resulting are longer...

Autobiographical recall triggers visual exploration

Delerue, Céline; University Of Lille, Mohamad El Haj, Boucart, Muriel; University Of Lille, Omigie, Diana; University Of Lille, Antoine, Pascal; University Of Lille & Nandrino, Jean Louis; University Of Lille
Autobiographical recall is thought to rely on the ability to generate a visual image of the remembered event. Neuropsychological studies suggest a relationship between deterioration in visual mental imagery and autobiographical distortions, while neuroimaging data similarly implicate visual brain areas in autobiographical recall. However, neither whether autobiographical retrieval is associated with visual exploration, or not. Our paper aimed to provide such evidence one way or the other. Using an eye tracking system, we recorded eye...

Abstracts of the 13th European Conference on Eye Movements 2005

Müri, R.; University Of Bern, Raess, Simon; University Of Bern, Suri, P.; University Of Bern, Koga, Kazuo; Nagoya University, Groner, Marina; University Of Bern & Groner, Rudolf; University Of Bern
This issue contains the abstracts submitted for presentation at the Thirteenth European Conference on Eye Movements (ECEM13), Bern, August 14 – 18, 2005, and reviewed by the Scientific Board, consisting of W. Becker, Ulm; C.J. Erkelens, Utrecht; J.M. Findlay, Durham; A.G. Gale, Derby; C.W. Hess, Bern; J. Hyönä, Turku; A. Kennedy, Dundee; K. Koga, Nagoya; G. Lüer, Göttingen; M. Menozzi, Zürich; W. Perrig, Bern; G. d’Ydewalle, Leuven; D. Zambarbieri, Pavia. A quarter of a century...

Different judgments about visual textures invoke different eye movement patterns

Renken, Remco; University Medical Center Groningen, Cornelissen, Frans W.; University Medical Center Groningen, Jacobs, Richard H.A.H.; University Medical Center Groningen & Thumfart, Stefan; Profactor GmbH
Top-down influences on the guidance of the eyes are generally modeled as modulating influences on bottom-up salience maps. Interested in task-driven influences on how, rather than where, the eyes are guided, we expected differences in eye movement parameters accompanying beauty and roughness judgments about visual textures. Participants judged textures for beauty and roughness, while their gaze-behavior was recorded. Eye movement parameters differed between the judgments, showing task effects on how people look at images. Similarity...

Gaze interaction enhances problem solving: Effects of dwell-time based, gaze-augmented, and mouse interaction on problem-solving strategies and user experience

Bednarik, Roman; University Of Joensuu, Finland, Gowases, Tersia; University Of Joensuu, Finland & Tukiainen, Markku; University Of Joensuu, Finland
It is still unknown whether the very application of gaze for interaction has effects on cognitive strategies users employ and how these effects materialize. We conducted a between-subject experiment in which thirty-six participants interacted with a computerized problem-solving game using one of three interaction modalities: dwell-time, gaze-augmented interaction, and the conventional mouse. We observed how using each of the modalities affected performance, problem solving strategies, and user experience. Users with gaze-augmented interaction outperformed the other...

Study of depth bias of observers in free viewing of still stereoscopic synthetic stimuli

Ricordel, Vincent; LUNAM Université, Université De Nantes, IRCCyN UMR CNRS 6597, France, Callet, Patrick Le; LUNAM Université, Université De Nantes, IRCCyN UMR CNRS 6597, France, Silva, Matthieu Perreira Da; LUNAM Université, Université De Nantes, IRCCyN UMR CNRS 6597, France, Tourancheau, Sylvain; Dept Of Information Technology And Media, Mid Sweden University, Sweden & Wang, Junle; LUNAM Université, Université De Nantes, IRCCyN UMR CNRS 6597, France
Observers’ fixations exhibit a marked bias towards certain areas on the screen when viewing scenes on computer monitors. For instance, there exists a well-known “center-bias” which means that fixations are biased towards the center of the screen during the viewing of 2D still images. In the viewing of 3D content, stereoscopic displays enhance depth perception by the mean of binocular parallax. This additional depth cue has a great influence on guiding eye movements. Relatively little...

Author index of the 16th European Conference on Eye Movements 2011

Goffart, Laurent; CNRS, Université De La Méditerranée, Castet, Eric; CNRS, Université De La Méditerranée & Vitu, Françoise; CNRS, Université De Provence
This document contains the author index of the 16th European Conference on Eye Movements, August 21-25 2011 in Marseille, France

Squeezing Uncertainty from Saccadic Compression

Hunt, A. R.; University Of British Columbia, Kingstone, A.; University Of British Columbia & Chapman, C. S.; University Of British Columbia
Brief visual stimuli presented before and during a saccade are often mislocalized due to spatial compression. This saccadic compression effect is thought to have a perceptual basis, and results in visual objects being squeezed together and their number underestimated. Here we show that observers are also uncertain about their visual experiences just before and during a saccade. It is known that responses tend to be biased away from extreme values under conditions of uncertainty. Thus,...

Microsaccades and Exploratory Saccades in a Naturalistic Environment

Bridgeman, Bruce; University Of California, Santa Cruz, Pedrotti, Marco; Università Di Torino & Benedetto, Simone; Università Di Torino
Microsaccades, small saccadic eye movements made during fixation, might accompany shifts of visual attention, serve to refresh the retinal image, or have some other function. We tested the relative importance of these functions by recording exploratory saccades and microsaccades with a free head during a lane-change task in a simulated driving environment, accompanied by a simultaneous visual search task in which drivers searched for a target among similar distractors on a panel to the driver's...

User-Friendly Locations of Error Messages in Web Forms: An Eye Tracking Study

Inal, Yavuz; Department Of Information Systems Engineering, Faculty Of Engineering, Atılım University, Ankara, Turkey.
Error messages presented to users are one of the most important elements of Web forms. Error messages are embedded in different parts of the forms available on the Internet and presented in various formats. One of the measures of a user-friendly error message design is the ability to easily capture users’ attention and facilitate fast error correction. In this empirical study, I tested four different locations of error messages frequently used in Web forms on...

Conditional co-occurrence probability acts like frequency in predicting fixation durations

Ong, James K. Y.; Upper Austria University Of Applied Sciences & Kliegl, Reinhold; University Of Potsdam
The predictability of an upcoming word has been found to be a useful predictor in eye movement research, but is expensive to collect and subjective in nature. It would be desirable to have other predictors that are easier to collect and objective in nature if these predictors were capable of capturing the information stored in predictability. This paper contributes to this discussion by testing a possible predictor: conditional co-occurrence probability. This measure is a simple...

Effectiveness of a Virtual Reality Head-Mounted Display System-based Developmental Eye Movement Test

Kim, Jung-Ho; Kwangwoon University, Son, Ho-Jun; Kwangwoon University, Lee, Sung-Jin; Kwangwoon University Duksung Women's University, Yun, Deok-Young; Kwangwoon University, Lee, Seung-Hyun; Kwangwoon University & Kwon, Soon-Chul; Kwangwoon University
By transplanting the Developmental Eye Movement (DEM) test chart to a virtual reality head-mounted display (VR HMD) system, this study sought to evaluate the effectiveness of the DEM test for measuring dynamic visual acuity.Thirty-nine adults aged 20–39 years of both genders were the subjects of the study. After undergoing measurement of their visual function, through medical questionnaire, interpupillary distance, near point of convergence (NPC), near point of accommodation (NPA), and far and near phoria, the...

Mapping the Pupil-Glint Vector to Gaze Coordinates in a Simple Video-Based Eye Tracker

Blignaut, Pieter; University Of The Free State, South Africa
In a video-based eye tracker, the normalized pupil-glint vector changes as the eyes move. Using an appropriate model, the pupil-glint vector can be mapped to gaze coordinates. Using a simple hardware configuration with one camera and one infrared source, several mapping functions – some from literature and some derived here – were compared with one another with respect to the accuracy that could be achieved. The study served to confirm the results of a previous...

Transsaccadic Scene Memory Revisited: A 'Theory of Visual Attention (TVA)' Based Approach to Recognition Memory and Confidence for Objects in Naturalistic Scenes.

Võ, Melissa L.-H.; Department Of Psychology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Germany, Schneider, Werner X.; Department Of Psychology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Germany Department Of Psychology, Bielefeld University, Germany & Matthias, Ellen; Department Of Psychology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Germany
The study presented here introduces a new approach to the investigation of transsaccadic memory for objects in naturalistic scenes. Participants were tested with a whole-report task from which — based on the theory of visual attention (TVA) - processing efficiency parameters were derived, namely visual short-term memory storage capacity and visual processing speed. By combining these processing efficiency parameters with transsaccadic memory data from a previous study, we were able to take a closer look...

A Focus on Selection for Fixation

Wloka, Calden; York University, Canada, Kotseruba, Iuliia; York University, Canada & Tsotsos, John; York University, Canada
A computational explanation of how visual attention, interpretation of visual stimuli, and eye movements combine to produce visual behavior, seems elusive. Here, we focus on one component: how selection is accomplished for the next fixation. The popularity of saliency map models drives the inference that this is solved, but we argue otherwise. We provide arguments that a cluster of complementary, conspicuity representations drive selection, modulated by task goals and history, leading to a hybrid process...

Comparing Experts and Novices on Scaffolded Data Visualizations using Eye-tracking

Stofer, Kathryn; University Of Florida & Che, Xuan; National Institutes Of Health
Spatially-based scientific data visualizations are becoming widely available, yet they are often not optimized for novice audiences. This study follows after an investigation of ex-pert and novice meaning-making from scaffolded data visualizations using clinical inter-views. Using eye-tracking and concurrent interviewing, we examined quantitative fixation and AOI data and qualitative scan path data for two expertise groups (N = 20) on five versions of scaffolded global ocean data visualizations. We found influences of expertise, scaffolding, and...

About the global effect and the critical role of retinal eccentricity: Implications for eye movements in reading

Vitu, Françoise; CNRS, Université De Provence
In the present paper, I review evidence for the universality of the global effect, i.e. the general tendency to move the eyes towards the centre of gravity of the peripheral configu-ration, and show that the effect is strongly constrained by the retinal location of the stimuli. First, stimuli that are displayed in a central foveal region of a 1-1.5° radius fail to deviate the eyes in a centre-of-gravity manner; this is referred to as the...

Tracking Visual Scanning Techniques in Training Simulation for Helicopter Landing

Robinski, Maxi; German Air Force Institute Of Aviation Medicine & Stein, Michael; German Air Force Institute Of Aviation Medicine
Research has shown no consistent findings about how scanning techniques differ between experienced and inexperienced helicopter pilots depending on mission demands. To explore this question, 33 military pilots performed two different landing maneuvers in a flight simulator. The data included scanning data (eye tracking) as well as performance, workload, and a self-assessment of scanning techniques (interviews). Fifty-four percent of scanning-related differences between pilots resulted from the factor combination of expertise and mission demands. A comparison...

Evidence Supporting Open-Loop Control During Early Vergence

Semmlow, John; Rutgers University, Granger-Donetti, Bérangère; Essilor International & Alvarez, Tara; New Jersey Institute Of Technology
Disparity vergence eye movements were analyzed to determine if the early component of this response operates under open-loop, or preprogrammed, control. The analysis compares ratios of peak velocity to response amplitude (i.e., main sequence ratios) for the isolated early component and for the entire disparity vergence response. The stimuli were limited a 4 deg step changes in vergence so that any differences in movement dynamics (i.e., peak velocities) were due only to internal noise. Nine...

Systematic tendencies in scene viewing

Vincent, Benjamin T.; University Of Dundee & Tatler, Benjamin W.; University Of Dundee
While many current models of scene perception debate the relative roles of low- and highlevel factors in eye guidance, systematic tendencies in how the eyes move may be informative. We consider how each saccade and fixation is influenced by that which preceded or followed it, during free inspection of images of natural scenes. We find evidence to suggest periods of localized scanning separated by ‘global’ relocations to new regions of the scene. We also find...

Effect of Dravidian vernacular, English and Hindi during onscreen reading text: A physiological, subjective and objective evaluation study

Majumdar, Deepti; DIPAS, DRDO, Delhi, India, Chowdhury, Bodhisattwa; DIPAS, DRDO, Delhi, India, Majumdar, Dhurjati; DIPAS, DRDO, Delhi, India & Bhattacharyya, Debojyoti; DIPAS, DRDO, Delhi, India
Multilingualism has become an integral part of our present lifestyle. India has twenty two registered official languages with English and Hindi being most widely used for all official activities across the nation. As both these languages are introduced later in life, it was hypothesised that comprehensive reading will be better and faster if the native medium was used. Therefore present study aimed to evaluate the differences in performance while using one of the four Indian...

Tracking eye movements when solving geometry problems with handwriting devices

Lin, Sunny S. J.; Institute Of Education, National Chiao Tung University, Taiwan & Lin, John J. H.; Institute Of Education, National Chiao Tung University, Taiwan
The present study investigated the following issues: (1) whether differences are evident in the eye movement measures of successful and unsuccessful problem-solvers; (2) what is the relationship between perceived difficulty and eye movement measures; and (3) whether eye movements in various AOIs differ when solving problems. Sixty-three 11th grade students solved five geometry problems about the properties of similar triangles. A digital drawing tablet and sensitive pressure pen were used to record the responses. The...

Eye-tracking Deaf and hearing viewing of sign language interpreted news broadcasts

Wehrmeyer, Jennifer; North-West University, South Africa
In this study, the viewing habits of deaf and hearing adults are investigated using eye tracking while they watched interpreted news broadcasts. The study shows that deaf viewers primarily focus on the interpreter and secondarily access picture material, but make very little use of subtitles or lip-reading. In contrast, hearing viewers prioritise pictorial content but also spend significant proportions of time examining subtitles, lip-reading and even watching the interpreter. Viewing patterns are dependent on pictorial...

High working memory performers have efficient eye movement control systems under Reading Span Test

Azuma, Miyuki; Osaka University, Osaka, Naoyuki; Kyoto University, Minamoto, Takehiro; Kyoto University, Ikeda, Takashi; Osaka University & Osaka, Mariko; Osaka University
Controlled eye movements are critical in performing highly goal oriented behavior such as text reading. Previous studies have examined the relationship between working memory capacity and eye movement control during working memory task. However, the results were inconsistent, due to a methodological issue including the predictability of target location. In the present study, we used Japanese version of reading span test, where the position of to-be-remembered word is not predictable so that more efficient attentional...

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