225 Works

The contribution of interference control for young children`s working memory performance: Insights from eye-tracking

Roderer, Thomas; University Of Bern, Roebers, Claudia M.; University Of Bern & Schmid, Corinne; University Of Bern
In the present study, the role of visual attentional processes for working memory performance in a sample of 6-year-olds was investigated. This was done by combining an individual differences approach with an experimental manipulation: For the individual differences approach, participants were grouped based on their performance in a classical interference control task, and their working memory skills were systematically compared. For the experimental manipulation, the need to control interference while performing a working memory task...

Abstracts of the 16th European Conference on Eye Movements 2011

Vitu, Françoise; CNRS, Université De Provence, Castet, Eric; CNRS, Université De La Méditerranée & Goffart, Laurent; CNRS, Université De La Méditerranée
This document contains all abstracts of the 16th European Conference on Eye Movements, August 21-25 2011 in Marseille, France. It was a real honour and a great pleasure to welcome more than 500 delegates to Marseille for the 16th edition of the European Conference on Eye Movements. The series of ECEM conferences started in 1981 under the auspices of Rudolf Groner in Bern. This year, we therefore celebrated the 30th Anniversary of ECEM. For this...

EyeMMV toolbox: An eye movement post-analysis tool based on a two-step spatial dispersion threshold for fixation identification

Filippakopoulou, Vassiliki; National Technical University Of Athens, Krassanakis, Vassilios; National Technical University Of Athens & Nakos, Byron; National Technical University Of Athens
Eye movement recordings and their analysis constitute an effective way to examine visual perception. There is a special need for the design of computer software for the performance of data analysis. The present study describes the development of a new toolbox, called EyeMMV (Eye Movements Metrics & Visualizations), for post experimental eye movement analysis. The detection of fixation events is performed with the use of an introduced algorithm based on a two-step spatial dispersion threshold....

Abstracts of the 13th European Conference on Eye Movements 2005

Müri, R.; University Of Bern, Raess, Simon; University Of Bern, Suri, P.; University Of Bern, Koga, Kazuo; Nagoya University, Groner, Marina; University Of Bern & Groner, Rudolf; University Of Bern
This issue contains the abstracts submitted for presentation at the Thirteenth European Conference on Eye Movements (ECEM13), Bern, August 14 – 18, 2005, and reviewed by the Scientific Board, consisting of W. Becker, Ulm; C.J. Erkelens, Utrecht; J.M. Findlay, Durham; A.G. Gale, Derby; C.W. Hess, Bern; J. Hyönä, Turku; A. Kennedy, Dundee; K. Koga, Nagoya; G. Lüer, Göttingen; M. Menozzi, Zürich; W. Perrig, Bern; G. d’Ydewalle, Leuven; D. Zambarbieri, Pavia. A quarter of a century...

Different judgments about visual textures invoke different eye movement patterns

Renken, Remco; University Medical Center Groningen, Cornelissen, Frans W.; University Medical Center Groningen, Jacobs, Richard H.A.H.; University Medical Center Groningen & Thumfart, Stefan; Profactor GmbH
Top-down influences on the guidance of the eyes are generally modeled as modulating influences on bottom-up salience maps. Interested in task-driven influences on how, rather than where, the eyes are guided, we expected differences in eye movement parameters accompanying beauty and roughness judgments about visual textures. Participants judged textures for beauty and roughness, while their gaze-behavior was recorded. Eye movement parameters differed between the judgments, showing task effects on how people look at images. Similarity...

Study of depth bias of observers in free viewing of still stereoscopic synthetic stimuli

Ricordel, Vincent; LUNAM Université, Université De Nantes, IRCCyN UMR CNRS 6597, France, Callet, Patrick Le; LUNAM Université, Université De Nantes, IRCCyN UMR CNRS 6597, France, Silva, Matthieu Perreira Da; LUNAM Université, Université De Nantes, IRCCyN UMR CNRS 6597, France, Tourancheau, Sylvain; Dept Of Information Technology And Media, Mid Sweden University, Sweden & Wang, Junle; LUNAM Université, Université De Nantes, IRCCyN UMR CNRS 6597, France
Observers’ fixations exhibit a marked bias towards certain areas on the screen when viewing scenes on computer monitors. For instance, there exists a well-known “center-bias” which means that fixations are biased towards the center of the screen during the viewing of 2D still images. In the viewing of 3D content, stereoscopic displays enhance depth perception by the mean of binocular parallax. This additional depth cue has a great influence on guiding eye movements. Relatively little...

Author index of the 16th European Conference on Eye Movements 2011

Goffart, Laurent; CNRS, Université De La Méditerranée, Castet, Eric; CNRS, Université De La Méditerranée & Vitu, Françoise; CNRS, Université De Provence
This document contains the author index of the 16th European Conference on Eye Movements, August 21-25 2011 in Marseille, France

Squeezing Uncertainty from Saccadic Compression

Hunt, A. R.; University Of British Columbia, Kingstone, A.; University Of British Columbia & Chapman, C. S.; University Of British Columbia
Brief visual stimuli presented before and during a saccade are often mislocalized due to spatial compression. This saccadic compression effect is thought to have a perceptual basis, and results in visual objects being squeezed together and their number underestimated. Here we show that observers are also uncertain about their visual experiences just before and during a saccade. It is known that responses tend to be biased away from extreme values under conditions of uncertainty. Thus,...

User-Friendly Locations of Error Messages in Web Forms: An Eye Tracking Study

Inal, Yavuz; Department Of Information Systems Engineering, Faculty Of Engineering, Atılım University, Ankara, Turkey.
Error messages presented to users are one of the most important elements of Web forms. Error messages are embedded in different parts of the forms available on the Internet and presented in various formats. One of the measures of a user-friendly error message design is the ability to easily capture users’ attention and facilitate fast error correction. In this empirical study, I tested four different locations of error messages frequently used in Web forms on...

Effectiveness of a Virtual Reality Head-Mounted Display System-based Developmental Eye Movement Test

Kim, Jung-Ho; Kwangwoon University, Son, Ho-Jun; Kwangwoon University, Lee, Sung-Jin; Kwangwoon University Duksung Women's University, Yun, Deok-Young; Kwangwoon University, Lee, Seung-Hyun; Kwangwoon University & Kwon, Soon-Chul; Kwangwoon University
By transplanting the Developmental Eye Movement (DEM) test chart to a virtual reality head-mounted display (VR HMD) system, this study sought to evaluate the effectiveness of the DEM test for measuring dynamic visual acuity.Thirty-nine adults aged 20–39 years of both genders were the subjects of the study. After undergoing measurement of their visual function, through medical questionnaire, interpupillary distance, near point of convergence (NPC), near point of accommodation (NPA), and far and near phoria, the...

Mapping the Pupil-Glint Vector to Gaze Coordinates in a Simple Video-Based Eye Tracker

Blignaut, Pieter; University Of The Free State, South Africa
In a video-based eye tracker, the normalized pupil-glint vector changes as the eyes move. Using an appropriate model, the pupil-glint vector can be mapped to gaze coordinates. Using a simple hardware configuration with one camera and one infrared source, several mapping functions – some from literature and some derived here – were compared with one another with respect to the accuracy that could be achieved. The study served to confirm the results of a previous...

Transsaccadic Scene Memory Revisited: A 'Theory of Visual Attention (TVA)' Based Approach to Recognition Memory and Confidence for Objects in Naturalistic Scenes.

Võ, Melissa L.-H.; Department Of Psychology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Germany, Schneider, Werner X.; Department Of Psychology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Germany Department Of Psychology, Bielefeld University, Germany & Matthias, Ellen; Department Of Psychology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Germany
The study presented here introduces a new approach to the investigation of transsaccadic memory for objects in naturalistic scenes. Participants were tested with a whole-report task from which — based on the theory of visual attention (TVA) - processing efficiency parameters were derived, namely visual short-term memory storage capacity and visual processing speed. By combining these processing efficiency parameters with transsaccadic memory data from a previous study, we were able to take a closer look...

A Focus on Selection for Fixation

Wloka, Calden; York University, Canada, Kotseruba, Iuliia; York University, Canada & Tsotsos, John; York University, Canada
A computational explanation of how visual attention, interpretation of visual stimuli, and eye movements combine to produce visual behavior, seems elusive. Here, we focus on one component: how selection is accomplished for the next fixation. The popularity of saliency map models drives the inference that this is solved, but we argue otherwise. We provide arguments that a cluster of complementary, conspicuity representations drive selection, modulated by task goals and history, leading to a hybrid process...

Systematic tendencies in scene viewing

Vincent, Benjamin T.; University Of Dundee & Tatler, Benjamin W.; University Of Dundee
While many current models of scene perception debate the relative roles of low- and highlevel factors in eye guidance, systematic tendencies in how the eyes move may be informative. We consider how each saccade and fixation is influenced by that which preceded or followed it, during free inspection of images of natural scenes. We find evidence to suggest periods of localized scanning separated by ‘global’ relocations to new regions of the scene. We also find...

Effect of Dravidian vernacular, English and Hindi during onscreen reading text: A physiological, subjective and objective evaluation study

Majumdar, Deepti; DIPAS, DRDO, Delhi, India, Chowdhury, Bodhisattwa; DIPAS, DRDO, Delhi, India, Majumdar, Dhurjati; DIPAS, DRDO, Delhi, India & Bhattacharyya, Debojyoti; DIPAS, DRDO, Delhi, India
Multilingualism has become an integral part of our present lifestyle. India has twenty two registered official languages with English and Hindi being most widely used for all official activities across the nation. As both these languages are introduced later in life, it was hypothesised that comprehensive reading will be better and faster if the native medium was used. Therefore present study aimed to evaluate the differences in performance while using one of the four Indian...

Eye-tracking Deaf and hearing viewing of sign language interpreted news broadcasts

Wehrmeyer, Jennifer; North-West University, South Africa
In this study, the viewing habits of deaf and hearing adults are investigated using eye tracking while they watched interpreted news broadcasts. The study shows that deaf viewers primarily focus on the interpreter and secondarily access picture material, but make very little use of subtitles or lip-reading. In contrast, hearing viewers prioritise pictorial content but also spend significant proportions of time examining subtitles, lip-reading and even watching the interpreter. Viewing patterns are dependent on pictorial...

High working memory performers have efficient eye movement control systems under Reading Span Test

Azuma, Miyuki; Osaka University, Osaka, Naoyuki; Kyoto University, Minamoto, Takehiro; Kyoto University, Ikeda, Takashi; Osaka University & Osaka, Mariko; Osaka University
Controlled eye movements are critical in performing highly goal oriented behavior such as text reading. Previous studies have examined the relationship between working memory capacity and eye movement control during working memory task. However, the results were inconsistent, due to a methodological issue including the predictability of target location. In the present study, we used Japanese version of reading span test, where the position of to-be-remembered word is not predictable so that more efficient attentional...

Idiosyncratic Feature-Based Gaze Mapping

Blignaut, Pieter; Department Of Computer Science And Informatics, University Of The Free State, South Africa
It is argued that polynomial expressions that are normally used for remote, video-based, low cost eye tracking systems, are not always ideal to accommodate individual differences in eye cleft, position of the eye in the socket, corneal bulge, astigmatism, etc. A procedure to identify a set of polynomial expressions that will provide the best possible accuracy for a specific individual is proposed. It is also proposed that regression coefficients are recalculated in real-time, based on...

How form and structure of Chinese characters affect eye movement control

Ma, Min-Yuan; National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (R.O.C) & Chuang, Hsien-Chih; National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (R.O.C)
This study investigated the correlations between the form features and legibility of Chinese characters by employing the eye tracking method in two experiments: Experiment 1 examined factors affecting Chinese character legibility with character modules and identified the correlations between character form and legibility of crossing strokes; and Experiment 2 examined the effect of crossing strokes on subjective complicacy perception in both Chinese characters and English letters. This study determined that enclosed Chinese characters affect subjective...

Do Graph Readers Prefer the Graph Type Most Suited to a Given Task? Insights from Eye Tracking

Saß, Steffani; Leibniz Institute For Science And Mathematics Education (IPN), Kiel, Strobel, Benjamin; Leibniz Institute For Science And Mathematics Education (IPN), Kiel, Lindner, Marlit Annalena; Leibniz Institute For Science And Mathematics Education (IPN), Kiel & Köller, Olaf; Leibniz Institute For Science And Mathematics Education (IPN), Kiel
Research on graph comprehension suggests that point differences are easier to read in bar graphs, while trends are easier to read in line graphs. But are graph readers able to detect and use the most suited graph type for a given task? In this study, we applied a dual repre-sentation paradigm and eye tracking methodology to determine graph readers’ preferential processing of bar and line graphs while solving both point difference and trend tasks. Data...

Effects of conversation content on viewing dyadic conversations

Hautala, Jarkko; University Of Jyväskylä, Piia Astikainen, Otto Loberg, Jari K Hietanen & Lauri Nummenmaa
People typically follow conversations closely with their gaze. We asked whether this viewing is influenced by what is actually said in the conversation and by the viewer’s psychological condition. We recorded the eye movements of healthy (N = 16) and depressed (N = 25) participants while they were viewing video clips. Each video showed two people, each speaking one line of dialogue about socio-emotionally important (i.e., personal) or unimportant topics (matter-of-fact). Between the spoken lines,...

Eye tracking scanpath analysis techniques on web pages: A survey, evaluation and comparison

Eraslan, Sukru; University Of Manchester, UK, & Middle East Technical University, Northern Cyprus Campus, Kalkanli, Guzelyurt, Turkey, Yesilada, Yeliz; Middle East Technical University, Northern Cyprus Campus, 99738 Kalkanli, Guzelyurt, Mersin 10, Turkey & Harper, Simon; School Of Computer Science, University Of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom
Eye tracking has commonly been used to investigate how users interact with web pages, with the goal of improving their usability. This article comprehensively revisits the techniques that could be applicable to eye tracking data for analysing user scanpaths on web pages. It also uses a third-party eye tracking study to compare these techniques. This allows researchers to recognise existing techniques for their goals, understand how they work and know their strengths and limitations so...

Eye-tracking Study of Reading Speed from LCD Displays: Influence of Type Style and Type Size

Podlesek, Anja; University Of Ljubljana, Možina, Klementina; University Of Ljubljana & Franken, Gregor; University Of Ljubljana
Increasing amounts of text are read from various types of screens. The shape and the size of a typeface determine the legibility of texts. The aim of this study was to investigate the legibility of different typefaces displayed on LCD screens. Two typefaces (Georgia and Verdana), designed for screen renderings were analyzed by eye-tracking technology in 8 different sizes. Regardless of the font size, the texts set in Verdana were read faster. For both typefaces...

Anticipation of physical causality guides eye movements

Wende, Kim; Université Catholique De Louvain, Missal, Marcus; Université Catholique De Louvain & Theunissen, Laetitia; Université Catholique De Louvain
Causality is a unique feature of human perception. We present here a behavioral investigation of the influence of physical causality during visual pursuit of object collisions. Pursuit and saccadic eye movements of human subjects were recorded during ocular pursuit of two concurrently launched targets, one that moved according to the laws of Newtonian mechanics (the causal target) and the other one that moved in a physically implausible direction (the non-causal target). We found that anticipation...

A simple way to estimate similarity between pairs of eye movement sequences

Gilchrist, Iain D.; University Of Bristol, Cristino, Filipe; Bangor University, Theeuwes, Jan; Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam & Mathôt, Sebastiaan; Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam
We propose a novel algorithm to estimate the similarity between a pair of eye movement sequences. The proposed algorithm relies on a straight-forward geometric representation of eye movement data. The algorithm is considerably simpler to implement and apply than existing similarity measures, and is particularly suited for exploratory analyses. To validate the algorithm, we conducted a benchmark experiment using realistic artificial eye movement data. Based on similarity ratings obtained from the proposed algorithm, we defined...

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