225 Works

Edit Blindness: The relationship between attention and global change blindness in dynamic scenes.

Henderson, John M.; University Of Edinburgh & Smith, Tim J.; University Of Edinburgh
Although we experience the visual world as a continuous, richly detailed space we often fail to notice large and significant changes. Such change blindness has been demonstrated for local object changes and changes to the visual form of whole images, however it is assumed that total changes from one image to another would be easily detected. Film editing presents such total changes several times a minute yet we rarely seem to be aware of them,...

Eye-movements in real curve driving: pursuit-like optokinesis in vehicle frame of reference, stability in an allocentric reference coordinate system

Lehtonen, Esko; University Of Helsinki & Lappi, Otto; University Of Helsinki
Looking at the future path and/or the tangent point (TP) have been identified as car drivers’ gaze targets in many studies on curve driving. Yet little is known in detail about these "fixations to the road". We quantitatively analyse gaze behavior at the level of individual fixations in real on-road data. We find that while gaze tracks the TP area, this pattern consists of fast optokinetic movements (smooth pursuit and fast resetting saccadic movements). Gaze...

Fixation Region Overlap: A quantitative method for the analysis of fixational eye movement patterns

Johnston, Stephen; Wales Institute For Cognitive Neuroscience, School Of Psychology, Bangor University & Leek, Charles; Wales Institute For Cognitive Neuroscience, School Of Psychology, Bangor University
This article presents a new method for the quantitative analyses of fixation patterns in eye tracking data. The Fixation Region Overlap Analysis (FROA) uses thresholded spatial distributions of fixation frequency or duration to determine regions-of-interest (ROIs). The locations of these ROIs are contrasted with fixation regions of other empirically-derived, or modelled, data patterns by comparing region pixel overlap. A Monte Carlo procedure is used to assess the statistical significance of fixation region overlap based on...

Influences of dwell time and cursor control on the performance in gaze driven typing

Helmert, Jens R.; Applied Cognitive Research / Institute Of Psychology III, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Velichkovsky, Boris M.; Applied Cognitive Research / Institute Of Psychology III, Technische Universitaet Dresden & Pannasch, Sebastian; Applied Cognitive Research / Institute Of Psychology III, Technische Universitaet Dresden
In gaze controlled computer interfaces the dwell time is often used as selection criterion. But this solution comes along with several problems, especially in the temporal domain: Eye movement studies on scene perception could demonstrate that fixations of different durations serve different purposes and should therefore be differentiated. The use of dwell time for selection implies the need to distinguish intentional selections from merely per-ceptual processes, described as the Midas touch problem. Moreover, the feedback...

LCD vs. E-ink: An Analysis of the Reading Behavior

Siegenthaler, Eva; Swiss Distance University Of Applied Sciences, Wyss, Michael; University Of Bern, Wurtz, Pascal; GfK Switzerland AG, SirValUse, Biel & Schmid, Laura; University Of Bern
Electronic books (e-book) are an interesting option compared to classic paper books. Most e-reading devices of the first generation were based on e-ink technology. With the appearance of the Apple iPad on the market, TFT-LCDs became important in the field of e-reading. Both technologies have advantages and disadvantages but the question remains whether one or the other technology is better for reading. In the present study we analyzed and compared reading behavior when reading on...

Advantage in Reading Lexical Bundles is Reduced in Non-Native Speakers

Saage, Sven; The Centre For Media And Interactivity, Justus-Liebig University Of Giessen, Germany, Valsecchi, Matteo; Department Of General Psychology, Justus-Liebig-University Of Giessen, Germany, Gegenfurtner, Karl R.; Department Of General Psychology, Justus-Liebig-University Of Giessen, Germany, White, Brian J.; Centre For Neuroscience Studies, Queen’s University Kingston, Ontario, Canada, Mukherjee, Joybrato; Department Of English, Justus-Liebig-University Of Giessen, Germany & Künstler, Viktoria; The Centre For Media And Interactivity, Justus-Liebig University Of Giessen, Germany
Formulaic sequences such as idioms, collocations, and lexical bundles, which may be processed as holistic units, make up a large proportion of natural language. For language learners, however, formulaic patterns are a major barrier to achieving native like competence. The present study investigated the processing of lexical bundles by native speakers and less advanced non-native English speakers using corpus analysis for the identification of lexical bundles and eye-tracking to measure the reading times. The participants...

Eye Tracking in the Wild: the Good, the Bad and the Ugly

Lappi, Otto; University Of Helsinki
Modelling human cognition and behaviour in rich naturalistic settings and under conditions of free movement of the head and body is a major goal of visual science. Eye tracking has turned out to be an excellent physiological means to investigate how we visually interact with complex 3D environments, real and virtual. This review begins with a philosophical look at the advantages (the Good) and the disadvantages (the Bad) in approaches with different levels of ecological...

Eye movements and attention in visual feature search with graded target-distractor-similarity

Heße, Uta; Department Of Psychology, Martin-Luther-University Halle, Germany, Wienrich, Carolin; Department Of Psychology, Martin-Luther-University Halle, Germany & Müller-Plath, Gisela; Department Of Psychology, Martin-Luther-University Halle, Germany
We conducted a visual feature search experiment in which we varied the target-distractor-similarity in four steps, the number of items (4, 6, and 8), and the presence of the target. In addition to classical search parameters like error rate and reaction time (RT), we analyzed saccade amplitudes, fixation durations, and the portion of reinspections (recurred fixation on an item with at least one different item fixated in between) and refixations (recurred fixation on an item...

Do you look where I look? Attention shifts and response preparation following dynamic social cues

Walker, Robin; Department Of Psychology, Royal Holloway, University Of London, UK, & Hermens, Frouke; Department Of Psychology, Royal Holloway, University Of London & University Of Aberdeen, UK
Studies investigating the effects of observing a gaze shift in another person often apply static images of a person with an averted gaze, while measuring response times to a peripheral target. Static images, however, are unlike how we normally perceive gaze shifts of others. Moreover, response times might only reveal the effects of a cue on covert attention and might fail to uncover cueing effects on overt attention or response preparation. We therefore extended the...

The Influence of Complex Distractors in the Remote Distractor Paradigm

Benson, Valerie; University Of Southampton
Three experiments examined the influence of complex dis-tractors on the Remote Distractor Effect (RDE), a robust finding of an increase is saccade latencies when two, rather than one possible targets are presented simultaneously (Walker, Deubel, Schneider & Findlay, 1997). In Experiment 1 saccade onset latencies (SOL’s) were greater for central versus peripheral presentation for lexical distractors, but not for non-lexical distractors. Experiment 2 showed that repeated presentation of a distractor results in reduced SOL’s at...

Orienting during gaze guidance in a letter-identification task

Rasche, Christoph; Bucharest Politechnica University, Romania & Gegenfurtner, Karl; Justus-Liebig-Universität Giessen, Germany
The idea of gaze guidance is to lead a viewer’s gaze through a visual display in order to facilitate the viewer’s search for specific information in a least-obtrusive manner. This study investigates saccadic orienting when a viewer is guided in a fast-paced, low-contrast letter identification task. Despite the task’s difficulty and although guiding cues were ad-justed to gaze eccentricity, observers preferred attentional over saccadic shifts to obtain a letter identification judgment; and if a saccade...

Visual search without central vision – no single pseudofovea location is best

Lingnau, Angelika; University Of Trento, Italy, Albrecht, Thorsten; Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, Germany, Vorberg, Dirk; Westfälische Wilhems-Universität Münster, Germany & Schwarzbach, Jens; University Of Trento, Italy
We typically fixate targets such that they are projected onto the fovea for best spatial resolution. Macular degeneration patients often develop fixation strategies such that targets are projected to an intact eccentric part of the retina, called pseudofovea. A longstanding debate concerns which pseudofovea-location is optimal for non-foveal vision. We examined how pseudofovea position and eccentricity affect performance in visual search, when vision is restricted to an off-foveal retinal region by a gaze-contingent display that...

Pupil size affects measures of eye position in video eye tracking: implications for recording vergence accuracy

Jaschinski, Wolfgang; Leibniz Research Centre Of Working Environment And Human Factors
Video eye trackers rely on the position of the pupil centre. However, the pupil centre can shift when the pupil size changes. This pupillary artifact is investigated for binocular vergence accuracy (i.e. fixation disparity) in near vision where the pupil is smaller in the binocular test phase than in the monocular calibration. A regression between recordings of pupil size and fixation disparity allows correcting the pupillary artefact. This corrected fixation disparity appeared to be favourable...

Comparing graphs and text: Effects of complexity and task

Kim, Sunjung; University Of Central Arkansas & Lombardino, Linda J.; University Of Florida
Graphs are commonly believed to facilitate users’ compre-hension. We explored the effect of graphs on comprehension compared to text, manipulating content complexity (single bar vs. double bar graphs) and question type (point-locating vs. comparison questions). A total 78 college students viewed graph and text stimuli and answered comprehension questions while their eye movements were recorded. The results indicate that students do not always process graphs more efficiently than text conveying the same information. Students processed...

A Simple(r) Tool For Examining Fixations

Francesco Di Nocera, Simon Mastrangelo & Claudio Capobianco
This short paper describes an update of A Simple Tool For Examining Fixations (ASTEF) developed for facilitating the examination of eye-tracking data and for computing a spatial statistics algorithm that has been validated as a measure of mental workload (namely, the Nearest Neighbor Index: NNI). The code is based on Matlab® 2013a and is currently distributed on the web as an open-source project. This implementation of ASTEF got rid of many functionalities included in the...

Accuracy and precision of fixation locations recorded with the low-cost Eye Tribe tracker in different experimental set-ups

Dupont, Lien; Ghent University, Lapon, Lieselot; Ghent University, Ooms, Kristien; Ghent University & Popelka, Stanislav; Palacký University Olomouc
This article compares the accuracy and precision of the low-cost Eye Tribe tracker and a well-established comparable eye tracker: SMI RED 250. Participants were instructed to fixate on predefined point locations on a screen. The accuracy is measured by the distance between the recorded fixation locations and the actual location. Precision is represented by the standard deviation of these measurements. Furthermore, the temporal precision of both eye tracking devices (sampling rate) is evaluated as well....

Time-Dependent Changes In Viewing Behavior On Similarly Structured Web Pages

Hamborg, Kai-Christoph; University Of Osnabrück, Ollermann, Frank; University Of Osnabrück & Kaspar, Kai; University Of Osnabrück
This article focuses on the impact of observation time and web page structure on viewing behavior. 63 subjects observed similarly structured pages of a popular commercial internet shop. Eye movements were recorded and analyzed regarding several saccade parameters, the individual fixation distribution by means of a progressive entropy approach, and the within- as well as between-subject congruency of fixation distributions. Our results show that viewing behavior significantly changed while subjects observed individual web pages. In...

Gaze Path Stimulation in Retrospective Think-Aloud

Lehtinen, Merja; University Of Tampere, Ovaska, Saila; University Of Tampere, Hyrskykari, Aulikki; University Of Tampere, Majaranta, Pävi; University Of Tampere & Räihä, Kari-Jouko; University Of Tampere
For a long time, eye tracking has been thought of as a promising method for usability testing. During the last couple of years, eye tracking has finally started to live up to these expectations, at least in terms of its use in usability laboratories. We know that the user’s gaze path can reveal usability issues that would otherwise go unnoticed, but a common understanding of how best to make use of eye movement data has...

Eye Pointing in Stereoscopic Displays

Lin, Chiuhsiang Joe; Department Of Industrial Management- National Taiwan University Of Science And Technology & Widyaningrum, Retno; Department Of Industrial Management- National Taiwan University Of Science And Technology
This study investigated eye pointing in stereoscopic displays. Ten participants performed 18 tapping tasks in stereoscopic displays with three different levels of parallax (at the screen, 20 cm and 50 cm in front of the screen). The results showed that parallax had significant effects on hand movement time, eye movement time, index of performance in hand click and eye gaze. The movement time was shorter and the performance was better when the target was at...

Silent reading of music and texts; eye movements and integrative reading mechanisms

Cara, Michel André; Music Institute (IMUS), Pontifical Catholic University Of Valparaíso. Pilcomayo 478 Cerro Concepción-Valparaíso CHILE Tel: +56 9 52195419 & Gómez, Gabriela; Universidad De Chile Periodista José Carrasco Tapia, 75 Santiago
This study investigates to what extent structural units defined by physical and structural markers elicit different eye movement patterns when reading contrasting stimuli of music and verbal texts. Eye movements were tracked and compared in ten musicians undergoing Bachelor’s degrees as they silently read six texts and six pieces of music for piano: the music was contemporary, in modal style, and the style of the texts was informative and literary. Participants were music students at...

Evidence for a Structural Analysis of Target Selection in Picture Viewing

Tatler, Benjamin W.; University Of Dundee, Scotland & Rasche, Christoph; Justus-Liebig-Universität Giessen, Germany
Spontaneous fixations onto shapes are driven by a structural analysis. But is such analysis also carried out during free viewing of real-world scenes? Here, we analyze how fixation locations in such scenes are related to their region using the region's symmetric axes as a reference. Each fixation location is compared with respect to its nearest symmetric-axis segment by a latitude and a longitude measure. Analyzing the distributions for the two measures we find that there...

Integration and prediction difficulty in Hindi sentence comprehension: Evidence from an eye-tracking corpus

Srinivasan, Narayanan; CBCS, University Of Allahabad, India, Husain, Samar; Indian Institute Of Technology, Delhi, India & Vasishth, Shravan; University Of Potsdam, Germany
This is the first attempt at characterizing reading difficulty in Hindi using naturally occurring sentences. We created the Potsdam-Allahabad Hindi Eyetracking Corpus by recording eye-movement data from 30 participants at the University of Allahabad, India. The target stimuli were 153 sentences selected from the beta version of the Hindi-Urdu treebank. We find that word- or low-level predictors (syllable length, unigram and bigram frequency) affect first-pass reading times, regression path duration, total reading time, and outgoing...

Speed and Accuracy of Gaze Gestures

Räihä, Kari-Jouko; Unit For Computer-Human Interaction (TAUCHI), Department Of Computer Sciences University Of Tampere, Finland & Heikkilä, Henna; Unit For Computer-Human Interaction (TAUCHI), Department Of Computer Sciences University Of Tampere, Finland
We conducted an experiment where participants carried out six gaze gesture tasks. The gaze paths were analyzed to find out the speed and accuracy of the gaze gestures. As a result, the gaze gestures took more time than we anticipated and only the very fastest participants got close to what was expected. There was not much difference in performance times between small and large gaze gestures, because the participants reached significantly faster speed when making...

Multimodal Comprehension of Language and Graphics: Graphs with and without annotations

Cagiltay, Kursat; Middle East Technical University, Alacam, Ozge; Middle East Technical University, Habel, Christopher; University Of Hamburg & Acarturk, Cengiz; University Of Hamburg
An experimental investigation into interaction between language and information graphics in multimodal documents served as the basis for this study. More specifically, our purpose was to investigate the role of linguistic annotations in graph-text documents. Participants were presented with three newspaper articles in the following conditions: one text-only, one text plus non-annotated graph, and one text plus annotated graph. Results of the experiment showed that, on one hand, annotations play a bridging role for integration...

Entering PIN codes by smooth pursuit eye movements

Venjakob, Antje Christine; Technische Universität Berlin, Germany, Roetting, Matthias; Technische Universität Berlin, Germany, Hofmann, Simon; Technische Universität Berlin, Germany, Cymek, Dietlind Helene; Technische Universität Berlin, Germany, Ruff, Stefan; Technische Universität Berlin, Germany & Lutz, Otto Hans-Martin; Technische Universität Berlin, Germany
Despite its potential gaze interaction is still not a widely-used interaction concept. Major drawbacks as the calibration, strain of the eyes and the high number of false alarms are associated with gaze based interaction and limit its practicability for every-day human computer interaction. In this paper two experiments are described which use smooth pursuit eye movements on moving display buttons. The first experiment was conducted to extract an easy and fast interaction concept and at...

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