790 Works

Systematic diagonal and vertical errors in antisaccades and memory-guided saccades

Lee, Hyung; Keimyung University, Barton, Jason J. S.; University Of British Columbia & Abegg, Mathias; University Of Bern
Studies of memory-guided saccades in monkeys show an upward bias, while studies of antisaccades in humans show a diagonal effect, a deviation of endpoints toward the 45° diagonal. To determine if these two different spatial biases are specific to different types of saccades, we studied prosaccades, antisaccades and memory-guided saccades in humans. The diagonal effect occurred not with prosaccades but with antisaccades and memory-guided saccades with long intervals, consistent with hypotheses that it originates in...

Validation d’une version française de l’« Executive Function Performance Test » auprès d'aînés avec et sans déficits cognitifs

Johanne Desrosiers, Dany Foucault-Piché, Camylia Rouillard, Karine Rivard, Suzanne Quénec'hdu & Laurie Quenneville-Courteau
Introduction. Actuellement, aucun outil valide d’évaluation des fonctions exécutives à partir de tâches quotidiennes n’est disponible en français. En anglais, l’Executive Function Performance Test (EFPT) a été développé à cette fin.Objectif. Valider le test Performance Occupationnelle liée aux Fonctions Exécutives (POFE), une traduction de l’EFPT. Plus précisément, l’étude visait à: (1) explorer la fidélité inter-juges du POFE, (2) vérifier sa validité de construit convergente en corrélant les résultats à des instruments mesurant des concepts apparentés,...

Saccade Latency and Fixation Stability: Repeatability and Reliability

Langaas, Trine; University College Of Southeast Norway & Horgen, Gro; Vikesdal University College Of Southeast Norway, Norwegian University Of Life Sciences
This study aimed to investigate the repeatability and reliability of saccadic latency and fixation stability as a function of sighting-dominance and contact lens wear. Eye movements were recorded in 12 healthy adults who performed a pro- saccade and a fixation task in four conditions; baseline, retest, non-sighting eye viewing and plano contact lens wear. The re-sults showed that saccadic latency and fixation stability (indexed via logBCEA) have good internal consistency, reliability and repeatability, which are...

Is poor coordination of saccades in dyslexics a consequence of reading difficulties? A study case

Ghassemi, Elham; IRIS Group, Centre D’Études De La Sensori-Motricité, UMR 8194, CNRS, Université Paris Descartes, Paris, France & Kapoula, Zoë; IRIS Group, Centre D’Études De La Sensori-Motricité, CNRS, Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou, Paris, France
We hypothesize that the high quality of binocular coordination of saccades in reading is progressively learned during childhood, and this oculomotor learning is based on a synergy between saccades and vergence. In present work deficits in the binocular control of saccades in six dyslexic children (mean age was 11±2.48 years) are studied for two tasks (text reading and Xs-C scanning), and at two viewing distances (40 cm and 100 cm). Fixation durations resulting are longer...

L'orrore degli stupri di guerra nelle opere di Annie Vivanti

Nunzia Soglia
This contribution analyzes two works by Annie Vivanti written during World War I: the drama L’invasore, and the novel derived from it, Vae Victis!. The texts were based on sexual violence perpetrated by Germans in Belgium at the beginning of the conflict, historical events that provoked widespread indignation. More specifically, the author considers the choices of women facing pregnancies that resulted from the violence, thereby inserting herself in the extremely delicate and controversial problem of...

Cologny, Fondation Martin Bodmer, Cod. Bodmer 600b : The Life of Buddha, second book (Shaka no Honji, ge)

(:Unav)
The book belongs to the category of nara ehon, a type of polychrome, illustrated narratives published from the Muromachi period though to the first half of the Edo period. The term nara ehon has been widely applied to all illustrated books from these periods since the Meiji era, but its origin is unclear. The format of nara ehon differs, depending on the period. Early examples from the Momoyama to the very early Edo period are...

Asylrechtliche Überlegungen zur Schutzbedürftigkeit Edward Snowdens

Sarah Progin-Theuerkauf
Es gib Anhaltspunkte dafür, dass Edward Snowden die Kriterien der Flüchtlingseigenschaft nach der Genfer Flüchtlingskonvention erfüllt und er daher Asyl erhalten sollte. In jedem Fall aber müsste ihm – sofern die Gefahr besteht, dass er unter ähnlichen Bedingungen wie Chelsea Manning inhaftiert würde – aus menschenrechtlichen Aspekten (Grundsatz des Non-Refoulement) Schutz gewährt werden. In der EU steht hierfür das Instrument des subsidiären Schutzes nach der Qualifikationsrichtlinie zur Verfügung. In der Schweiz müsste Snowden, sofern er...

Polaronic metal state at the LaAlO₃/SrTiO₃ interface

T. Schmitt, O. S. Barišić, C. Cancellieri, C. Faber, N. Nagaosa, Ulrich Johannes Aschauer, A. S. Mishchenko, A. Filippetti, V. A. Rogalev & V. N. Strocov
Interplay of spin, charge, orbital and lattice degrees of freedom in oxide heterostructures results in a plethora of fascinating properties, which can be exploited in new generations of electronic devices with enhanced functionalities. The paradigm example is the interface between the two band insulators LaAlO3 and SrTiO3 that hosts a two-dimensional electron system. Apart from the mobile charge carriers, this system exhibits a range of intriguing properties such as field effect, superconductivity and ferromagnetism, whose...

Autobiographical recall triggers visual exploration

Delerue, Céline; University Of Lille, Mohamad El Haj, Boucart, Muriel; University Of Lille, Omigie, Diana; University Of Lille, Antoine, Pascal; University Of Lille & Nandrino, Jean Louis; University Of Lille
Autobiographical recall is thought to rely on the ability to generate a visual image of the remembered event. Neuropsychological studies suggest a relationship between deterioration in visual mental imagery and autobiographical distortions, while neuroimaging data similarly implicate visual brain areas in autobiographical recall. However, neither whether autobiographical retrieval is associated with visual exploration, or not. Our paper aimed to provide such evidence one way or the other. Using an eye tracking system, we recorded eye...

Personnes atteintes du syndrome du canal carpien : validation d'une proposition de suivi auprès d'experts

Georges-Emmanuel Salib, Kevin Papineau & Martine Brousseau
Introduction. La quasi-totalité des personnes atteintes d’un syndrome du canal carpien rapportent des problèmes à effectuer leurs occupations et près de la moitié n'auront d’autre recours que la chirurgie parce qu’elles ne connaissent pas les autres traitements disponibles. La pratique auprès de cette clientèle interpelle donc particulièrement les ergothérapeutes dans leur rôle d’agent de changement dans une perspective d’habilitation de l’occupation centrée sur le client.Objectif. Le présent article présente une étude de validation auprès d’experts...

Stereotype in Webkorpora: Strategien zur Suche in sehr großen Datenmengen

Erla Hallsteinsdóttir & Uwe Quasthoff
Research on stereotypes (as well as on similar constructs such as prejudice, image, identity, etc.) goes back around a century. Most research on stereotypes belongs to the field of psychological, social and cultural studies, with a strong focus on cognitive and socio-cultural phenomena. Since Uta Quasthoff’s pioneering analysis in 1973, there have been several linguistic studies of stereotypes, i. e. on linguistic aspects of how stereotypes are realized in language use. Linguistic research on stereotypes...

Gaze transitions when learning with multimedia

Krejtz, Krzysztof; University Of Social Sciences And Humanities,And National Information Processing Institute, Warsaw, Kopacz, Agata; National Information Processing Institute, Warsaw, Poland, Chrząstowski-Wachtel, Piotr; Math, Informatics, And Mechanics, Institute Of Informatics, University Of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland, Duchowski, Andrew T.; Clemson University, Clemson, USA & Krejtz, Izabela; University Of Social Sciences And Humanities, Warsaw, Poland
Eye tracking methodology is used to examine the influence of interactive multimedia on the allocation of visual attention and its dynamics during learning. We hypothesized that an interactive simulation promotes more organized switching of attention between different elements of multimedia learning material, e.g., textual description and pictorial visualization. Participants studied a description of an algorithm accompanied either by an interactive simulation, self-paced animation, or static illustration. Using a novel framework for entropy-based comparison of gaze...

Comparison of shutter glasses and mirror stereoscope for measuring dynamic and static vergence

Jaschinski, Wolfgang; Institut Für Arbeitsphysiologie, Dortmund, Germany, Hoormann, Jörg; Institut Für Arbeitsphysiologie, Dortmund, Germany & Jainta, Stephanie; Institut Für Arbeitsphysiologie, Dortmund, Germany
Vergence eye movement recordings in response to disparity step stimuli require to present different stimuli to the two eyes. The traditional method is a mirror stereoscope. Shutter glasses are more convenient, but have disadvantages as limited repetition rate, residual cross task, and reduced luminance. Therefore, we compared both techniques measuring (1) dynamic disparity step responses for stimuli of 1 and 3 deg and (2) fixation disparity, the static vergence error. Shutter glasses and mirror stereoscope...

Die Prüfung von Teilrevisionsinitiativen auf die Verfassungswürdigkeit ihres Inhalts

Felix H. Thomann
Abstimmungen über Initiativen auf Teilrevision der BV werden seit 45 Jahren immer häufiger, weil die nötige Unterschriftenzahl längst zu niedrig ist und das Parlament nur die Einhaltung von Art. 139 Abs. 3 BV prüft. Die Belastung von Bundesbehörden und Stimmberechtigten durch die Behandlung nicht verfassungswürdiger Volksbegehren, welche häufig in erster Linie der politischen Propaganda dienen, und die schleichende Verschiebung der verfassungsmässigen Kompetenzordnung durch Initiativen mit unterstufigem Inhalt werden zu einer Gefahr für das politische Leben...

Die Zukunft der Derivation oder: Derivation 2.0

Martina Werner & Nanna Fuhrhop
Traditionally, contemporary German is considered to be rich in affixes which is displayed by a wide range of e. g. nominal suffixes (such as -ung, -heit, -nis, -tum, -sal). However, productivity tests, especially with non-native lexemes, challenge this view since many formal restrictions between affixes and different word classes can be formally identified – synchronically and diachronically – and which cannot be explained by traditional approaches. This paper questions the general morphological productivity of derivation...

Combining EEG and Eye Tracking: Using Fixation-Locked Potentials in Visual Search

Johnston, Matthew; Design Interactive, Inc., Carpenter, Angela; Design Interactive, Inc., Flint, Jesse; Design Interactive, Inc., Tomasetti, David; Design Interactive, Inc., Wang, Xuezhong; Design Interactive, Inc., Winslow, Brent; Design Interactive, Inc. & Hale, Kelly; Design Interactive, Inc.
Visual search is a complex task that involves many neural pathways to identify relevant areas of interest within a scene. Humans remain a critical component in visual search tasks, as they can effectively perceive anomalies within complex scenes. However, this task can be challenging, particularly under time pressure. In order to improve visual search training and performance, an objective, process-based measure is needed. Eye tracking technology can be used to drive real-time parsing of EEG...

Abstracts of the 13th European Conference on Eye Movements 2005

Müri, R.; University Of Bern, Raess, Simon; University Of Bern, Suri, P.; University Of Bern, Koga, Kazuo; Nagoya University, Groner, Marina; University Of Bern & Groner, Rudolf; University Of Bern
This issue contains the abstracts submitted for presentation at the Thirteenth European Conference on Eye Movements (ECEM13), Bern, August 14 – 18, 2005, and reviewed by the Scientific Board, consisting of W. Becker, Ulm; C.J. Erkelens, Utrecht; J.M. Findlay, Durham; A.G. Gale, Derby; C.W. Hess, Bern; J. Hyönä, Turku; A. Kennedy, Dundee; K. Koga, Nagoya; G. Lüer, Göttingen; M. Menozzi, Zürich; W. Perrig, Bern; G. d’Ydewalle, Leuven; D. Zambarbieri, Pavia. A quarter of a century...

What determines the direction of microsaccades?

Walker, Robin; University Of London & Hermens, Frouke; University Of London, University Of Leuven
During visual fixation, our eyes are not entirely still. Instead, small eye movements, such as microsaccades, can be observed. We here investigate what determines the direction and frequency of these microsaccades, as this information might help to clarify what purpose they serve. The relative contribution of three possible factors was examined: (1) the orienting of covert attention, (2) the spatial distribution of possible target locations, and (3) whether monocular or binocular microsaccades are considered. The...

Different judgments about visual textures invoke different eye movement patterns

Renken, Remco; University Medical Center Groningen, Cornelissen, Frans W.; University Medical Center Groningen, Jacobs, Richard H.A.H.; University Medical Center Groningen & Thumfart, Stefan; Profactor GmbH
Top-down influences on the guidance of the eyes are generally modeled as modulating influences on bottom-up salience maps. Interested in task-driven influences on how, rather than where, the eyes are guided, we expected differences in eye movement parameters accompanying beauty and roughness judgments about visual textures. Participants judged textures for beauty and roughness, while their gaze-behavior was recorded. Eye movement parameters differed between the judgments, showing task effects on how people look at images. Similarity...

Visual Fixation Durations and Saccade Amplitudes: Shifting Relationship in a Variety of Conditions

Helmert, Jens R.; Applied Cognitive Research/Psychology III, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Roth, Katharina; Department Of Psychiatry, University Of Bonn, Walter, Henrik; Department Of Psychiatry, University Of Bonn, Pannasch, Sebastian; Applied Cognitive Research/Psychology III, Technische Universitaet Dresden & Herbold, Ann-Katrin; Department Of Psychiatry, University Of Bonn
Is there any relationship between visual fixation durations and saccade amplitudes in free exploration of pictures and scenes? In four experiments with naturalistic stimuli, we compared eye movements during early and late phases of scene perception. Influences of repeated presentation of similar stimuli (Experiment 1), object density (Experiment 2), emotional stimuli (Experiment 3) and mood induction (Experiment 4) were examined. The results demonstrate a systematic increase in the durations of fixations and a decrease for...

Functionally sequenced scanpath similarity method (FuncSim): Comparing and evaluating scanpath similarity based on a task’s inherent sequence of functional (action) units

Schneider, Werner X.; University Of Bielefeld & Foerster, Rebecca M.; University Of Bielefeld
Measures of scanpath similarity are essential in many domains of eye tracking research. Depending on the question, different calculations are adequate. We (Foerster, Carbone, Koesling, & Schneider, 2011) developed a method with a functional matching procedure suitable for sequential tasks. Here, we report two extensions. We introduced an alignment variant making the method more robust across tasks. We added the possibility to compare scanpaths according to multiple characteristics. The extended method, here called “functionally sequenced...

Fracking – Technologie mit Gefährdungspotential

Vanessa Rüegger, Jasmin Grossenbacher, Christa Isabelle Stünzi & Karl-Marc Wyss
Fracking-Vorhaben zur Gasförderung in der Schweiz sind nicht nur in Gesellschaft und Wissenschaft umstritten. Sie werfen auch bedeutende Rechtsfragen über die Nutzung des Untergrunds und zum Schutz der Umwelt, insbesondere dem Gewässerschutz, auf. Der vorliegende Beitrag untersucht, welche rechtlichen Schutzpflichten dem Staat gegenüber möglichen Gefahren für das Trinkwasser durch Fracking-Vorhaben obliegen, ob und wie die Kantone und der Bund ihre Schutzpflichten gesetzlich konkretisiert haben und ob im Vergleich zu den grundrechtlichen Pflichten allenfalls Schutzdefizite bestehen....

Gaze interaction enhances problem solving: Effects of dwell-time based, gaze-augmented, and mouse interaction on problem-solving strategies and user experience

Bednarik, Roman; University Of Joensuu, Finland, Gowases, Tersia; University Of Joensuu, Finland & Tukiainen, Markku; University Of Joensuu, Finland
It is still unknown whether the very application of gaze for interaction has effects on cognitive strategies users employ and how these effects materialize. We conducted a between-subject experiment in which thirty-six participants interacted with a computerized problem-solving game using one of three interaction modalities: dwell-time, gaze-augmented interaction, and the conventional mouse. We observed how using each of the modalities affected performance, problem solving strategies, and user experience. Users with gaze-augmented interaction outperformed the other...

Rechte an Daten

Daniel Hürlimann & Herbert Zech
Daten sind zu einem Rohstoff geworden, der neue Wertschöpfungsketten ermöglicht. Dessen ungeachtet ist die Frage, welche Rechte an Daten bestehen, bisher – zumindest in der Schweiz – nur wenig bearbeitet worden. Ziel des vorliegenden Beitrags ist es, mit Blick auf die Rechtslage in der Schweiz eine erste Übersicht zu Rechten, die an Daten bestehen können, zu geben. Daran anschliessend wird auch die Frage aufgeworfen, ob an der heutigen Rechtslage etwas geändert werden soll.

The Effects of Individual Differences on Cued Antisaccade Performance

Taylor, Alisdair J.G.; University Of Sussex & Hutton, Samuel B.; University Of Sussex
In the antisaccade task, pre-cueing the location of a correct response has the paradoxical effect of increasing errors. It has been suggested that this effect occurs because participants adopt an "antisaccade task set" and treat the cue as if was a target - directing attention away from the precue and towards the location of the impending target. This hypothesis was tested using a mixed pro / antisaccade task. In addition the effects of individual differences...

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