390 Works

Das Gefängnis als Forschungsfeld

Marina Richter, Ueli Hostettler & Roger Kirchhofer

Association between hepatitis B infection and elevated liver stiffness among HIV-infected adults in Lusaka, Zambia

Benjamin H Chi, Lloyd Mulenga, Roma Chilengi, Kalo Musukuma, Michael J Vinikoor, Gilles Wandeler, Mary-Ann Davies, Carolyn Bolton Moore, Matthias Egger & Alice Siyunda
OBJECTIVE To describe the liver disease epidemiology among HIV-infected individuals in Zambia. METHODS We recruited HIV-infected adults (≥18 years) at antiretroviral therapy initiation at two facilities in Lusaka. Using vibration controlled transient elastography we assessed liver stiffness, a surrogate for fibrosis/cirrhosis, and analyzed liver stiffness measurements (LSM) according to established thresholds (>7.0 kPa for significant fibrosis and >11.0 kPa for cirrhosis). All participants underwent standardized screening for potential causes of liver disease including chronic hepatitis...

Pathways to higher education and social mobility: France, Switzerland and Canada compared

Christian Imdorf, Jake Murdoch, Christine Guégnard, Pierre Canisius Kamanzi & Maarten Koomen
Le présent article examine dans quelle mesure l’organisation des trajectoires scolaires et les parcours conduisant à l’enseignement supérieur favorisent la mobilité sociale ou au contraire la reproduction des inégalités. Nous avons comparé trois pays : la France, la Suisse et le Canada. Les résultats obtenus à partir des données tirées des panels d’enquêtes menées dans ces trois pays permettent d’observer deux situations opposées. Plus l’enseignement supérieur est valorisé au détriment de la formation professionnelle, plus...

Preeclampsia enhances neuroglial marker expression in umbilical cord Wharton's jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

Anice Bessire, Daniel Surbek, Martin Mueller, Anna Margaretha Wagner, Marianne Jörger Messerli, Andreina Schoeberlein & Esther Brühlmann
Objective: The aim of the study was to compare the neuroglial phenotype of Wharton's jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells (WJ-MSC) from pregnancies complicated with preeclampsia and gestational age (GA)-matched controls. Methods: WJ-MSC were isolated from umbilical cords from both groups and analyzed for the cell surface expression of MSC markers and the gene and protein expression of neuroglial markers. Results: All WJ cells were highly positive for the MSC markers CD105, CD90 and CD73, but negative...

Clinical Skills Online (CliSO): Combining case based and systematic learning using the Nickels and CASUS® Platforms

Daniel Bauer, Stefan Urbansky, Martin R Fischer, Michael Emde & Gudrun Karsten
Mit „KliFO – Klinische Fertigkeiten Online“ wurde an den medizinischen Fakultäten der CAU Kiel und der LMU München ein gemeinsames Blended Learning-Konzept zum computergestützten Lernen und praktischen Trainieren von klinischen Untersuchungstechniken für Medizinstudenten entwickelt (http://www.cliso.de) Das didaktische Konzept beinhaltet die standardisierte und Lernziel-bezogene Vermittlung klinischer Untersuchungstechniken und sensomotorischer Fertigkeiten und die Verbindung von typischen Fallbeispielen mit biomedizinischem Hintergrundwissen. Beide beteiligten Fakultäten brachten hierbei ihre speziellen Kompetenzen und Erfahrungen in den Bereichen systematisches (Kiel: Lernplattform Nickels)...

Bifurcation Analysis of Reaction Diffusion Systems on Arbitrary Surfaces

Matthias Zwicker & Daljit Singh Joginder Singh Dhillon
In this article we present a computational framework for isolating spatial patterns arising in the steady states of reaction-diffusion systems. Such systems have been used to model many different phenomena in areas such as developmental and cancer biology, cell motility and material science. Often one is interested in identifying parameters which will lead to a particular pattern. To attempt to answer this, we compute eigenpairs of the Laplacian on a variety of domains and use...

The European Network for Translational Research in Atrial Fibrillation (EUTRAF): objectives and initial results

Gudrun Antoons, Ulrich Schotten, Ursula Ravens, Daniel Scherr, Klaus Steinmeyer, Dobromir Dobrev, Stephane Hatem, Stephan Rohr, Burkert Pieske, David Cartlidge, Uwe Lendeckel, A. John Camm, Frank-Ulrich Müller, Thorsten Götsche, Jens Kockskämper, Andres Goette, Pierre Jaïs, Ali Oto, Barbara Casadei, Paulus Kirchhof, Larissa Fabritz & Sander Verheule
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained arrhythmia in the general population. As an age-related arrhythmia AF is becoming a huge socio-economic burden for European healthcare systems. Despite significant progress in our understanding of the pathophysiology of AF, therapeutic strategies for AF have not changed substantially and the major challenges in the management of AF are still unmet. This lack of progress may be related to the multifactorial pathogenesis of atrial remodelling and AF...

International Land Deals for Agriculture. Fresh insights from the Land Matrix: Analytical Report II

Kerstin Nolte, Markus Giger & Wytske Chamberlain

Inheritance of porcine receptors for enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli with fimbriae F4ad and their relation to other F4 receptors.

H U Bertschinger, A Bratus, E Bürgi, P Vögeli, S Neuenschwander, X Sidler, A Rampoldi & Gaudenz Dolf
Enteric Escherichia coli infections are a highly relevant cause of disease and death in young pigs. Breeding genetically resistant pigs is an economical and sustainable method of prevention. Resistant pigs are protected against colonization of the intestine through the absence of receptors for the bacterial fimbriae, which mediate adhesion to the intestinal surface. The present work aimed at elucidation of the mode of inheritance of the F4ad receptor which according to former investigations appeared quite...

Moral Politics: The Religious Factor in Referenda Voting

Carolin Rapp, Richard Traunmüller, Markus Freitag & Adrian Vatter
This article combines the research strands of moral politics and political behavior by focusing on the effect of individual and contextual religiosity on individual vote decisions in popular initiatives and public referenda concerning morally charged issues. We rely on a total of 13 surveys with 1,000 respondents each conducted after every referendum on moral policies in Switzerland between 1992 and 2012. Results based on cross-classified multilevel models show that religious behaving instead of nominal religious...

Carrion ecology modelling for vulture conservation: are vulture restaurants needed to sustain the densest breeding population of the African white-backed vulture?

Antoni Margalida, A. Monadjem, M.A. Colomer, A. Kane & A.L. Jackson
As obligate scavengers, vultures are entirely dependent on carrion resources. In this study, we model the carrion ecology of an ecosystem in Swaziland which is home to the densest breeding population of the African white-backed vulture Gyps africanus. We collected data on life-history parameters of the avian scavenging guild of the area as well as the potential food available from the ungulate fauna. Using novel Population Dynamics P-Systems, we show that carrion provided by wild...

The chironomid-temperature relationship: expression in nature and palaeoenvironmental implications

Oliver Heiri & H. Eggermont
Fossils of chironomid larvae (non-biting midges) preserved in lake sediments are well-established palaeotemperature indicators which, with the aid of numerical chironomid-based inference models (transfer functions), can provide quantitative estimates of past temperature change. This approach to temperature reconstruction relies on the strong relationship between air and lake surface water temperature and the distribution of individual chironomid taxa (species, species groups, genera) that has been observed in different climate regions (arctic, subarctic, temperate and tropical) in...

A Logarithmic Image Prior for Blind Deconvolution

Daniele Perrone & Paolo Favaro
Blind Deconvolution consists in the estimation of a sharp image and a blur kernel from an observed blurry image. Because the blur model admits several solutions it is necessary to devise an image prior that favors the true blur kernel and sharp image. Many successful image priors enforce the sparsity of the sharp image gradients. Ideally the L0 “norm” is the best choice for promoting sparsity, but because it is computationally intractable, some methods have...

Climate impacts on fungal community and trait dynamics

Lynne Boddy, Claus Bässler, Jorge Aldea, Carrie Andrew, Ulf Büntgen, Klaus Høiland, Simon Egli, Rune Halvorsen, Håvard Kauserud, Einar Heegaard, Paul M. Kirk & Fernando Martinez-Peña

An Oka principle for equivariant isomorphisms

Frank Kutzschebauch, Finnur Larusson & Gerald Schwarz
Let G be a reductive complex Lie group acting holomorphically on normal Stein spaces X and Y, which are locally G-biholomorphic over a common categorical quotient Q. When is there a global G-biholomorphism X → Y? If the actions of G on X and Y are what we, with justification, call generic, we prove that the obstruction to solving this local-to-global problem is topological and provide sufficient conditions for it to vanish. Our main tool...

Effect of PEEP, blood volume, and inspiratory hold maneuvers on venous return

Jukka Takala, Andreas Bloch, Matthias Hänggi, Stephan Jakob, David Berger, Soren Sondergaard, Alberto Weber, Per Werner Möller, Stefan Bloechlinger & Sheldon Magder
According to Guyton's model of circulation, mean systemic filling pressure (MSFP), right atrial pressure (RAP), and resistance to venous return (RVR) determine venous return. MSFP has been estimated from inspiratory hold-induced changes in RAP and blood flow. We studied the impact of positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) and blood volume on venous return and MSFP in pigs. MSFPRAO was measured by balloon occlusion of right atrium and MSFPinsp_hold extrapolated from RAP/pulmonary artery flow (QPA) relationships...

Work and Health Questionnaire (WHQ): A Screening Tool for Identifying Injured Workers at Risk for a Complicated Rehabilitation

Hans Jörg Znoj, Ulrike Hoffmann-Richter, Sandra Abegglen & Volker Schade
Purpose Unintentional injuries occur frequently and many of the accident survivors suffer from temporary or permanent disabilities. Although most accident victims recover quickly, a significant fraction of them shows a complicated recovery process and accounts for the majority of disability costs. Thus, early identification of vulnerable persons may be beneficial for compensation schemes, government bodies, as well as for the worker themselves. Here we present the Work and Health Questionnaire (WHQ), a screening tool that...

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