16 Works

Comparing written and photo-based indoor wayfinding instructions through eye fixation measures and user ratings as mental effort assessments

Laure De Cock, Pepijn Viaene, Nico Van De Weghe, Ralph Michels, Kristien Ooms, Nina Vanhaeren, Alain De Wulf & Philippe De Maeyer
The use of mobile pedestrian wayfinding applications is gaining importance indoors. However, compared to outdoors, much less research has been conducted with respect to the most adequate ways to convey indoor wayfinding information to a user. An explorative study was conducted to compare two pedestrian indoor wayfinding applications, one text-based (SoleWay) and one image-based (Eyedog), in terms of mental effort. To do this, eye tracking data and mental effort ratings were collected from 29 participants...

Evaluating age-related variations of gaze behavior for a novel digitized-digit symbol substitution test

Debatri Chatterjee, Rahul Dasharath Gavas, Kingshuk Chakravarty, Aniruddha Sinha & Uttama Lahiri
Analysis of cognitive functioning from gaze behavior might serve as an early indicator of age related decline of cognitive functions. Standard psychological tests like the digit-symbol substitution test or the symbol-digit modalities test is used exclusively in this regard. In this paper, we have designed and developed a digitized version of the digit symbol substitution test. Three different versions have been designed in order to derive deeper insights of the user behavior. The test-retest validation...

Eye tracking in virtual reality

Viviane Clay, Peter König & Sabine U. König
The intent of this paper is to provide an introduction into the bourgeoning field of eye tracking in Virtual Reality (VR). VR itself is an emerging technology on the consumer market, which will create many new opportunities in research. It offers a lab environment with high immersion and close alignment with reality. An experiment which is using VR takes place in a highly controlled environment and allows for a more in-depth amount of information to...

Use of eye tracking for assessment of electronic navigation competency in maritime training

Oguz Atik & Omer Arslan
The purpose of this study is to experiment an assessment method using eye tracking technology in simulator based electronic navigation training of ship officers who play a critical role in maritime accidents. The maritime industry focuses on human factor developing and improving regulations, training requirements and technology to prevent marine casualties. The mandatory use of simulations in maritime training as per international regulations includes competency assessment as a vital process. The study involves capturing and...

Estimating pilots’ cognitive load from ocular parameters through simulation and in-flight studies

Mohan Dilli Babu, D. V. JeevithaShree, Gowdham Prabhakar, Kamal Preet Singh Saluja, Abhay Pashilkar & Pradipta Biswas
Eye tracking is the process of measuring either the point of gaze (where one is looking) or the motion of an eye relative to the head. This paper investigated use of eye gaze trackers in military aviation environment to automatically estimate pilot’s cognitive load from ocular parameters. We used a fixed base variable stability flight simulator with longitudinal tracking task and collected data from 14 military pilots. In a second study, we undertook three test...

Eye tracking use in researching driver distraction: A scientometric and qualitative literature review approach

Tina Cvahte Ojsteršek & Darja Topolšek
Many factors affect road safety, but research constantly shows that drivers are the major cause of critical situations that could potentially lead to a traffic accident in road traffic. Visual information is a crucial part of input information into the driving process; therefore, distractions of overt visual attention can potentially have a large impact on driving safety. Modern eye tracking technology enables researchers to gain precise insight into the direction and movement of a driver’s...

Effects of an active visuomotor steering task on covert attention

Samuel Tuhkanen, Jami Pekkanen, Esko Lehtonen & Otto Lappi
In complex dynamic tasks such as driving it is essential to be aware of potentially important targets in peripheral vision. While eye tracking methods in various driving tasks have provided much information about drivers’ gaze strategies, these methods only inform about overt attention and provide limited grounds to assess hypotheses concerning covert attention. We adapted the Posner cue paradigm to a dynamic steering task in a driving simulator. The participants were instructed to report the...

Effect of visual attention and horizontal vergence in three-dimensional space on occurrence of optokinetic nystagmus

Kei Kanari & Hirohiko Kaneko
OKN corresponding to the motion of the fixating area occurs when a stimulus has two areas separated in depth containing motion in different directions. However, when attention and vergence are separately directed to areas with different motions and depths, it remains unclear which property of attention and vergence is prioritized to initiate OKN. In this study, we investigated whether OKN corresponding to motion in the attending or fixating area occurred when two motions with different...

Effects of individuality, education, and image on visual attention: Analyzing eye-tracking data using machine learning

Sangwon Lee, Yongha Hwang, Yan Jin, Sihyeong Ahn & Jaewan Park
Machine learning, particularly classification algorithms, constructs mathematical models from labeled data that can predict labels for new data. Using its capability to identify distinguishing patterns among multi-dimensional data, we investigated the impact of three factors on the observation of architectural scenes: Individuality, education, and image stimuli. An analysis of the eye-tracking data revealed that (1) a velocity histogram was unique to individuals, (2) students of architecture and other disciplines could be distinguished via endogenous parameters,...

Eye tracking in the wild: Piloting a real-life assessment paradigm for older adults

Damaris Aschwanden, Nicolas Langer & Mathias Allemand
Previous research showed associations between personality traits and eye movements of young adults in the laboratory. However, less is known about these associations in real life and in older age. Primarily, there seems to be no paradigm to assess eye movements of older adults in real life. The present feasibility study thus aimed to test grocery shopping as a real-life assessment paradigm with older adults. Additionally, possible links between personality traits and eye movements were...

Selective attention to question-relevant text information precedes high-quality summaries: Evidence from eye movements

José A. León, José David Moreno, Inmaculada Escudero & Johanna K. Kaakinen
Comprehension and summarizing are closely related. As more strategic and selective processing during reading should be reflected in higher quality of summaries, the aim of this study was to use eye movement patterns to analyze how readers who produce good quality summaries process texts. 40 undergraduate students were instructed to read six expository texts in order to respond a causal question introduced in the end of the first paragraph. After reading, participants produced an oral...

Are left- and right-eye pupil sizes always equal?

Gonca Gokce Menekse Dalveren & Nergiz Ercil Cagiltay
Eye movements provide very critical information about the cognitive load and behaviors of human beings. Earlier studies report that under normal conditions, the left- and right-eye pupil sizes are equal. For this reason, most studies undertaking eye-movement analysis are conducted by only considering the pupil size of a single eye or taking the average size of both eye pupils. This study attempts to offer a better understanding concerning whether there are any differences between the...

A cost function to determine the optimum filter and parameters for stabilizing gaze data

Pieter Blignaut
Prior to delivery of data, eye tracker software may apply filtering to correct for noise. Although filtering produces much better precision of data, it may add to the time it takes for the reporting of gaze data to stabilise after a saccade due to the usage of a sliding window. The effect of various filters and parameter settings on accuracy, precision and filter related latency is examined. A cost function can be used to obtain...

Eye tracker as an implied social presence: awareness of being eye-tracked induces social-norm-based looking behaviour

Hoo Keat Wong & Ian D. Stephen
Human behaviour is not only influenced by the physical presence of others, but also implied social presence. According to Risko and Kingstone (2011), an eye tracker can represent an implied social presence which could influence individuals’ gaze behaviour. This study examines the impact of awareness of being eye-tracked on eye movement behaviour in a laboratory setting. During a classic yes/no face recognition task, participants were made to believe that their eye movements were recorded (or...

The function of “looking-at-nothing” for sequential sensorimotor tasks: Eye movements to remembered action-target locations

Rebecca Martina Foerster
When performing manual actions, eye movements precede hand movements to target locations: Before we grasp an object, we look at it. Eye-hand guidance is even preserved when visual targets are unavailable, e.g., grasping behind an occlusion. This “looking-at-nothing” behavior might be functional, e.g., as “deictic pointer” for manual control or as memory-retrieval cue, or a by-product of automatization. Here, it is studied if looking at empty locations before acting on them is beneficial for sensorimotor...

Eye-movement efficiency and sight-reading expertise in woodwind players

Katie Zhukov, Sieu Khuu & Gary E McPherson
The ability to sight-read traditional staff notation is an important skill for all classically trained musicians. Up until now, however, most research has focused on pianists, by comparing experts and novices. Eye movement studies are a niche area of sight-reading research, focusing on eye-hand span and perceptual span of musicians, mostly pianists. Research into eye movement of non-piano sight-reading is limited. Studies into eye movement of woodwind sight-reading were conducted in the 1980s and early...

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