225 Works

Does color influence eye movements while exploring videos?

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Although visual attention studies consider color as one of the most important features in guiding visual attention, few studies have investigated how color influences eye movements while viewing natural scenes without any particular task. To better understand the visual features that drive attention, the aim of this paper was to quantify the influence of color on eye movements when viewing dynamic natural scenes. The influence of color was investigated by comparing the eye positions of...

Detecting expert’s eye using a multiple-kernel Relevance Vector Machine

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Decoding mental states from the pattern of neural activity or overt behavior is an intensely pursued goal. Here we applied machine learning to detect expertise from the oculomotor behavior of novice and expert billiard players during free viewing of a filmed billiard match with no specific task, and in a dynamic trajectory prediction task involving ad-hoc, occluded billiard shots. We have adopted a ground framework for feature space fusion and a Bayesian sparse classifier, namely,...

The Effect of Different Text Presentation Formats on Eye Movement Metrics in Reading

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Eye movement data were collected and analyzed from 16 participants while they read text from a computer screen. Several text presentation formats were compared, including sentences as part of a full paragraph, sentences presented one by one, sentences presented in chunks of at most 30 characters at a predefined rate, and line-by-line presentation fitting the width of the computer screen. The goal of the experiment was to study how these different text presentation modes affect...

Orienting during gaze guidance in a letter-identification task

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The idea of gaze guidance is to lead a viewer’s gaze through a visual display in order to facilitate the viewer’s search for specific information in a least-obtrusive manner. This study investigates saccadic orienting when a viewer is guided in a fast-paced, low-contrast letter identification task. Despite the task’s difficulty and although guiding cues were ad-justed to gaze eccentricity, observers preferred attentional over saccadic shifts to obtain a letter identification judgment; and if a saccade...

Effects of Vowel Length on Gaze Durations in Silent and Oral Reading

Vowel length is known to affect reaction times in single word reading. Eye movement studies involving silent sentence reading showed that phonological information of a word can be acquired even before it is fixated. However, it remained an open question whether vowel length directly influences oculomotor control in sentence reading. In the present eye tracking study, subjects read sentences that included target words of varying vowel length and frequency. In Experiment 1, subjects read silently...

Simple Configuration Effects on Eye Movements in Horizontal Scanning Tasks

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When reading text, observers alternate periods of stable gaze (fixations) and shifts of gaze (saccades). An important debate in the literature concerns the processes that drive the control of these eye movements. Past studies using strings of letters rather than meaningful text ('z-reading') suggest that eye movement control during reading is, to a large extent, controlled by low-level image properties. These studies, however, have failed to take into account perceptual grouping processes that could drive...

Squeezing Uncertainty from Saccadic Compression

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Brief visual stimuli presented before and during a saccade are often mislocalized due to spatial compression. This saccadic compression effect is thought to have a perceptual basis, and results in visual objects being squeezed together and their number underestimated. Here we show that observers are also uncertain about their visual experiences just before and during a saccade. It is known that responses tend to be biased away from extreme values under conditions of uncertainty. Thus,...

Fixation sequences in imagery and in recognition during the processing of pictures of real-world scenes

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Thirty photographs of real-world scenes were presented for encoding, and half the participants then performed a recognition test, deciding whether each of 60 images were old (from the original set) or new. The other participants performed an imagery task immediately after encoding each of the 30 images. After completing this task, the recognition group then performed the imagery task in response to prompts that were unique verbal descriptors, and the imagery group performed the recognition...

Inhibition of Return after Color Singletons

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Inhibition of return (IOR) is the faster selection of hitherto unattended than previously attended positions. Some previous studies failed to find evidence for IOR after attention capture by color singletons. Others, however, did report IOR effects after color singletons. The current study examines the role of cue relevance for obtaining IOR effects. By using a potentially more sensitive method – saccadic IOR – we tested and found IOR after relevant color singleton cues that required...

Saccade Latency and Fixation Stability: Repeatability and Reliability

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This study aimed to investigate the repeatability and reliability of saccadic latency and fixation stability as a function of sighting-dominance and contact lens wear. Eye movements were recorded in 12 healthy adults who performed a pro- saccade and a fixation task in four conditions; baseline, retest, non-sighting eye viewing and plano contact lens wear. The re-sults showed that saccadic latency and fixation stability (indexed via logBCEA) have good internal consistency, reliability and repeatability, which are...

Eye Movements in Reading: Models and Data

Models of eye movement control in reading and their impact on the field are discussed. Differences between the E-Z Reader model and the SWIFT model are reviewed, as are benchmark data that need to be accounted for by any model of eye movement control. Predictions made by the models and how models can sometimes account for counterintuitive findings are also discussed. Finally, the role of models and data in further understanding the reading process is...

Effects of emotion and perspective on remembering events: An eye-tracking study

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The main objective of this study is to investigate the effects of the emotional content of an event and participants’ perspective on the memory and eye-tracking measurements for central and peripheral de-tails. The data have been collected from 130 undergraduate male students (18- 33 ages). Three series of seven different emotional thematic photographs (positive, negative, neutral) were used. Participants were subjected to only one of the three series, either in his own perspective condition or...

Detection of moving point symbols on cartographic backgrounds

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The present paper presents the performance of an experimental cartographic study towards the examination of the minimum duration threshold required for the detection by the central vision of a moving point symbol on cartographic backgrounds. The examined threshold is investigated using backgrounds with discriminant levels of information. The experimental process is based on the collection (under free viewing conditions) and the analysis of eye movement recordings. The computation of fixation derived statistical metrics allows the...

An easy iris center detection method for eye gaze tracking system

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Iris center detection accuracy has great impact on eye gaze tracking system performance. This paper proposes an easy and efficient iris center detection method based on modeling the geometric relationship between the detected rough iris center and the two corners of the eye. The method fully considers four states of iris within the eye region, i.e. center, left, right, and upper. The proposed active edge detection algorithm is utilized to extract iris edge points for...

Assessment of Dual-Mode and Switched-Channel Models with Experimental Vergence Responses

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Controversy exists in the literature regarding the basic neural control structure that mediates convergence responses. This study constructed and simulated two models, the switched-channel feedback model and the dual-mode model consisting of preprogrammed with feedback control. Models were constructed and compared to experimental data. The stimuli consisted of 2 deg and 4 deg vergence steps. Both closed- and open-loop settings were utilized. After parameter adjustment, both models could accurately simulate step responses from subjects having...

Driving with Homonymous Visual Field Defects: Driving Performance and Compensatory Gaze Movements

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Aim of this pilot study was to assess the driving performance and its relationship to the visual search behavior, i.e., eye and head movements, of patients with homonymous visual field defects (HVFDs) in comparison to healthy-sighted subjects during a simulated driving test. Eight HVFD patients and six healthy-sighted age- and gender-matched control subjects underwent a 40-minute driving test with nine hazardous situations. Eye and head movements were recorded during the drive. Four out of eight...

Combining EEG and Eye Tracking: Using Fixation-Locked Potentials in Visual Search

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Visual search is a complex task that involves many neural pathways to identify relevant areas of interest within a scene. Humans remain a critical component in visual search tasks, as they can effectively perceive anomalies within complex scenes. However, this task can be challenging, particularly under time pressure. In order to improve visual search training and performance, an objective, process-based measure is needed. Eye tracking technology can be used to drive real-time parsing of EEG...

Bonnard´s representation of the perception of substance

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Artists are said to be like neuroscientists able to exploit the capacities of the brain to generate aesthetic experience (Zeki, 2001). Pierre Bonnard (1867-1947) has been recognized as one of the greatest and most enigmatic masters of the 20th century painting. For his understanding of the eye movements, attentional shifts mechanism and the representation in his paintings of the complexity of the physiological process of vision perception, something that he famously referred to as "the...

Abstracts of the 13th European Conference on Eye Movements 2005

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This issue contains the abstracts submitted for presentation at the Thirteenth European Conference on Eye Movements (ECEM13), Bern, August 14 – 18, 2005, and reviewed by the Scientific Board, consisting of W. Becker, Ulm; C.J. Erkelens, Utrecht; J.M. Findlay, Durham; A.G. Gale, Derby; C.W. Hess, Bern; J. Hyönä, Turku; A. Kennedy, Dundee; K. Koga, Nagoya; G. Lüer, Göttingen; M. Menozzi, Zürich; W. Perrig, Bern; G. d’Ydewalle, Leuven; D. Zambarbieri, Pavia. A quarter of a century...

A probabilistic real-time algorithm for detecting blinks, saccades, and fixations from EOG data

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We present a computationally light real-time algorithm which automatically detects blinks, saccades, and fixations from electro-oculography (EOG) data and calculates their temporal parameters. The method is probabilistic which allows to consider the uncertainties in the detected events. The method is real-time in the sense that it processes the data sample-by-sample, without a need to process the whole data as a batch. Prior to the actual measurements, a short, unsupervised training period is required. The parameters...

Author index of the 16th European Conference on Eye Movements 2011

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This document contains the author index of the 16th European Conference on Eye Movements, August 21-25 2011 in Marseille, France

Why do we look at people's eyes?

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We have previously shown that when observers are presented with complex natural scenes that contain a number of objects and people, observers look mostly at the eyes of the people. Why is this? It cannot be because eyes are merely the most salient area in a scene, as relative to other objects they are fairly inconspicuous. We hypothesized that people look at the eyes because they consider the eyes to be a rich source of...

The Influence of Distractors on Saccade-Target Selection: Saccade Trajectory Effects

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It has long been known that the path (trajectory) taken by the eye to land on a target is rarely straight (Yarbus, 1967). Furthermore, the magnitude and direction of this natural tendency for curvature can be modulated by the presence of a competing distractor stimulus presented along with the saccade target. The distractor-related modulation of saccade trajectories provides a subtle measure of the underlying competitive processes involved in saccade target selection. Here we review some...

Scanpath Eye Movements during Visual Mental Imagery in a Simulated Hemianopia Paradigm

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Several studies have shown that eye movements (EM) are functionally involved in visual imagery. In this study we investigate the impact of a simulated homonymous hemianopia paradigm (SH) with and without foveal masking on scanpath eye movements during visual mental imagery. EM of twenty subjects were recorded under SH condition during viewing and subsequent visual imagery of complex pictures. Using evaluated string editing methods viewing and imagery scanpaths were compared. Our results show that scanpath...

Eye tracking study of attention to print advertisements: Effects of typeface figuration

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The use of rhetorical figures has become a widely–accepted method for capturing attention and positively increasing cognitive effort in print advertisements. So far research studies mostly analyzed the effect of rhetorical figures in the written as well as pictorial elements of an ad. However, there have been few studies addressing the effect of rhetorical figuration in the specific area of typeface design. This study analyzes the effects of typeface figuration (i.e., regular vs. irregular stylization...

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