3,942 Works

Interhemispheric Linkage of Paleoclimate During the Last Glaciation

C. J. Heusser, B.G. Andersen, T.V. Lowel, Linda E. Heusser, G.H. Denton, P.I. Moreno, Christian Schlüchter & D.R. Marchant

[Calf health and antimicrobial use in Swiss dairy herds: Management, prevalence and treatment of calf diseases].

Florence Pipoz & Mireille Meylan
Fifty-two dairy herds in the canton Fribourg were included during one winter in a study on calf management, prevalence and treatments of calf diseases. Colostrum management was optimal in 46.2% of the herds only, and 51.3% of the calves had been sick at least once during the observation period. The most commonly observed diseases included respiratory disease (57.5%), diarrhea (32.8%) and umbilical disease (5.7%). Cases of pneumonia were treated with antimicrobials first by the farmers...

Tradition versus Aufbruch? Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach und das 18. Jahrhundert

Laurenz Lütteken

Between Management and the Rule of Law: Results of the Research Project \"Basic Research into Court Management in Switzerland\"

Daniel Kettiger & Andreas Lienhard

The developmental challenge to the paradox of pain

Kevin Reuter
People seem to perceive and locate pains in bodily locations, but also seem to conceive of pains as mental states that can be introspected. However, pains cannot be both bodily and mental, at least according to most conceptions of these two categories: mental states are not the kind of entities that inhabit body parts. How are we to resolve this paradox of pain (Aydede, 2006a; Hill, 2006)? In this paper, I put forward what I...

Elucidating the influence of praziquantel nanosuspensions on the in vivo metabolism of Taenia crassiceps cysticerci.

Eva Carolina Arrúa, Tatiane Luiza Da Costa, Carolina Miguel Fraga, Andrew Hemphill, Claudio Javier Salomon, Luciana Damacena Silva, Dayanne Amaral Pereira & Marina Clare Vinaud
The aim of this work was to develop nanosuspensions of praziquantel (PZQ) and to evaluate their influence on the energetic metabolism of cysticerci inoculated in BALB/c mice. We analyzed metabolic alterations of glycolytic pathways and the tricarboxylic acid cycle in the parasite. The nanosuspensions were prepared by precipitation and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), poloxamer 188 (P188) and poloxamer 407 (P407) were used as stabilizers. Nanosuspension prepared with PVA had a particle size of 100nm, while P188-...

Decision-making for foot-and-mouth disease control: objectives matter

T.E. Carpenter, K Shea, M.C. Runge, M.A. Stevebsib, C.T. Webb, M.G. Garner, W.J.M. Probert, Salome Esther Dürr, M Werkman, C.J. Fonnesbeck, M.J. Ferrari & M.J. Tildesley
Formal decision-analytic methods can be used to frame disease control problems, the first step of which is to define a clear and specific objective. We demonstrate the imperative of framing clearly-defined management objectives in finding optimal control actions for control of disease outbreaks. We illustrate an analysis that can be applied rapidly at the start of an outbreak when there are multiple stakeholders involved with potentially multiple objectives, and when there are also multiple disease...

Development of a movement-based in vitro screening assay for the identification of new anti-cestodal compounds

Andrew Hemphill, Heinz Sager, Jacques Bouvier, Reto Rufener, Dominic Ritler & Britta Lundström-Stadelmann
Intestinal cestodes are infecting millions of people and livestock worldwide, but treatment is mainly based on one drug: praziquantel. The identification of new anti-cestodal compounds is hampered by the lack of suitable screening assays. It is difficult, or even impossible, to evaluate drugs against adult cestodes in vitro due to the fact that these parasites cannot be cultured in microwell plates, and adult and larval stages in most cases represent different organisms in terms of...

A Survey of Dog Owners in Remote Northern Australian Indigenous Communities to Inform Rabies Incursion Planning

Emily G. Hudson, Michael P. Ward, Navneet Dhand & Salome Esther Dürr
Australia is underprepared for a rabies incursion due to a lack of information about how a rabies outbreak would spread within the susceptible canine populations and which control strategies would be best to control it. The aim of this study was to collect information to parameterize a recently developed dog rabies spread model as well as use this information to gauge how the community would accept potential control strategies. Such information-together with model outputs-would be...

The effect of coupling hydrologic and hydrodynamic models on probable maximum flood estimation

Andreas Paul Zischg, Guido Felder & Rolf Weingartner
Deterministic rainfall-runoff modelling usually assumes stationary hydrological system, as model parameters are calibrated with and therefore dependant on observed data. However, runoff processes are probably not stationary in the case of a probable maximum flood (PMF) where discharge greatly exceeds observed flood peaks. Developing hydrodynamic models and using them to build coupled hydrologic-hydrodynamic models can potentially improve the plausibility of PMF estimations. This study aims to assess the potential benefits and constraints of coupled modelling...

Evaluation of arterial digital blood flow using Doppler ultrasonography in healthy dairy cows.

Adrian Steiner, N Mielenz, H Müller, M Heinrich, S Reese & A Starke
BACKGROUND Local circulatory disturbances have been implicated in the development of foot disorders in cattle. The goals of this study were to evaluate the suitability of the interdigital artery in the pastern region in both hind limbs using pulsed-wave (PW) Doppler ultrasonography and to investigate quantitative arterial blood flow variables at that site in dairy cows. An Esaote MyLabOne ultrasound machine with a 10-MHz linear transducer was used to assess blood flow in the interdigital...

If We Can’t Have It, Then No One Should: Shutting Down Versus Selling in Family Business Portfolios

Francesco Chirico, Philipp Sieger & Naveed Akhter
How does a business family manage its business portfolio in times of declining performance to sustain the portfolio’s long-term endurance? Drawing on social identity theory and six Pakistani family business portfolios, we find that business families may prefer to shut down a satellite business rather than sell it, which is primarily driven by identity considerations. In addition, the family’s goal to recycle the assets, the aim to restart the business later, and the increasing decline...

Fracking in the UK and Switzerland: why differences in policymaking systems don’t always produce different outputs and outcomes

Manuel Fischer, Karin Ingold & Paul Cairney
We address a key puzzle in policy studies: why don’t major differences in political systems and policy produce major differences in policy processes, outputs, and outcomes? We show why key aspects of fracking policy are similar in the UK and Switzerland despite the UK majoritarian government being ‘all out for shale’ and Switzerland’s consensus democracy favouring moratoriums. We use the ‘advocacy coalition framework’ and new survey data to show why differences in UK and Swiss...

On the hierarchical structure of the original Posner task

Stefan Troche, Thomas Rammsayer, Michael Altmeyer & Karl Schweizer
The investigation of the reaction times obtained by means of the Posner task for measuring the speed of the retrieval of long-term memory contents revealed a hierarchical structure. This investigation also extended to the rule identity condition included in the original Posner task in addition to the commonly known and utilized physical and name identity conditions. Physical identity reaction times, name identity reaction times and rule identity reaction times constituted three first-order factors. The correlations...

Competitive climate and workaholism: Negative sides of future orientation and calling

Franziska Baumeler, Anita C. Keller, Andreas Hirschi & Daniel Spurk
The perception of a competitive climate atwork createsstress, uncertainty, and a desire to outperform colleagues. In this study, we investigated whether a competitive climate is associated with increased workaholism. Furthermore, we assumed that especially employees with a future orientation and a presence of a calling will show more workaholic behavior when a competitive climate is present. Hierarchical regression analyses among 812 employees in Germany confirmed our hypotheses: Competitive climate was positively related with workaholism and...

Negative versus positive priming: When are distractors inhibited?

Stefan Van Der Stigchel
Visual attention is guided by the history of selections in previous trials, an effect usually referred to as intertrial priming. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether such priming in visual search is due to a strengthening of the target signal, or the suppression of the distractor signal. In two experiments, we examined the deviation of saccade endpoints in situations in which the target and distractors were presented in relative close proximity....

Statistical analysis in orthodontic journals: are we ignoring confounding?

Despina Koletsi, Argy Polychronopoulou, Nikolaos Pandis, Anastasia Spanou & Padhraig S Fleming
AIM To assess the prevalence of adjustment for confounding within statistical analysis and matching at the design stage in leading orthodontic journals and to explore potential associations between accounting for confounding and publication characteristics. MATERIALS AND METHODS Twenty-four issues of four leading orthodontic journals with the highest impact factor were searched from July 2014 backwards. Confounding adjustment through statistical analysis and study characteristics including journal, study design, region of origin, number of authors, number of...

Tierschutzgerechte Betäubung von Wasserbüffeln - ein neuer Lösungsansatz

Michael Hubert Stoffel & Carmen Meichtry
Seit dem ersten Import im Jahre 1996 hat die Popularität der Wasserbüffel in der Schweiz stetig zugenommen. Obschon die Milchproduktion für die Fabrikation von Mozzarella im Vordergrund steht, geht die Haltung und Nutzung dieser Tiere unweigerlich mit deren Schlachtung einher. Wiederholt aufgetretene Betäubungsprobleme waren ausschlaggebend für die Lancierung dieses Projektes. Anatomische Besonderheiten des Wasserbüffelschädels sind verantwortlich für die unzureichende Wirkung von herkömmlichen Betäubungsmethoden und -geräten wie sie beim Hausrind routinemässig und mit Erfolg eingesetzt werden....

Remote sensing combined with social-ecological data: The importance of diverse land uses for ecosystem service provision in north-eastern Madagascar

Peter Messerli, Gudrun Schwilch, O. Ravaka Andriamihaja, Julie G. Zähringer & Bruno Ramamonjisoa
Through ongoing deforestation in the tropics, forest-related ecosystem services are declining, while ecosystem services provided by agricultural land uses are on the increase. Land system science provides a framework for analysing the links between land use change and the resulting socio-environmental trade-offs. However, the evidence base to support the navigation of such trade-offs is often lacking, as information on land use cannot directly be obtained through remote sensing and census data is often unavailable at...

Bildungsgrenzen im Spiegel der Panel-Studie TREE

Thomas Meyer
The contribution explores today's educational boundaries as they manifest themselves in general statistical data on the one hand and, on the other hand, the data and analyses of TREE. Spanning an observation period of almost 15 years between the end of compulsory school and young adulthood, TREE provides excellent empirical grounds for the long-term analysis of various education-related boundaries - including their mechanisms and their effects. This contribution will deal with the following types of...

Synthetically derived bat influenza A-like viruses reveal a cell type- but not species-specific tropism.

Adolfo García-Sastre, Gert Zimmer, Martin Schwemmle, Hardin Bolte, Larissa Kolesnikova, Étori Aguiar Moreira, Teresa Aydillo & Samira Locher
Two novel influenza A-like viral genome sequences have recently been identified in Central and South American fruit bats and provisionally designated "HL17NL10" and "HL18NL11." All efforts to isolate infectious virus from bats or to generate these viruses by reverse genetics have failed to date. Recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) encoding the hemagglutinin-like envelope glycoproteins HL17 or HL18 in place of the VSV glycoprotein were generated to identify cell lines that are susceptible to bat influenza...

Evaluation of Giardia lamblia thioredoxin reductase as drug activating enzyme and as drug target.

David Leitsch, Joachim Müller & Norbert Müller
The antioxidative enzyme thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) has been suggested to be a drug target in several pathogens, including the protist parasite Giardia lamblia. TrxR is also believed to catalyse the reduction of nitro drugs, e.g. metronidazole and furazolidone, a reaction required to render these compounds toxic to G. lamblia and other microaerophiles/anaerobes. It was the objective of this study to assess the potential of TrxR as a drug target in G. lamblia and to find...

The Effect of Different Inorganic Nitrogen Sources and Plant Age on the Composition of Bleeding Sap of Phaseolus vulgaris

Urs Feller, Karl Hans Erismann & RJ Thomas
The composition of the bleeding sap N of Phaseolus vulgaris varied with the inorganic nitrogen source fed to the plant but was not changed by a fourfold difference in external nitrate concentration. Highest sap N concentration and fastest growth were observed in ammonium nitrate grown plants. With nitrate grown plants 60 % of the total sap N was inorganic nitrate-N and 40 % organic-N whereas with ammonium nitrate grown plants nitrate contributed 30 % to...

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