225 Works

“Trait” and “state” aspects of fixation disparity during reading

Jaschinski, Wolfgang; Leibniz Research Centre For Working Environment And Human Factors & Jainta, Stephanie; Leibniz Research Centre For Working Environment And Human Factors
In our study, 14 subjects read 60 sentences from the Potsdam Sentence Corpus twice (viewing distance: 60 cm), while eye movements were measured with the EyeLink II. We analyzed fixation disparities for complete sentence replications (N=388). After subtracting the average fixation disparity of each sentence from each observation (which gave the “state” fixation disparity), 99% of all remaining fixation disparities were aligned, i.e. smaller than one character width (20 min arc) – depending mostly on...

A multiple regression analysis of syntactic and semantic influences in reading normal text

New, Boris; Université René Descartes, CNRS, Kennedy, Alan; University Of Dundee Université René Descartes, CNRS & Pynte, Joel; Université René Descartes, CNRS
Semantic and syntactic influences during reading normal text were examined in a series of multiple regression analyses conducted on a large-scale corpus of eyemovement data. Two measures of contextual constraints, based on the syntactic descriptions provided by Abeillé, Clément et Toussenel (2003) and one measure on semantic constraint, based on Latent Semantic Analysis, were included in the regression equation, together with a set of properties (length, frequency, etc.), known to affect inspection times. Both syntactic...

Editorial

Groner, Rudolf; University Of Bern
Editorial to the Special Issue on Corpus Analyses of Eye Movements in Reading

Haptic feedback in eye typing

Akkil, Deepak; University Of Tampere, Isokoski, Poika; University Of Tampere, Majaranta, Päivi; University Of Tampere, Kangas, Jari; University Of Tampere, Rantala, Jussi; University Of Tampere, Raisamo, Roope; University Of Tampere & Špakov, Oleg; University Of Tampere
Proper feedback is essential in gaze based interfaces, where the same modality is used for both perception and control. We measured how vibrotactile feedback, a form of haptic feedback, compares with the commonly used visual and auditory feedback in eye typing. Haptic feedback was found to produce results that are close to those of auditory feedback; both were easy to perceive and participants liked both the auditory ”click” and the tactile “tap” of the selected...

Individual Differences in Eye-Movements During Reading: Working Memory and Speed-of-Processing Effects

Traxler, Matthew J.; University Of California Davis, Long, Debra L.; University Of California Davis, Tooley, Kristen M.; University Of California Davis, Jonathan, Eunike; University Of California Davis, Johns, Clinton L.; University Of California Davis & Zirnstein, Megan; University Of California Davis
Mathematical models of eye-movement control do not yet incorporate individual differences as a source of variation in reading. These models nonetheless provide an excellent foundation for describing and explaining how and why patterns of eye-movements differ across readers (e.g., Rayner et al., 2006). We focus in this article on two aspects of individual variation: global processing speed (e.g., Salthouse, 1996) and working-memory capacity (e.g., Just & Carpenter, 1992). Using Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) (Raudenbush &...

Abstracts of the 17th European Conference on Eye Movements 2013

Johannson, Roger; Lund University, Holmqvist, Kenneth; Lund University & Mulvey, Fiona; Lund University
This document contains all abstracts of the 17th European Conference on Eye Movements, August 11-16 2013 in Lund, Sweden ECEM 2013 has been the 17th European Conference on Eye Movements, with the original aims ‘to exchange information on current research, equipment and software’ remaining at the forefront. ECEM is transdisciplinary, promoting new approaches, co-operation between research fields and communication between researchers. It has grown from it’s origins as a small, specialist conference to a large...

The Effects of Shot Changes on Eye Movements in Subtitling

Krejtz, Krzysztof; University Of Social Sciences And Humanities, Information Processing Institute, Szarkowska, Agnieszka; University Of Warsaw & Krejtz, Izabela; University Of Social Sciences And Humanities
In this paper we address the question whether shot changes trigger the re-reading of subtitles. Although it has been accepted in the professional literature on subtitling that subtitles should not be displayed over shot changes as they induce subtitle re-reading, support for this claim in eye movement studies is difficult to find. In this study we examined eye movement patterns of 71 participants watching news and documentary clips. We analysed subject hit count, number of...

Fixation sequences in imagery and in recognition during the processing of pictures of real-world scenes

Humphrey, Katherine; University Of Nottingham & Underwood, Geoffrey; University Of Nottingham
Thirty photographs of real-world scenes were presented for encoding, and half the participants then performed a recognition test, deciding whether each of 60 images were old (from the original set) or new. The other participants performed an imagery task immediately after encoding each of the 30 images. After completing this task, the recognition group then performed the imagery task in response to prompts that were unique verbal descriptors, and the imagery group performed the recognition...

Performance of a simple remote video-based eye tracker with GPU acceleration

Blignaut, Pieter; Department Of Computer Science And Informatics, University Of The Free State, South Africa & Jean-Pierre Du Plessis
Eye tracking is a well-established tool that is often utilised in research. There are currently many different types of eye trackers available, but they are either expensive, or provide a relatively low sampling frequency. The eye tracker presented in this paper was developed in an effort to address the lack of low-cost high-speed eye trackers. It utilises the Graphical Processing Unit (GPU) in an attempt to parallelise aspects of the process to localize feature points...

Audio-visual integration during overt visual attention

Quigley, Cliodhna; Neurobiopsychology Department, Institute Of Cognitive Science, University Of Osnabrueck, Onat, Selim; Neurobiopsychology Department, Institute Of Cognitive Science, University Of Osnabrueck, Cooke, Martin; Speech And Hearing Group, Department Of Computer Science, University Of Sheffield, König, Peter; Neurobiopsychology Department, Institute Of Cognitive Science, University Of Osnabrueck & Harding, Sue; Speech And Hearing Group, Department Of Computer Science, University Of Sheffield
How do different sources of information arising from different modalities interact to control where we look? To answer this question with respect to real-world operational conditions we presented natural images and spatially localized sounds in (V)isual, Audio-visual (AV) and (A)uditory conditions and measured subjects' eye-movements. Our results demonstrate that eye-movements in AV conditions are spatially biased towards the part of the image corresponding to the sound source. Interestingly, this spatial bias is dependent on the...

Analysis of eye and head coordination in a visual peripheral recognition task

Altorfer, Andreas; University Of Bern, Schwab, Simon; University Of Bern & Würmle, Othmar; University Of Bern
Coordinated eye and head movements simultaneously occur to scan the visual world for relevant targets. However, measuring both eye and head movements in experiments allowing natural head movements may be challenging. This paper provides an approach to study eye-head coordination: First, we demonstrate the capabilities and limits of the eye-head tracking system used, and compare it to other technologies. Second, a behavioral task is introduced to invoke eye-head coordination. Third, a method is introduced to...

Parsing costs as predictors of reading difficulty: An evaluation using the Potsdam Sentence Corpus

Hale, John; Cornell University, Boston, Marisa Ferrara; Cornell University, Patil, Umesh; University Of Potsdam, Vasishth, Shravan; University Of Potsdam & Kliegl, Reinhold; University Of Potsdam
The surprisal of a word on a probabilistic grammar constitutes a promising complexity metric for human sentence comprehension difficulty. Using two different grammar types, surprisal is shown to have an effect on fixation durations and regression probabilities in a sample of German readers’ eye movements, the Potsdam Sentence Corpus. A linear mixed-effects model was used to quantify the effect of surprisal while taking into account unigram frequency and bigram frequency (transitional probability), word length, and...

Simple Configuration Effects on Eye Movements in Horizontal Scanning Tasks

Skilters, Jurgis; University Of Latvia, Lacis, Ivars; University Of Latvia & Laicane, Ilze; University Of Latvia
When reading text, observers alternate periods of stable gaze (fixations) and shifts of gaze (saccades). An important debate in the literature concerns the processes that drive the control of these eye movements. Past studies using strings of letters rather than meaningful text ('z-reading') suggest that eye movement control during reading is, to a large extent, controlled by low-level image properties. These studies, however, have failed to take into account perceptual grouping processes that could drive...

Time Course and Hazard Function: A Distributional Analysis of Fixation Duration in Reading

Feng, Gary; Duke University & RIKEN Brain Science Institute
Reading processes affect not only the mean of fixation duration but also its distribution function. This paper introduces a set of hypotheses that link the timing and strength of a reading process to the hazard function of a fixation duration distribution. Analyses based on large corpora of reading eye movements show a surprisingly robust hazard function across languages, age, individual differences, and a number of processing variables. The data suggest that eye movements are generated...

The effect of calibration errors on the accuracy of the eye movement recordings

Hoormann, Jörg; Leibniz Research Center For Working Environment And Human Factors, Jaschinski, Wolfgang; Leibniz Research Center For Working Environment And Human Factors & Jainta, Stephanie; Leibniz Research Center For Working Environment And Human Factors
For calibrating eye movement recordings, a regression between spatially defined calibration points and corresponding measured raw data is performed. Based on this regression, a confidence interval (CI) of the actually measured eye position can be calculated in order to quantify the measurement error introduced by inaccurate calibration coefficients. For calculating this CI, a standard deviation (SD) - depending on the calibration quality and the design of the calibration procedure - is needed. Examples of binocular...

Influences of dwell time and cursor control on the performance in gaze driven typing

Helmert, Jens R.; Applied Cognitive Research / Institute Of Psychology III, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Velichkovsky, Boris M.; Applied Cognitive Research / Institute Of Psychology III, Technische Universitaet Dresden & Pannasch, Sebastian; Applied Cognitive Research / Institute Of Psychology III, Technische Universitaet Dresden
In gaze controlled computer interfaces the dwell time is often used as selection criterion. But this solution comes along with several problems, especially in the temporal domain: Eye movement studies on scene perception could demonstrate that fixations of different durations serve different purposes and should therefore be differentiated. The use of dwell time for selection implies the need to distinguish intentional selections from merely per-ceptual processes, described as the Midas touch problem. Moreover, the feedback...

Advantage in Reading Lexical Bundles is Reduced in Non-Native Speakers

Saage, Sven; The Centre For Media And Interactivity, Justus-Liebig University Of Giessen, Germany, Valsecchi, Matteo; Department Of General Psychology, Justus-Liebig-University Of Giessen, Germany, Gegenfurtner, Karl R.; Department Of General Psychology, Justus-Liebig-University Of Giessen, Germany, White, Brian J.; Centre For Neuroscience Studies, Queen’s University Kingston, Ontario, Canada, Mukherjee, Joybrato; Department Of English, Justus-Liebig-University Of Giessen, Germany & Künstler, Viktoria; The Centre For Media And Interactivity, Justus-Liebig University Of Giessen, Germany
Formulaic sequences such as idioms, collocations, and lexical bundles, which may be processed as holistic units, make up a large proportion of natural language. For language learners, however, formulaic patterns are a major barrier to achieving native like competence. The present study investigated the processing of lexical bundles by native speakers and less advanced non-native English speakers using corpus analysis for the identification of lexical bundles and eye-tracking to measure the reading times. The participants...

The Influence of Complex Distractors in the Remote Distractor Paradigm

Benson, Valerie; University Of Southampton
Three experiments examined the influence of complex dis-tractors on the Remote Distractor Effect (RDE), a robust finding of an increase is saccade latencies when two, rather than one possible targets are presented simultaneously (Walker, Deubel, Schneider & Findlay, 1997). In Experiment 1 saccade onset latencies (SOL’s) were greater for central versus peripheral presentation for lexical distractors, but not for non-lexical distractors. Experiment 2 showed that repeated presentation of a distractor results in reduced SOL’s at...

Integration and prediction difficulty in Hindi sentence comprehension: Evidence from an eye-tracking corpus

Srinivasan, Narayanan; CBCS, University Of Allahabad, India, Husain, Samar; Indian Institute Of Technology, Delhi, India & Vasishth, Shravan; University Of Potsdam, Germany
This is the first attempt at characterizing reading difficulty in Hindi using naturally occurring sentences. We created the Potsdam-Allahabad Hindi Eyetracking Corpus by recording eye-movement data from 30 participants at the University of Allahabad, India. The target stimuli were 153 sentences selected from the beta version of the Hindi-Urdu treebank. We find that word- or low-level predictors (syllable length, unigram and bigram frequency) affect first-pass reading times, regression path duration, total reading time, and outgoing...

Heterophoria: Vergence stability and visual acuity after asymmetric saccades

Blum, Bernhard M.; Ludwig-Maximilians University Munich, Kirchhoff, Daniel; Ludwig-Maximilians University Munich, Ehrt, Oliver; Ludwig-Maximilians University Munich, Eggert, Thomas; Ludwig-Maximilians University Munich, Bickmann, Alexander; Ludwig-Maximilians University Munich & Straube, Andreas; Ludwig-Maximilians University Munich
Many patients with heterophoria report on symptoms related to impaired vision. To investigate whether these symptoms are provoked by saccades this study examines whether in heterophoria effects on intrasaccadic and postsaccadic vergence movements are linked to effects on visual performance. Visual acuity was measured in 35 healthy subjects during fixation and immediately after asymmetric diverging saccades. Binocular position traces were recorded by video-oculography. Subjects with exophoria showed larger intrasaccadic divergence amplitudes, which in turn led...

Fixation disparity during reading: Fusion, not suppression

Liversedge, Simon P.; University Of Southampton
In this paper I present a brief review of some recent studies my colleagues and I have carried out to investigate binocular coordination during reading. These studies demonstrate that the eyes are often not perfectly aligned during reading, with fixation disparities of approximately one character on average. Both crossed and uncrossed disparities are common and vergence movements during fixations serve to reduce, but not eliminate disparity. Fixation disparity results in different retinal inputs from each...

Attention distribution and cognitive load in a subtitled academic lecture: L1 vs. L2

Kruger, Jan-Louis; Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia, & North-West University, Vanderbijlpark, South Africa, Matthew, Gordon; North-West University, Vanderbijlpark, South Africa & Hefer, Esté; North-West University, Vanderbijlpark, South Africa
In multilingual classrooms, subtitling can be used to address the language needs of students from different linguistic backgrounds. The way students distribute their visual and cognitive resources during a lecture is important in educational design. Students have to shift their attention between sources of information of varying density and relevance. If there is redundancy between these sources, there will be competition and possible cognitive overload. This paper compares visual attention distribution between subtitles and other...

Program of the 18th European Conference on Eye Movements 2015

Ansorge, Ulrich; University Of Vienna, Leder, Helmut; University Of Vienna, Ditye, Thomas; University Of Vienna & Florack, Arnd; University Of Vienna
This document contains the Program of the 18th European Conference on Eye Movements, August 16-21 2015 in Vienna, Austria

Sampling frequency and eye-tracking measures: how speed affects durations, latencies, and more

Holmqvist, Kenneth; Lund University, Nyström, Marcus; Lund University & Andersson, Richard; Lund University
We use simulations to investigate the effect of sampling frequency on common dependent variables in eye-tracking. We identify two large groups of measures that behave differently, but consistently. The effect of sampling frequency on these two groups of measures are explored and simulations are performed to estimate how much data are required to overcome the uncertainty of a limited sampling frequency. Both simulated and real data are used to estimate the temporal uncertainty of data...

Mixed Responses: Why Readers Spend Less Time at Unfavorable Landing Positions

Feng, Gary; Duke University & RIKEN Brain Science Institute
This paper investigates why the average fixation duration tends to decrease from the center to the two ends of a word. Specifically, it examines (a) whether unfavorable landing positions trigger a corrective mechanism, (b) whether the triggering is based on the internal efference copy mechanism, and (c) whether the corrective mechanism is specific to fixations that missed their targeted words. To estimate the mean and proportion of the corrective fixations, a 3-parameter mixture model was...

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