25 Works

Effects of an active visuomotor steering task on covert attention

Samuel Tuhkanen, Jami Pekkanen, Esko Lehtonen & Otto Lappi
In complex dynamic tasks such as driving it is essential to be aware of potentially important targets in peripheral vision. While eye tracking methods in various driving tasks have provided much information about drivers’ gaze strategies, these methods only inform about overt attention and provide limited grounds to assess hypotheses concerning covert attention. We adapted the Posner cue paradigm to a dynamic steering task in a driving simulator. The participants were instructed to report the...

Anticipation of cognitive conflict is reflected in microsaccades: Evidence from a cued-flanker task

Mario Dalmaso, Luigi Castelli & Giovanni Galfano
Microsaccade frequency has recently been shown to be sensitive to high-level cognitive processes such as attention and memory. In the present study we explored the effects of anticipated cognitive conflict. Participants were administered a variant of the flanker task, which is known to elicit cognitive interference. At the beginning of each trial, participants received a colour cue providing information about the upcoming target frame. In two thirds of the trials, the cue reliably informed the...

Influence of artificially generated interocular blur difference on fusion stability under vergence stress

Miroslav Dostalek, Jan Hejda, Karel Fliegel, Michaela Duchackova, Ladislav Dusek, Jiri Hozman, Tomas Lukes & Rudolf Autrata
The stability of fusion was evaluated by its breakage when interocular blur differences were presented under vergence demand to healthy subjects. We presumed that these blur differences cause suppression of the more blurred image (interocular blur suppression, IOBS), disrupt binocular fusion and suppressed eye leaves its forced vergent position. During dichoptic presentation of static grayscale images of natural scenes, the luminance contrast (mode B) or higher-spatial frequency content (mode C) or luminance contrast plus higher-spatial...

Eye tracking in the wild: Piloting a real-life assessment paradigm for older adults

Damaris Aschwanden, Nicolas Langer & Mathias Allemand
Previous research showed associations between personality traits and eye movements of young adults in the laboratory. However, less is known about these associations in real life and in older age. Primarily, there seems to be no paradigm to assess eye movements of older adults in real life. The present feasibility study thus aimed to test grocery shopping as a real-life assessment paradigm with older adults. Additionally, possible links between personality traits and eye movements were...

Microsaccades reflect the dynamics of misdirected attention in magic

Anthony S. Barnhart, Francisco M. Costela, Susana Martinez-Conde, Stephen L. Macknik & Stephen D. Goldinger
The methods of magicians provide powerful tools for enhancing the ecological validity of laboratory studies of attention. The current research borrows a technique from magic to explore the relationship between microsaccades and covert attention under near-natural viewing conditions. We monitored participants’ eye movements as they viewed a magic trick where a coin placed beneath a napkin vanishes and reappears beneath another napkin. Many participants fail to see the coin move from one location to the...

Estimating pilots’ cognitive load from ocular parameters through simulation and in-flight studies

Mohan Dilli Babu, D. V. JeevithaShree, Gowdham Prabhakar, Kamal Preet Singh Saluja, Abhay Pashilkar & Pradipta Biswas
Eye tracking is the process of measuring either the point of gaze (where one is looking) or the motion of an eye relative to the head. This paper investigated use of eye gaze trackers in military aviation environment to automatically estimate pilot’s cognitive load from ocular parameters. We used a fixed base variable stability flight simulator with longitudinal tracking task and collected data from 14 military pilots. In a second study, we undertook three test...

Selective attention to question-relevant text information precedes high-quality summaries: Evidence from eye movements

José A. León, José David Moreno, Inmaculada Escudero & Johanna K. Kaakinen
Comprehension and summarizing are closely related. As more strategic and selective processing during reading should be reflected in higher quality of summaries, the aim of this study was to use eye movement patterns to analyze how readers who produce good quality summaries process texts. 40 undergraduate students were instructed to read six expository texts in order to respond a causal question introduced in the end of the first paragraph. After reading, participants produced an oral...

Are left- and right-eye pupil sizes always equal?

Gonca Gokce Menekse Dalveren & Nergiz Ercil Cagiltay
Eye movements provide very critical information about the cognitive load and behaviors of human beings. Earlier studies report that under normal conditions, the left- and right-eye pupil sizes are equal. For this reason, most studies undertaking eye-movement analysis are conducted by only considering the pupil size of a single eye or taking the average size of both eye pupils. This study attempts to offer a better understanding concerning whether there are any differences between the...

Evaluating age-related variations of gaze behavior for a novel digitized-digit symbol substitution test

Debatri Chatterjee, Rahul Dasharath Gavas, Kingshuk Chakravarty, Aniruddha Sinha & Uttama Lahiri
Analysis of cognitive functioning from gaze behavior might serve as an early indicator of age related decline of cognitive functions. Standard psychological tests like the digit-symbol substitution test or the symbol-digit modalities test is used exclusively in this regard. In this paper, we have designed and developed a digitized version of the digit symbol substitution test. Three different versions have been designed in order to derive deeper insights of the user behavior. The test-retest validation...

Microsaccades distinguish looking from seeing

Eva Krueger, Andrea Schneider, Ben Sawyer, Alain Chavaillaz, Andreas Sonderegger, Rudolf Groner & Peter Hancock
Understanding our visual world requires both looking and seeing. Dissociation of these processes can result in the phenomenon of inattentional blindness or ‘looking without seeing‘. Concomitant errors in applied settings can be serious, and even deadly. Current visual data analysis cannot differentiate between just ‘looking‘ and actual processing of visual information, i.e., ‘seeing‘. Differentiation may be possible through the examination of microsaccades; the involuntary, small-magnitude saccadic eye movements that occur during processed visual fixation. Recent...

A cost function to determine the optimum filter and parameters for stabilizing gaze data

Pieter Blignaut
Prior to delivery of data, eye tracker software may apply filtering to correct for noise. Although filtering produces much better precision of data, it may add to the time it takes for the reporting of gaze data to stabilise after a saccade due to the usage of a sliding window. The effect of various filters and parameter settings on accuracy, precision and filter related latency is examined. A cost function can be used to obtain...

Effects of visual blur on microsaccades during visual exploration

Sherry Tang, Peggy Skelly, Jorge Otero-Millan, Jonathan Jacobs, Jordan Murray, Aasef G. Shaikh & Fatema F. Ghasia
Microsaccades shift the image on the fovea and counteract visual fading. They also serve as an optimal sampling strategy while viewing complex visual scenes. Microsaccade production relies on the amount of retinal error or acuity demand of a visual task. The goal of this study was to assess the effects of blur induced by uncorrected refractive error on visual search. Eye movements were recorded in fourteen healthy subjects with uncorrected and corrected refractive error while...

Microsaccades and covert attention: Evidence from a continuous, divided attention task

Aimee Elizabeth Ryan, Brendan Keane & Guy Wallis
A substantial question in understanding expert behavior is isolating where experts look, and which aspects of their environment they process. While tracking the position of gaze provides some insight into this process, our ability to attend covertly to regions of space other than the current point of fixation, severely limits the diagnostic power of such data. Over the past decade, evidence has emerged suggesting that microscopic eye movements present during periods of fixation may be...

Fixational eye movement waveforms in amblyopia: Characteristics of fast and slow eye movements

Sarah Linda Kang, Sinem B. Beylergil, Jorge Otero-Millan, Aasef Shaikh & Fatema Ghasia
Fixational eye movements comprise of fast microsaccades alternating with slow inter-saccadic drifts. These physiologic eye movements play an important role in visual perception. Amblyopic patients are known to have fixation instability, particularly of the amblyopic eye. We examined eye movement abnormalities that contribute to this instability. We found that fixation stability is affected by the presence of fusion maldevelopment nystagmus (FMN). However, some amblyopes can have nystagmus without nasally directed slow phases and reversal in...

Comparing written and photo-based indoor wayfinding instructions through eye fixation measures and user ratings as mental effort assessments

Laure De Cock, Pepijn Viaene, Nico Van De Weghe, Ralph Michels, Kristien Ooms, Nina Vanhaeren, Alain De Wulf & Philippe De Maeyer
The use of mobile pedestrian wayfinding applications is gaining importance indoors. However, compared to outdoors, much less research has been conducted with respect to the most adequate ways to convey indoor wayfinding information to a user. An explorative study was conducted to compare two pedestrian indoor wayfinding applications, one text-based (SoleWay) and one image-based (Eyedog), in terms of mental effort. To do this, eye tracking data and mental effort ratings were collected from 29 participants...

Effects of individuality, education, and image on visual attention: Analyzing eye-tracking data using machine learning

Sangwon Lee, Yongha Hwang, Yan Jin, Sihyeong Ahn & Jaewan Park
Machine learning, particularly classification algorithms, constructs mathematical models from labeled data that can predict labels for new data. Using its capability to identify distinguishing patterns among multi-dimensional data, we investigated the impact of three factors on the observation of architectural scenes: Individuality, education, and image stimuli. An analysis of the eye-tracking data revealed that (1) a velocity histogram was unique to individuals, (2) students of architecture and other disciplines could be distinguished via endogenous parameters,...

Eye tracker as an implied social presence: awareness of being eye-tracked induces social-norm-based looking behaviour

Hoo Keat Wong & Ian D. Stephen
Human behaviour is not only influenced by the physical presence of others, but also implied social presence. According to Risko and Kingstone (2011), an eye tracker can represent an implied social presence which could influence individuals’ gaze behaviour. This study examines the impact of awareness of being eye-tracked on eye movement behaviour in a laboratory setting. During a classic yes/no face recognition task, participants were made to believe that their eye movements were recorded (or...

Reading Shakespeare sonnets: Combining quantitative narrative analysis and predictive modeling - an eye tracking study

Shuwei Xue, Jana Lüdtke, Teresa Sylvester & Arthur M. Jacobs
As a part of a larger interdisciplinary project on Shakespeare sonnets’ reception (Jacobs et al., 2017; Xue et al., 2017), the present study analyzed the eye movement behavior of participants reading three of the 154 sonnets as a function of seven lexical features extracted via Quantitative Narrative Analysis (QNA). Using a machine learning- based predictive modeling approach five ‘surface’ features (word length, orthographic neighborhood density, word frequency, orthographic dissimilarity and sonority score) were detected as...

Effect of visual attention and horizontal vergence in three-dimensional space on occurrence of optokinetic nystagmus

Kei Kanari & Hirohiko Kaneko
OKN corresponding to the motion of the fixating area occurs when a stimulus has two areas separated in depth containing motion in different directions. However, when attention and vergence are separately directed to areas with different motions and depths, it remains unclear which property of attention and vergence is prioritized to initiate OKN. In this study, we investigated whether OKN corresponding to motion in the attending or fixating area occurred when two motions with different...

Motion tracking of iris features to detect small eye movements

Aayush K. Chaudhary & Jeff B. Pelz
The inability of current video-based eye trackers to reliably detect very small eye movements has led to confusion about the prevalence or even the existence of monocular microsaccades (small, rapid eye movements that occur in only one eye at a time). As current methods often rely on precisely localizing the pupil and/or corneal reflection on successive frames, current microsaccade-detection algorithms often suffer from signal artifacts and a low signal-to-noise ratio. We describe a new video-based...

Eye tracking use in researching driver distraction: A scientometric and qualitative literature review approach

Tina Cvahte Ojsteršek & Darja Topolšek
Many factors affect road safety, but research constantly shows that drivers are the major cause of critical situations that could potentially lead to a traffic accident in road traffic. Visual information is a crucial part of input information into the driving process; therefore, distractions of overt visual attention can potentially have a large impact on driving safety. Modern eye tracking technology enables researchers to gain precise insight into the direction and movement of a driver’s...

The function of “looking-at-nothing” for sequential sensorimotor tasks: Eye movements to remembered action-target locations

Rebecca Martina Foerster
When performing manual actions, eye movements precede hand movements to target locations: Before we grasp an object, we look at it. Eye-hand guidance is even preserved when visual targets are unavailable, e.g., grasping behind an occlusion. This “looking-at-nothing” behavior might be functional, e.g., as “deictic pointer” for manual control or as memory-retrieval cue, or a by-product of automatization. Here, it is studied if looking at empty locations before acting on them is beneficial for sensorimotor...

Use of eye tracking for assessment of electronic navigation competency in maritime training

Oguz Atik & Omer Arslan
The purpose of this study is to experiment an assessment method using eye tracking technology in simulator based electronic navigation training of ship officers who play a critical role in maritime accidents. The maritime industry focuses on human factor developing and improving regulations, training requirements and technology to prevent marine casualties. The mandatory use of simulations in maritime training as per international regulations includes competency assessment as a vital process. The study involves capturing and...

Eye-movement efficiency and sight-reading expertise in woodwind players

Katie Zhukov, Sieu Khuu & Gary E McPherson
The ability to sight-read traditional staff notation is an important skill for all classically trained musicians. Up until now, however, most research has focused on pianists, by comparing experts and novices. Eye movement studies are a niche area of sight-reading research, focusing on eye-hand span and perceptual span of musicians, mostly pianists. Research into eye movement of non-piano sight-reading is limited. Studies into eye movement of woodwind sight-reading were conducted in the 1980s and early...

Eye tracking in virtual reality

Viviane Clay, Peter König & Sabine U. König
The intent of this paper is to provide an introduction into the bourgeoning field of eye tracking in Virtual Reality (VR). VR itself is an emerging technology on the consumer market, which will create many new opportunities in research. It offers a lab environment with high immersion and close alignment with reality. An experiment which is using VR takes place in a highly controlled environment and allows for a more in-depth amount of information to...

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