225 Works

A Focus on Selection for Fixation

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A computational explanation of how visual attention, interpretation of visual stimuli, and eye movements combine to produce visual behavior, seems elusive. Here, we focus on one component: how selection is accomplished for the next fixation. The popularity of saliency map models drives the inference that this is solved, but we argue otherwise. We provide arguments that a cluster of complementary, conspicuity representations drive selection, modulated by task goals and history, leading to a hybrid process...

The interference effect of concurrent working memory task on visual inhibitory control

, , Brad M. Hong &
We examined the interference between inhibitory control of a saccadic eye movement and a working memory task. This study was motivated by the observation that people are suscep-tible to cognitive errors when they are preoccupied. Subjects were instructed to make an anti-saccade, or to look in the opposite direction of a visual stimulus, thereby exercising inhibito-ry control over the reflexive eye movement towards a salient object. At the same time, the subjects were instructed to...

Lexical and post-lexical complexity effects on eye movements in reading

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The current study investigated how a post-lexical complexity manipulation followed by a lexical complexity manipulation affects eye movements during reading. Both manipulations caused disruption in all measures on the manipulated words, but the patterns of spillover differed. Critically, the effects of the two kinds of manipulations did not interact, and there was no evidence that post-lexical processing difficulty delayed lexical processing on the next word (c.f. Henderson & Ferreira, 1990). This suggests that post-lexical processing...

Abstracts of the 18th European Conference on Eye Movements 2015

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This document contains all abstracts of the 18th European Conference on Eye Movements, August 16-21 2015 in Vienna, Austria

The Influence of Complex Distractors in the Remote Distractor Paradigm

Three experiments examined the influence of complex dis-tractors on the Remote Distractor Effect (RDE), a robust finding of an increase is saccade latencies when two, rather than one possible targets are presented simultaneously (Walker, Deubel, Schneider & Findlay, 1997). In Experiment 1 saccade onset latencies (SOL’s) were greater for central versus peripheral presentation for lexical distractors, but not for non-lexical distractors. Experiment 2 showed that repeated presentation of a distractor results in reduced SOL’s at...

Effect of Saccadic Adaptation on Sequences of Saccades

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Accuracy of saccadic eye movements is maintained thanks to adaptation mechanisms. The adaptive lengthening and shortening of reactive and voluntary saccades rely on partially separate neural substrates. Although in daily-life we mostly perform sequences of saccades, the effect of saccadic adaptation has been mainly evaluated on single saccades. Here, sequences of two saccades were recorded before and after adaptation of rightward saccades. In 4 separate sessions, reactive and voluntary saccades were adaptively shortened or lengthened....

Sampling frequency and eye-tracking measures: how speed affects durations, latencies, and more

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We use simulations to investigate the effect of sampling frequency on common dependent variables in eye-tracking. We identify two large groups of measures that behave differently, but consistently. The effect of sampling frequency on these two groups of measures are explored and simulations are performed to estimate how much data are required to overcome the uncertainty of a limited sampling frequency. Both simulated and real data are used to estimate the temporal uncertainty of data...

The behavioural and neurophysiological modulation of microsaccades in monkeys

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Systematic modulations of microsaccades have been observed in humans during covert orienting. We show here that monkeys are a suitable model for studying the neurophysiology governing these modulations of microsaccades. Using various cue-target saccade tasks, we observed the effects of visual and auditory cues on microsaccades in monkeys. As in human studies, following visual cues there was an early bias in cue-congruent microsaccades followed by a later bias in cue-incongruent microsaccades. Following auditory cues there...

Influence of number, location and size of faces on gaze in video

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Many studies have reported the preference for faces and influence of faces on gaze, most of them in static images and a few in videos. In this paper, we study the influence of faces in complex free-viewing videos, with respect to the effects of number, location and size of the faces. This knowledge could be used to enrich a face pathway in a visual saliency model. We used eye fixation data from an eye movement...

Multimodal Comprehension of Language and Graphics: Graphs with and without annotations

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An experimental investigation into interaction between language and information graphics in multimodal documents served as the basis for this study. More specifically, our purpose was to investigate the role of linguistic annotations in graph-text documents. Participants were presented with three newspaper articles in the following conditions: one text-only, one text plus non-annotated graph, and one text plus annotated graph. Results of the experiment showed that, on one hand, annotations play a bridging role for integration...

Mixed Responses: Why Readers Spend Less Time at Unfavorable Landing Positions

This paper investigates why the average fixation duration tends to decrease from the center to the two ends of a word. Specifically, it examines (a) whether unfavorable landing positions trigger a corrective mechanism, (b) whether the triggering is based on the internal efference copy mechanism, and (c) whether the corrective mechanism is specific to fixations that missed their targeted words. To estimate the mean and proportion of the corrective fixations, a 3-parameter mixture model was...

Tracking eye movements when solving geometry problems with handwriting devices

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The present study investigated the following issues: (1) whether differences are evident in the eye movement measures of successful and unsuccessful problem-solvers; (2) what is the relationship between perceived difficulty and eye movement measures; and (3) whether eye movements in various AOIs differ when solving problems. Sixty-three 11th grade students solved five geometry problems about the properties of similar triangles. A digital drawing tablet and sensitive pressure pen were used to record the responses. The...

Hearing loss and a supportive tactile signal in a navigation system: Effects on driving behavior and eye movements

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An on-road study was conducted to evaluate a complementary tactile navigation signal on driving behaviour and eye movements for drivers with hearing loss (HL) compared to drivers with normal hearing (NH). 32 participants (16 HL and 16 NH) performed two preprogrammed navigation tasks. In one, participants received only visual information, while the other also included a vibration in the seat to guide them in the correct direction. SMI glasses were used for eye tracking, recording...

Estimation of a focused object using a corneal surface image for eye-based interaction

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Researchers are considering the use of eye tracking in head-mounted camera systems, such as Google’s Project Glass. Typical methods require detailed calibration in advance, but long periods of use disrupt the calibration record between the eye and the scene camera. In addition, the focused object might not be estimated even if the point-of-regard is estimated using a portable eye-tracker. Therefore, we propose a novel method for estimating the object that a user is focused upon,...

Binocular coordination of saccades: development, aging and cerebral substrate

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The origin of binocular coordination of saccades (central, peripheral) and the role of learning remain controversial (Hering vs Helmholtz). We will present evidence for learning: in young children (5 years) horizontal saccades are poorly yoked, coordination improves slowly with age particularly at near viewing distances. In dyslexic teenagers coordination of horizontal saccades is poor relative to non-dyslexics, suggesting slower learning. On the other hand, in healthy elderly participants (73 years) coordination of vertical saccades is...

Parsing costs as predictors of reading difficulty: An evaluation using the Potsdam Sentence Corpus

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The surprisal of a word on a probabilistic grammar constitutes a promising complexity metric for human sentence comprehension difficulty. Using two different grammar types, surprisal is shown to have an effect on fixation durations and regression probabilities in a sample of German readers’ eye movements, the Potsdam Sentence Corpus. A linear mixed-effects model was used to quantify the effect of surprisal while taking into account unigram frequency and bigram frequency (transitional probability), word length, and...

Quick Models for Saccade Amplitude Prediction

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This paper presents a new saccade amplitude prediction model. The model is based on a Kalman filter and regression analysis. The aim of the model is to predict a saccade’s am-plitude extremely quickly, i.e., within two eye position samples at the onset of a saccade. Specifically, the paper explores saccade amplitude prediction considering one or two sam-ples at the onset of a saccade. The models’ prediction performance was tested with 35 subjects. The amplitude accuracy...

Effects of aging on regular and express latencies of vergence

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Vergence eye movements are frequent in every day life and important for depth perception. Yet, studies of vergence in elderly are rare. We examined convergence and divergence between targets placed along median line at 20, 40 or 150cm. Thirteen elderly (70±11years) and ten young (25±3years) adults participated in the study. The gap paradigm (i.e., the fixed stimulus is extinguished prior to target onset) and the overlap paradigm (the fixed stimulus remains illuminated after target onset)...

The Illusion of Being Located in Dynamic Virtual Environments. Can Eye Movement Parameters Predict Spatial Presence?

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Attention allocation towards the mediated environment is assumed to be a necessary precondition to feel localized in a virtual world. In presence research, however, the potential of eye movement research has not been fully exploited so far. In this study, participants (N=44) rode on a virtual roller coaster simulation. We compare participants scoring high versus low on presence. During the ride, the eye movements and subjective ex post presence judgments were assessed. We found high...

Eye-movements in real curve driving: pursuit-like optokinesis in vehicle frame of reference, stability in an allocentric reference coordinate system

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Looking at the future path and/or the tangent point (TP) have been identified as car drivers’ gaze targets in many studies on curve driving. Yet little is known in detail about these "fixations to the road". We quantitatively analyse gaze behavior at the level of individual fixations in real on-road data. We find that while gaze tracks the TP area, this pattern consists of fast optokinetic movements (smooth pursuit and fast resetting saccadic movements). Gaze...

On the Structure of Measurement Noise in Eye-Tracking

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Past research has discovered fractal structure in eye movement variability and interpreted this result as having theoretical ramifications. No research has, however, investigated how properties of the eye-tracking instrument might affect the structure of measurement varia-bility. The current experiment employed fractal and multifractal methods to investigate whether an eye-tracker produced intrinsic random variation and how features of the data recording procedure affected the structure measurement variability. The results of this experiment revealed that the structure...

Repeated Web Page Visits and the Scanpath Theory: A Recurrent Pattern Detection Approach

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This paper investigates the eye movement sequences of users visiting web pages repeatedly. We are interested in potential habituation due to repeated exposure. The scanpath theory posits that every person learns an idiosyncratic gaze sequence on first exposure to a stimulus and re-applies it on subsequent exposures. Josephson and Holmes (2002) tested the applicability of this hypothesis to web page revisitation but results were inconclusive. With a recurrent temporal pattern detection technique, we examine additional...

Saccadic Behavior during the Response to Pure Vergence Stimuli I: General Properties

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If two targets are carefully aligned so that they fall along the cyclopean axis, the required eye movement will be symmetrical with the two eyes turning equally inward or outward. When such “pure vergence stimuli” are used only a “pure vergence movement” is required, yet almost all responses include saccadic eye movements, a rapid tandem movement of the eyes. When saccades occur, they must either produce an error in the desired symmetrical response or correct...

Silent reading of music and texts; eye movements and integrative reading mechanisms

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This study investigates to what extent structural units defined by physical and structural markers elicit different eye movement patterns when reading contrasting stimuli of music and verbal texts. Eye movements were tracked and compared in ten musicians undergoing Bachelor’s degrees as they silently read six texts and six pieces of music for piano: the music was contemporary, in modal style, and the style of the texts was informative and literary. Participants were music students at...

Pupil size affects measures of eye position in video eye tracking: implications for recording vergence accuracy

Video eye trackers rely on the position of the pupil centre. However, the pupil centre can shift when the pupil size changes. This pupillary artifact is investigated for binocular vergence accuracy (i.e. fixation disparity) in near vision where the pupil is smaller in the binocular test phase than in the monocular calibration. A regression between recordings of pupil size and fixation disparity allows correcting the pupillary artefact. This corrected fixation disparity appeared to be favourable...

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