### Speed and Accuracy of Gaze Gestures

Räihä, Kari-Jouko; Unit For Computer-Human Interaction (TAUCHI), Department Of Computer Sciences University Of Tampere, Finland & Heikkilä, Henna; Unit For Computer-Human Interaction (TAUCHI), Department Of Computer Sciences University Of Tampere, Finland
We conducted an experiment where participants carried out six gaze gesture tasks. The gaze paths were analyzed to find out the speed and accuracy of the gaze gestures. As a result, the gaze gestures took more time than we anticipated and only the very fastest participants got close to what was expected. There was not much difference in performance times between small and large gaze gestures, because the participants reached significantly faster speed when making...

### Multimodal Comprehension of Language and Graphics: Graphs with and without annotations

Cagiltay, Kursat; Middle East Technical University, Alacam, Ozge; Middle East Technical University, Habel, Christopher; University Of Hamburg & Acarturk, Cengiz; University Of Hamburg
An experimental investigation into interaction between language and information graphics in multimodal documents served as the basis for this study. More specifically, our purpose was to investigate the role of linguistic annotations in graph-text documents. Participants were presented with three newspaper articles in the following conditions: one text-only, one text plus non-annotated graph, and one text plus annotated graph. Results of the experiment showed that, on one hand, annotations play a bridging role for integration...

### Entering PIN codes by smooth pursuit eye movements

Venjakob, Antje Christine; Technische Universität Berlin, Germany, Roetting, Matthias; Technische Universität Berlin, Germany, Hofmann, Simon; Technische Universität Berlin, Germany, Cymek, Dietlind Helene; Technische Universität Berlin, Germany, Ruff, Stefan; Technische Universität Berlin, Germany & Lutz, Otto Hans-Martin; Technische Universität Berlin, Germany
Despite its potential gaze interaction is still not a widely-used interaction concept. Major drawbacks as the calibration, strain of the eyes and the high number of false alarms are associated with gaze based interaction and limit its practicability for every-day human computer interaction. In this paper two experiments are described which use smooth pursuit eye movements on moving display buttons. The first experiment was conducted to extract an easy and fast interaction concept and at...

### Music sight-reading expertise, visually disrupted score and eye movements

Blom, Diana; School Of Communication Arts (Music) University Of Western Sydney, Australia, Arthur, Patricia; School Of Optometry And Vision Science University Of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia & Khuu, Sieu; School Of Optometry And Vision Science University Of New South Wales Sydney, Australia
Previous studies have shown that performance at a defined level of music sight reading for pianists (6th Grade) is predictive of eye movement patterns (Waters, 1998) and that such patterns resemble those of text reading experts (Furneaux & Land, 1999; Sloboda, 1974; Truitt, 1997; Wolf, 1976). However, little is known about how expertise might affect eye movement patterns when the score has been visually disrupted using notational features that are unexpected or outside conventional presentation.The...

### Effects of search intent on eye-movement patterns in a change detection task

Kwak, Ho-Wan; Kyungpook National University, Republic Of Korea, Lee, Sangil; Kyungpook National University, Republic Of Korea, Chang, Mun-Seon; Kyungpook National University, Republic Of Korea, Park, Hyeonggyu; Kyungpook National University, Republic Of Korea & Lee, Minho; Kyungpook National University, Republic Of Korea
The goal of the present study was to examine whether intention type affects eye movement patterns in a change detection task In addition, we assessed whether the eye movement index could be used to identify human implicit intent. We attempted to generate three types of intent amongst the study participants, dividing them into one of three conditions; each condition received different information regarding an impending change to the visual stimuli. In the “navigational intent” condition,...

### Did Javal measure eye movements during reading?

Wade, Nicholas J.; University Of Dundee & Tatler, Benjamin W.; University Of Dundee
Louis-Émile Javal is widely credited as the first person to record eye movements in read-ing. This is so despite the fact that Javal himself never made that claim but it is perpetu-ated in contemporary text books, scientific articles and on the internet. Javal did coin the term ‘saccades’ in the context of eye movements during reading but he did not measure them. In this article we suggest that a misreading of Huey’s (1908) book on...

### The effect of a temporary absence of target velocity information on visual tracking

Bedell, Harold E.; University Of Houston College Of Optometry, Kasthurirangan, Sanjeev; Abbott Medical Optics, Cisarik, Patricia M.; Southern College Of Optometry, Stevenson, Scott B.; University Of Houston College Of Optometry, Raghunandan, Avesh; Ferris State University, Michigan & Jr., Frank E. Visco; University Of Houston College Of Optometry
Experiments with the Rashbass ‘step-ramp’ paradigm have revealed that the initial catchup saccade that occurs near pursuit onset uses target velocity as well as position information in its programming. Information about both position and motion also influences smooth pursuit. To investigate the timing of velocity sampling near the initiation of saccades and smooth pursuit, we analyzed the eye movements made in nine ‘step-ramp’ conditions, produced by combining –2, 0 and +2 deg steps with –8,...

### Heterophoria: Vergence stability and visual acuity after asymmetric saccades

Blum, Bernhard M.; Ludwig-Maximilians University Munich, Kirchhoff, Daniel; Ludwig-Maximilians University Munich, Ehrt, Oliver; Ludwig-Maximilians University Munich, Eggert, Thomas; Ludwig-Maximilians University Munich, Bickmann, Alexander; Ludwig-Maximilians University Munich & Straube, Andreas; Ludwig-Maximilians University Munich
Many patients with heterophoria report on symptoms related to impaired vision. To investigate whether these symptoms are provoked by saccades this study examines whether in heterophoria effects on intrasaccadic and postsaccadic vergence movements are linked to effects on visual performance. Visual acuity was measured in 35 healthy subjects during fixation and immediately after asymmetric diverging saccades. Binocular position traces were recorded by video-oculography. Subjects with exophoria showed larger intrasaccadic divergence amplitudes, which in turn led...

### Effects of Vowel Length on Gaze Durations in Silent and Oral Reading

Huestegge, Lynn; RWTH Aachen University
Vowel length is known to affect reaction times in single word reading. Eye movement studies involving silent sentence reading showed that phonological information of a word can be acquired even before it is fixated. However, it remained an open question whether vowel length directly influences oculomotor control in sentence reading. In the present eye tracking study, subjects read sentences that included target words of varying vowel length and frequency. In Experiment 1, subjects read silently...

### Different types of sounds influence gaze differently in videos

Granjon, Lionel; LPP, CNRS UMR 8158, Paris Descartes University, France, Song, Guanghan; GIPSA-Lab, CNRS UMR 5216, Grenoble University, France & Pellerin, Denis; GIPSA-Lab, CNRS UMR 5216, Grenoble University, France
This paper presents an analysis of the effect of different types of sounds on visual gaze when a person is looking freely at videos, which would be helpful to predict eye position. In order to test the effect of sound, an audio-visual experiment was designed with two groups of participants, with audio-visual (AV) and visual (V) conditions. By using statistical tools, we analyzed the difference between eye position of participants with AV and V conditions....

### Semantic Override of Low-level Features in Image Viewing – Both Initially and Overall

Nyström, Marcus; Lund University & Holmqvist, Kenneth; Lund University
Guidance of eye-movements in image viewing is believed to be controlled by stimulus driven factors as well as viewer dependent higher level factors such as task and memory. It is currently debated what proportions these factors contribute to gaze guidance, and also how they vary over time after image onset. Overall, the unanimity regarding these issues is surprisingly low and there are results supporting both types of factors as being dominant in eye-movement control under...

### Fixation disparity during reading: Fusion, not suppression

Liversedge, Simon P.; University Of Southampton
In this paper I present a brief review of some recent studies my colleagues and I have carried out to investigate binocular coordination during reading. These studies demonstrate that the eyes are often not perfectly aligned during reading, with fixation disparities of approximately one character on average. Both crossed and uncrossed disparities are common and vergence movements during fixations serve to reduce, but not eliminate disparity. Fixation disparity results in different retinal inputs from each...

### ScanGraph: A novel scanpath comparison method using graph cliques visualization

Popelka, Stanislav; Department Of Geoinformatics Palacký University Olomouc & Dolezalova, Jitka; Department Of Geoinformatics Palacký University Olomouc
The article describes a new tool for analyses of eye-movement data. Many different approaches to scanpath comparison exist. One of the most frequently used approaches is String Edit Distance, where the gaze trajectories are replaced by the sequences of visited Areas of Interest. In cartographic literature, the most commonly used software for scanpath comparison is eyePatterns. During the analysis of eyePatterns functionality, we have found that tree-graph visualization of its results is not reliable. Thus,...

### Attention distribution and cognitive load in a subtitled academic lecture: L1 vs. L2

Kruger, Jan-Louis; Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia, & North-West University, Vanderbijlpark, South Africa, Matthew, Gordon; North-West University, Vanderbijlpark, South Africa & Hefer, Esté; North-West University, Vanderbijlpark, South Africa
In multilingual classrooms, subtitling can be used to address the language needs of students from different linguistic backgrounds. The way students distribute their visual and cognitive resources during a lecture is important in educational design. Students have to shift their attention between sources of information of varying density and relevance. If there is redundancy between these sources, there will be competition and possible cognitive overload. This paper compares visual attention distribution between subtitles and other...

### Eye fixations to figures in a four-choice situation with luminance balanced areas: Evaluating practice effects

Pessôa, Candido V. B. B.; Universidade De São Paulo, Endemann, Peter; Universidade De São Paulo, Huziwara, Edson M.; Universidade De São Paulo, Tomanari, Gerson Y.; Universidade De São Paulo & Perez, William F.; Universidade De São Paulo
Contingency analyses of eye movements may reveal variables that are relevant to the stimulus control of observing behavior. The present research tracked the eye movements of four adults exposed to a simultaneous discrimination among four stimuli, two two-dimensional (square and circle) and two three-dimensional (cube and cylinder) mono-chromatic figures with approximately equal luminance. On each discrimination trial, the stimuli were displayed in the four corners of a video monitor and participants chose among them by...

### Detecting expert’s eye using a multiple-kernel Relevance Vector Machine

Boccignone, Giuseppe; Dip. Informatica, UniversitA Di Milano, Italy, De’Sperati, Claudio; LAPCO-UniversitA Vita-Salute San Raffaele, Italy, Ferraro, Mario; Dip. Fisica, UniversitA Di Torino, Italy, Crespi, Sofia; LAPCO-UniversitA Vita-Salute San Raffaele, & CERMAC, Ospedale San Raffaele, Italy & Robino, Carlo; LAPCO-Universit`A Vita-Salute San Raffaele, Italy
Decoding mental states from the pattern of neural activity or overt behavior is an intensely pursued goal. Here we applied machine learning to detect expertise from the oculomotor behavior of novice and expert billiard players during free viewing of a filmed billiard match with no specific task, and in a dynamic trajectory prediction task involving ad-hoc, occluded billiard shots. We have adopted a ground framework for feature space fusion and a Bayesian sparse classifier, namely,...

### Program of the 18th European Conference on Eye Movements 2015

Ansorge, Ulrich; University Of Vienna, Leder, Helmut; University Of Vienna, Ditye, Thomas; University Of Vienna & Florack, Arnd; University Of Vienna
This document contains the Program of the 18th European Conference on Eye Movements, August 16-21 2015 in Vienna, Austria

### Comparing the Difficulty of Tasks Using Eye Tracking Combined with Subjective and Behavioural Criteria

Stolińska, Anna; Pedagogical University Of Cracow & Andrzejewska, Magdalena; Pedagogical University Of Cracow
In this article, we attempted to examine the issue of the existence of differences in eye move-ment of school-age students as they solve tasks of different difficulty levels in the sciences and natural sciences (computer science, mathematics, physics, biology). Categories of the task’s difficulty level were established on the basis of two types of criteria: subjective (an evaluation made by the subjects) and behavioural (connected to the correctness of their solution). The relationships of these...

### A probabilistic real-time algorithm for detecting blinks, saccades, and fixations from EOG data

Lukander, Kristian; Finnish Institute Of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Pettersson, Kati; Finnish Institute Of Occupational Health, Helsinki & Toivanen, Miika; Finnish Institute Of Occupational Health, Helsinki
We present a computationally light real-time algorithm which automatically detects blinks, saccades, and fixations from electro-oculography (EOG) data and calculates their temporal parameters. The method is probabilistic which allows to consider the uncertainties in the detected events. The method is real-time in the sense that it processes the data sample-by-sample, without a need to process the whole data as a batch. Prior to the actual measurements, a short, unsupervised training period is required. The parameters...

### Sampling frequency and eye-tracking measures: how speed affects durations, latencies, and more

Holmqvist, Kenneth; Lund University, Nyström, Marcus; Lund University & Andersson, Richard; Lund University
We use simulations to investigate the effect of sampling frequency on common dependent variables in eye-tracking. We identify two large groups of measures that behave differently, but consistently. The effect of sampling frequency on these two groups of measures are explored and simulations are performed to estimate how much data are required to overcome the uncertainty of a limited sampling frequency. Both simulated and real data are used to estimate the temporal uncertainty of data...

### Influence of soundtrack on eye movements during video exploration

Guyader, Nathalie; Gipsa Laboratory-CNRS UMR 5216, Grenoble University, France, Caplier, Alice; Gipsa Laboratory-CNRS UMR 5216, Grenoble University, France, Ionescu, Gelu; Gipsa Laboratory-CNRS UMR 5216, Grenoble University, France & Coutrot, Antoine; Gipsa Laboratory-CNRS UMR 5216, Grenoble University, France
Models of visual attention rely on visual features such as orientation, intensity or motion to predict which regions of complex scenes attract the gaze of observers. So far, sound has never been considered as a possible feature that might influence eye movements. Here, we evaluate the impact of non-spatial sound on the eye movements of observers watching videos. We recorded eye movements of 40 participants watching assorted videos with and without their related soundtracks. We...

### Using Eye Tracking to Trace a Cognitive Process: Gaze Behaviour During Decision Making in a Natural Environment

Gidlöf, Kerstin; Lund University, Dewhurst, Richard; Lund University, Holmqvist, Kenneth; Lund University & Wallin, Annika; Lund University
The visual behaviour of consumers buying (or searching for) products in a supermarket was measured and used to analyse the stages of their decision process. Traditionally metrics used to trace decision-making processes are difficult to use in natural environments that often contain many options and unstructured information. Unlike previous attempts in this direction (i.e. Russo & Leclerc, 1994), our methodology reveals differences between a decision-making task and a search task. In particular the second (evaluation)...

### Social context modulates basic properties of oculomotor control

Strukelj, Alexander; Centre For Languages And Literature, Lund University, Lund, Sweden, Nyström, Marcus; Lund University Humanities Laboratory, Lund, Sweden & Foulsham, Tom; Department Of Psychology, University Of Essex, Colchester, UK
Experiments performed in a lab are often considered generalizable over both people and social settings. The problems with generalizing over different groups of people are well known, but it is only recently that changes in behavior depending on the social setting have been examined. Large changes in behavior can be seen in trivial cognitive tasks, depending on whether the participant is alone or if other people are present. However, there are very few studies which...

### Mixed Responses: Why Readers Spend Less Time at Unfavorable Landing Positions

Feng, Gary; Duke University & RIKEN Brain Science Institute
This paper investigates why the average fixation duration tends to decrease from the center to the two ends of a word. Specifically, it examines (a) whether unfavorable landing positions trigger a corrective mechanism, (b) whether the triggering is based on the internal efference copy mechanism, and (c) whether the corrective mechanism is specific to fixations that missed their targeted words. To estimate the mean and proportion of the corrective fixations, a 3-parameter mixture model was...

### Hearing loss and a supportive tactile signal in a navigation system: Effects on driving behavior and eye movements

Lyxell, Björn; Linnaeus Centre HEAD, University Of Linköping, Sweden, Herbert, Nicholas; Institute For Transport Studies, University Of Leeds, UK, Holmqvist, Kenneth; University Of Lund, Sweden, Thorslund, Birgitta; VTI (Swedish National Road And Transport Research Institute), Sweden, Lidestam, Björn; Linnaeus Centre HEAD, University Of Linköping, Sweden, Peters, Björn; VTI (Swedish National Road And Transport Research Institute), Sweden & Black, Alexander; School Of Optometry, Queensland University Of Technology, Brisbane, Australia
An on-road study was conducted to evaluate a complementary tactile navigation signal on driving behaviour and eye movements for drivers with hearing loss (HL) compared to drivers with normal hearing (NH). 32 participants (16 HL and 16 NH) performed two preprogrammed navigation tasks. In one, participants received only visual information, while the other also included a vibration in the seat to guide them in the correct direction. SMI glasses were used for eye tracking, recording...

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