27 Works

An inverse-linear logistic model of the main sequence

Niedzielska, Anna; National Information Processing Institute, Biele, Cezary; National Information Processing Institute, Schönenberg, Michael; University Of Tübingen, Duchowski, Andrew; Clemson University, Giannopoulos, Ioannis; ETH Zürich, Gehrer, Nina; University Of Tübingen, Krejtz, Krzysztof; SWPS University Of Psychology & Kiefer, Peter; ETH Zürich
A model of the main sequence is proposed based on the logistic function. The model’s fit to the peak velocity-amplitude relation resembles an S curve, simulta- neously allowing control of the curve’s asymptotes at very small and very large amplitudes, as well as its slope over the mid amplitude range. The proposed inverse-linear logistic model is also able to express the linear relation of duration and amplitude. We demonstrate the utility and robustness of the...

Using coefficient K to distinguish ambient/focal visual attention during map viewing

Niedzielska, Anna; National Information Processing Institute, Poland, Krejtz, Krzysztof; SWPS University Of Social Sciences And Humanities, Coltekin, Arzu; Department Of Geography, University Of Zurich & Duchowski, Andrew; Clemson University
We demonstrate the use of the ambient/focal coecient K for studying the dynamics of visual behavior when performing cartographic tasks. Participants viewed a cartographic map and satellite image of Barcelona while performing a number of map-related tasks. Cartographic maps can be viewed as summary representations of reality, while satellite images are typically more veridical, and contain considerably more information. Our analysis of traditional eye movement metrics suggests that the satellite representation facilitates longer fixation durations,...

Eye tracking in Educational Science: Theoretical frameworks and research agendas

Holmqvist, Kenneth; Lund University, Sweden, Jarodzka, Halszka; Open University Of The Netherlands & Gruber, Hans; University Of Regensburg
Eye tracking is increasingly being used in Educational Science and so has the interest of the eye tracking community grown in this topic. In this paper we briefly introduce the discipline of Educational Science and why it might be interesting to couple it with eye tracking research. We then introduce three major research areas in Educational Science that have already successfully used eye tracking: First, eye tracking has been used to improve the instructional design...

Role of expectation and working memory constraints in Hindi comprehension: An eyetracking corpus analysis

Agrawal, Arpit; Indian Institute Of Technology, Delhi, Agarwal, Sumeet; Indian Institute Of Technology, Delhi & Husain, Samar; Indian Institute Of Technology, Delhi
We used the Potsdam-Allahabad Hindi eye-tracking corpus to investigate the role of word-level and sentence-level factors during sentence comprehension in Hindi. Extending previous work that used this eye-tracking data, we investigate the role of surprisal and retrieval cost metrics during sentence processing. While controlling for word-level predictors (word complexity, syllable length, unigram and bigram frequencies) as well as sentence-level predictors such as integration and storage costs, we find a significant effect of surprisal on first-pass...

Abstracts of the 19th European Conference on Eye Movements 2017

Radach, Ralph; University Of Wuppertal, Vorstius, Christian; University Of Wuppertal, Hofmann (Eds.), Markus J.; University Of Wuppertal & Deubel, Heiner; University Of Munich
This document contains all abstracts of the 19th European Conference on Eye Movements, August 20-24, 2017, in Wuppertal, Germany

A comparison of eye movement measures across reading efficiency quartile groups in elementary, middle, and high school students in the U.S.

Spichtig, Alexandra; Reading Plus, Ferrara, John; Reading Plus, Vorstius, Christian; Bergische Universität Wuppertal & Pascoe, Jeffrey; Reading Plus
This cross-sectional study examined eye movements during reading across grades in students with differing levels of reading efficiency. Eye-movement recordings were obtained while students in grades 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 silently read normed grade-leveled texts with demonstrated comprehension. Recordings from students in each reading rate quartile at each grade level were compared to characterize differences in reading rate, number of fixations, number of regressions, and fixation durations. Comparisons indicated that students in...

Estimation of overlapped Eye Fixation Related Potentials: The General Linear Model, a more flexible framework than the ADJAR algorithm

Kristensen, Emmanuelle; University Grenoble Alpes, Rivet, Bertrand; University Grenoble Alpes & Guérin-Dugué, Anne; University Grenoble Alpes
The Eye Fixation Related Potential (EFRP) estimation is the average of EEG signals across epochs at ocular fixation onset. Its main limitation is the overlapping issue. Inter Fixation Intervals (IFI) - typically around 300 ms in the case of unrestricted eye movement- depend on participants’ oculomotor patterns, and can be shorter than the latency of the components of the evoked potential. If the duration of an epoch is longer than the IFI value, more than...

Mobile eye tracking during real-world night driving: A selective review of findings and recommendations for future research

Ansorge, Ulrich; University Of Vienna & Grüner, Markus; University Of Vienna
We exhaustively review the published research on eye movements during real-world night driving, which is an important field of research as fatal road traffic accidents at night outnumber fatal accidents during the daytime. Eye tracking provides a unique window into the underlying cognitive processes. The studies were interpreted and evaluated against the background of two descriptions of the driving task: Gibson and Crooks’ (1938) description of driving as the visually guided selection of a driving...

Interference between smooth pursuit and color working memory

Fan, Chenggui; University Of Electronic Science And Technology Of China, Zhang, Qian; University Of Electronic Science And Technology Of China, Jin, Zhenlan; Key Laboratory For NeuroInformation Of Ministry Of Education, Center For Information In Medicine, School Of Life Science And Technology, University Of Electronic Science And Technology Of China, Li, Ling; Key Laboratory For NeuroInformation Of Ministry Of Education, Center For Information In Medicine, School Of Life Science And Technology, University Of Electronic Science And Technology Of China & Yue, Shulin; University Of Electronic Science And Technology Of China
Spatial working memory (WM) and spatial attention are closely related, but the relationship between non-spatial WM and spatial attention still remains unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the interaction between color WM and smooth pursuit eye movements. A modified delayed-match-to-sample paradigm (DMS) was applied with 2 or 4 items presented in each visual field. Subjects memorized the colors of items in the cued visual field and smoothly moved eyes towards or away from memorized...

Negative versus positive priming: When are distractors inhibited?

Stefan Van Der Stigchel
Visual attention is guided by the history of selections in previous trials, an effect usually referred to as intertrial priming. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether such priming in visual search is due to a strengthening of the target signal, or the suppression of the distractor signal. In two experiments, we examined the deviation of saccade endpoints in situations in which the target and distractors were presented in relative close proximity....

How a distractor influences fixations during the exploration of natural scenes

Nathalie Guyader, Devillez, Hélène; Université De Grenoble-Alpes, France & Anne Guérin-Dugué
The distractor effect is a well-established means of studying different aspects of fixation pro-gramming during the exploration of visual scenes. In this study, we present a task-irrelevant distractor to participants during the free exploration of natural scenes. We investigate the con-trol and programming of fixations by analyzing fixation durations and locations, and the link between the two. We also propose a simple mixture model evaluated using the Expectation-Maximization algorithm to test the distractor effect on...

Increased microsaccade rate in individuals with ADHD traits

Stafford, Tom; The University Of Sheffield, Overton, Paul; The University Of Sheffield & Panagiotidi, Maria; Staffordshire University
Microsaccades are involuntary, small, jerk-like eye-movements with high-velocity that are observed during fixation. Abnormal microsaccade rates and characteristics have been observed in a number of psychiatric and developmental disorders. In this study, we examine microsaccade differences in 43 non-clinical participants with high and low levels of ADHD-like traits, assessed with the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS, Kessler, Adler, et al., 2005). A simple sustained attention paradigm, which has been previously shown to elicit microsaccades, was...

Topology for gaze analyses - Raw data segmentation

Zangemeister, Wolfgang H.; Neurological University Clinic Hamburg & Hein, Oliver; University Hamburg
Recent years have witnessed a remarkable growth in the way mathematics, informatics,and computer science can process data. In disciplines such as machine learning,pattern recognition, computer vision, computational neurology, molecular biology,information retrieval, etc., many new methods have been developed to cope with theever increasing amount and complexity of the data. These new methods offer interestingpossibilities for processing, classifying and interpreting eye-tracking data. Thepresent paper exemplifies the application of topological arguments to improve theevaluation of eye-tracking data....

Reading English-Language Haiku: Processes of Meaning Construction Revealed by Eye Movements

Geyer, Thomas; LMU Munich, Germany, Kacian, Jim; The Haiku Foundation, Winchester, VA, USA, Mueller, Hermann J; LMU Munich, Germany, Pierides, Stella; The Haiku Foundation, Winchester, VA, USA & Günther, Franziska; LMU Munich, Germany
In the present study, poets and cognitive scientists came together to investigate the construction of meaning in the process of reading normative, 3-line English-language haiku (ELH), as found in leading ELH journals. The particular haiku which we presented to our readers consisted of two semantically separable parts, or images, that were set in a ‘tense’ relationship by the poet. In our sample of poems, the division, or cut, between the two parts was positioned either...

Gaze Self-Similarity Plot - A New Visualization Technique

Kasprowski, Pawel; Silesian University Of Technology & Katarzyna Harezlak
Eye tracking has become a valuable way for extending knowledge of human behavior based on visual patterns. One of the most important elements of such an analysis is the presentation of obtained results, which proves to be a challenging task. Traditional visualization techniques such as scan-paths or heat maps may reveal interesting information, nonetheless many useful features are still not visible, especially when temporal characteristics of eye movement is taken into account. This paper introduces...

Pupil response as an indicator of hazard perception during simulator driving

Vintila, Florentin; Eberhard-Karls-Universität Tübingen, Kübler, Thomas Christian; Eberhard-Karls-Universität Tübingen & Kasneci, Enkelejda; Eberhard-Karls-Universität Tübingen
We investigate the pupil response to hazard perception during driving simulation. Complementary to gaze movement and physiological stress indicators, pupil size changes can provide valuable information on traffic hazard perception with a relatively low temporal delay. We tackle the challenge of identifying those pupil dilation events associated with hazardous events from a noisy signal by a combination of wavelet transformation and machine learning. Therefore, we use features of the wavelet components as training data of...

Using smooth pursuit calibration for difficult-to-calibrate participants

Blignaut, Pieter; University Of The Free State, South Africa
Although the 45-dots calibration routine of a previous study (Blignaut, 2016) provided very good accuracy, it requires intense mental effort and the routine proved to be unsuccessful for young children who struggle to maintain concentration. The calibration procedures that are normally used for difficult-to-calibrate participants, such as autistic children and infants, do not suffice since they are not accurate enough and the reliability of research results might be jeopardised.Smooth pursuit has been used before for...

Probabilistic approach to robust wearable gaze tracking

Kristian Lukander, Toivanen, Miika; University Of Helsinki & Kai Puolamäki
This paper presents a method for computing the gaze point using camera data captured with a wearable gaze tracking device. The method utilizes a physical model of the human eye, advanced Bayesian computer vision algorithms, and Kalman filtering, resulting in high accuracy and low noise. Our C++ implementation can process camera streams with 30 frames per second in realtime. The performance of the system is validated in an exhaustive experimental setup with 19 participants, using...

Less users more confidence: How AOIs don’t affect scanpath trend analysis

Eraslan, Sukru; Computer Engineering Program, Middle East Technical University Northern Cyprus Campus, Yesilada, Yeliz; Computer Engineering Program, Middle East Technical University Northern Cyprus Campus & Harper, Simon; School Of Computer Science, University Of Manchester, United Kingdom
User studies are typically difficult, recruiting enough users is often problematic and each experiment takes a considerable amount of time to be completed. In these studies, eye tracking is increasingly used which often increases time, therefore, the lower the number of users required for these studies the better for making these kinds of studies more practical in terms of economics and time expended. The possibility of achieving almost the same results with fewer users has...

Ways of improving the precision of eye tracking data: Controlling the influence of dirt and dust on pupil detection

Dennis Hospach, Wolfgang Rosenstiel, Wolfgang Fuhl, Thomas C. Kübler, Kasneci, Enkelejda; University Of Tübingen Department Of Computer Science & Oliver Bringmann
Eye-tracking technology has to date been primarily employed in research. With recent advances in aordable video-based devices, the implementation of gaze-aware smartphones, and marketable driver monitoring systems, a considerable step towards pervasive eye-tracking has been made. However, several new challenges arise with the usage of eye-tracking in the wild and will need to be tackled to increase the acceptance of this technology. The main challenge is still related to the usage of eye-tracking together with...

Visual Analytics of Gaze Data with Standard Multimedia Player

Schöning, Julius; Institute Of Cognitive Science; Osnabrück University, König, Peter; Institute Of Cognitive Science; Osnabrück University, Krumnack, Ulf; Institute Of Cognitive Science; Osnabrück University, Gundler, Christopher; Institute Of Cognitive Science; Osnabrück University & Heidemann, Gunther; Institute Of Cognitive Science; Osnabrück University
With the increasing number of studies, where participants’ eye movements are tracked while watching videos, the volume of gaze data records is growing tremendously. Unfortunately, in most cases, such data are collected in separate files in custom-made or proprietary data formats. These data are difficult to access even for experts and effectively inaccessible for non-experts. Normally expensive or custom-made software is necessary for their analysis. We address this problem by using existing multimedia container formats...

Developing Clinically Practical Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Protocols to Improve Saccadic Eye Movement Control

Chen, Po Ling; University Of Otago & Machado, Liana; University Of Otago
Recent research indicates that anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) applied over the frontal eye field (FEF) can be used to improve saccadic eye movement control in healthy young adults. The current research set out to replicate these findings using a clinically practical protocol, to test whether tDCS applied over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) might also afford benefits, and to determine whether benefits extend to older adults, who are known to suffer from saccadic...

Where did I come from? Where am I going? Functional influences on visual search fixation duration

Greene, Harold H.; University Of Detroit Mercy & James M. Brown
Real time simulation of visual search behavior can occur only if the control of fixation durations is sufficiently understood. Visual search studies have typically confounded pre- and post-saccadic influences on fixation duration. In the present study, pre- and post-saccadic influences on fixation durations were compared by considering saccade direction. Novel use of a gaze-contingent moving obstructer paradigm also addressed relative contributions of both influences to total fixation duration. As a function of saccade direction, pre-saccadic...

A Quality-Centered Analysis of Eye Tracking Data in Foveated Rendering

Weier, Martin; Bonn-Rhein-Sieg University Of Applied Sciences Saarland University, Slusallek, Philipp; Saarland University Intel Visual Computing University German Research Centre For Artificial Intelligence (DFKI), Hinkenjann, André; Bonn-Rhein-Sieg University Of Applied Sciences, Li, Yongmin; Brunel University London & Roth, Thorsten; Bonn-Rhein-Sieg University Of Applied Sciences Brunel University London
This work presents the analysis of data recorded by an eye tracking device in the course of evaluating a foveated rendering approach for head-mounted displays (HMDs). Foveated ren- dering methods adapt the image synthesis process to the user’s gaze and exploiting the human visual system’s limitations to increase rendering performance. Especially, foveated rendering has great potential when certain requirements have to be fulfilled, like low-latency rendering to cope with high display refresh rates. This is...

Eye movement planning on Single-Sensor-Single-Indicator displays is vulnerable to user anxiety and cognitive load

Allsop, Jonathan; Vision And Eye Research Unit, Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge, UK, Gray, Rob; Human Systems Engineering Department, Arizona State University, Arizona, USA, Bülthoff, Heinrich; Department Of Human Perception, Cognition, And Action, Max Planck Institute For Biological Cybernetics, Tübingen, Germany And Department Of Brain And Cognitive Engineering Korea University, Seoul Korea & Chuang, Lewis; Department Of Human Perception, Cognition, And Action, Max Planck Institute For Biological Cybernetics,Tübingen, Germany
In this study, we demonstrate the effects of anxiety and cognitive load on eye movement planning in an instrument flight task adhering to a single-sensor-single-indicator data visualisation design philosophy. The task was performed in neutral and anxiety conditions, while a low or high cognitive load, auditory n-back task was also performed. Cognitive load led to a reduction in the number of transitions between instruments, and impaired task performance. Changes in self-reported anxiety between the neutral...

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