624 Works

Resting state morphology predicts the effect of theta burst stimulation in false belief reasoning

Charlotte Hartwright
Anonymized meta-data for the article, "Resting state morphology predicts the effect of theta burst stimulation in false belief reasoning: ventrolateral prefrontal cortex in false belief reasoning".

Eric Sorita

Sylvie Tétreault
Sans résumé.

Johanne Filiatrault

Sylvie Tétreault
Sans résumé.

Les impacts fonctionnels de l’adaptation prismatique auprès d’une population atteinte de négligence spatiale unilatérale : une revue systématique

Julien Voisin & Natasha Brassard
Introduction. La négligence spatiale unilatérale (NSU) constitue l’un des plus importants prédicteurs du devenir fonctionnel des personnes atteintes d’un accident vasculaire cérébral (AVC). Parmi les approches proposées pour réduire cet important symptôme, l’adaptation prismatique est applicable peu importe le niveau de conscience de la personne face à son déficit et permet d’intervenir sur les déficits moteurs intentionnels.Objectifs. Le présent article documenter les conséquences de ce traitement novateur sur le fonctionnement de sujets souffrant de NSU.Méthode....

S'engager

Martine Brousseau & Sylvie Tétreault
Sans résumé.

User-Friendly Locations of Error Messages in Web Forms: An Eye Tracking Study

Error messages presented to users are one of the most important elements of Web forms. Error messages are embedded in different parts of the forms available on the Internet and presented in various formats. One of the measures of a user-friendly error message design is the ability to easily capture users’ attention and facilitate fast error correction. In this empirical study, I tested four different locations of error messages frequently used in Web forms on...

Learning to search. The importance of eye movements in the decrease of response times during a visual choice reaction time task

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Reaction times are often used as an indicator of the efficiency of the processes in thecentral nervous system. While extensive research has been conducted on the possibleresponse time correlates, the role of eye movements in visual tasks is yet unclear. Here wereport data to support the role of eye movements during visual choice reaction time training.Participant performance, reaction times, and total session duration improved. Eyemovementsshowed expected changes in saccade amplitude and resulted in improvementin visual...

Error Correction in Vergence Eye Movements: Evidence Supporting Hering’s Law

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In pure symmetrical vergence eye movements, a fusion initiating component quickly brings the eyes close to the desired position. A small error usually remains after this response which must be corrected to attain the small final vergence error (i.e., fixation disparity). Error correction will usually involve both version and version movements so possible mechanisms include: small saccades, smooth pursuit, symmetrical vergence, or some combination. Alternatively, an asymmetrical vergence or uniocular slow eye movement could be...

The effect of a temporary absence of target velocity information on visual tracking

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Experiments with the Rashbass ‘step-ramp’ paradigm have revealed that the initial catchup saccade that occurs near pursuit onset uses target velocity as well as position information in its programming. Information about both position and motion also influences smooth pursuit. To investigate the timing of velocity sampling near the initiation of saccades and smooth pursuit, we analyzed the eye movements made in nine ‘step-ramp’ conditions, produced by combining –2, 0 and +2 deg steps with –8,...

Heterophoria: Vergence stability and visual acuity after asymmetric saccades

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Many patients with heterophoria report on symptoms related to impaired vision. To investigate whether these symptoms are provoked by saccades this study examines whether in heterophoria effects on intrasaccadic and postsaccadic vergence movements are linked to effects on visual performance. Visual acuity was measured in 35 healthy subjects during fixation and immediately after asymmetric diverging saccades. Binocular position traces were recorded by video-oculography. Subjects with exophoria showed larger intrasaccadic divergence amplitudes, which in turn led...

Fixation Region Overlap: A quantitative method for the analysis of fixational eye movement patterns

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This article presents a new method for the quantitative analyses of fixation patterns in eye tracking data. The Fixation Region Overlap Analysis (FROA) uses thresholded spatial distributions of fixation frequency or duration to determine regions-of-interest (ROIs). The locations of these ROIs are contrasted with fixation regions of other empirically-derived, or modelled, data patterns by comparing region pixel overlap. A Monte Carlo procedure is used to assess the statistical significance of fixation region overlap based on...

Dummy eye measurements of microsaccades: Testing the influence of system noise and head movements on microsaccade detection in a popular video-based eye tracker

Whereas early studies of microsaccades have predominantly relied on custom-built eye trackers and manual tagging of microsaccades, more recent work tends to use video-based eye tracking and automated algorithms for microsaccade detection. While data from these newer studies suggest that microsaccades can be reliably detected with video-based systems, this has not been systematically evaluated. I here present a method and data examining microsaccade detection in an often used video-based system (the Eyelink II system) and...

“Trait” and “state” aspects of fixation disparity during reading

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In our study, 14 subjects read 60 sentences from the Potsdam Sentence Corpus twice (viewing distance: 60 cm), while eye movements were measured with the EyeLink II. We analyzed fixation disparities for complete sentence replications (N=388). After subtracting the average fixation disparity of each sentence from each observation (which gave the “state” fixation disparity), 99% of all remaining fixation disparities were aligned, i.e. smaller than one character width (20 min arc) – depending mostly on...

Task-relevant spatialized auditory cues enhance attention orientation and peripheral target detection in natural scenes

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Concurrent auditory stimuli have been shown to enhance detection of abstract visual targets in experimental setups with little ecological validity. We presented 11 participants, wearing an eye-tracking device, with a visual detection task in an immersive audiovisual environment replicating a real-world environment. The participants were to fixate on a visual target and to press a key when they were confident of having detected the target. The visual world was accompanied by a task-relevant or task-irrelevant...

Influences of dwell time and cursor control on the performance in gaze driven typing

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In gaze controlled computer interfaces the dwell time is often used as selection criterion. But this solution comes along with several problems, especially in the temporal domain: Eye movement studies on scene perception could demonstrate that fixations of different durations serve different purposes and should therefore be differentiated. The use of dwell time for selection implies the need to distinguish intentional selections from merely per-ceptual processes, described as the Midas touch problem. Moreover, the feedback...

Correction of Saccade-Induced Midline Errors in Responses to Pure Disparity Vergence Stimuli.

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Purely symmetrical vergence stimuli aligned along the midline (cyclopean axis) require only a pure vergence response. Yet, in most responses saccades are observed and these saccades must either produce an error in the desired midline response or correct an error produced by asymmetry in the vergence response. A previous study (Semmlow, et al. 2008) has shown that the first saccade to appear in a response to a pure vergence stimulus usually increased the deviation from...

Eye-tracking Deaf and hearing viewing of sign language interpreted news broadcasts

In this study, the viewing habits of deaf and hearing adults are investigated using eye tracking while they watched interpreted news broadcasts. The study shows that deaf viewers primarily focus on the interpreter and secondarily access picture material, but make very little use of subtitles or lip-reading. In contrast, hearing viewers prioritise pictorial content but also spend significant proportions of time examining subtitles, lip-reading and even watching the interpreter. Viewing patterns are dependent on pictorial...

Examining the visual screening patterns of emotional facial expressions with gender, age and lateralization

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The main objective of the study is to investigate the effects of age of model, gender of observer, and lateralization on visual screening patterns while looking at the emotional facial expressions. Data were collected through eye tracking methodology. The areas of interests were set to include eyes, nose and mouth. The selected eye metrics were first fixation duration, fixation duration and fixation count. Those eye tracking metrics were recorded for different emotional expressions (sad, happy,...

Transsaccadic Scene Memory Revisited: A 'Theory of Visual Attention (TVA)' Based Approach to Recognition Memory and Confidence for Objects in Naturalistic Scenes.

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The study presented here introduces a new approach to the investigation of transsaccadic memory for objects in naturalistic scenes. Participants were tested with a whole-report task from which — based on the theory of visual attention (TVA) - processing efficiency parameters were derived, namely visual short-term memory storage capacity and visual processing speed. By combining these processing efficiency parameters with transsaccadic memory data from a previous study, we were able to take a closer look...

Implicit prosody and contextual bias in silent reading

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Eye-movement research on implicit prosody has found effects of lexical stress on syntactic ambiguity resolution, suggesting that metrical well-formedness constraints interact with syntactic category assignment. Building on these findings, the present eyetracking study investigates whether contextual bias can modulate the effects of metrical structure on syntactic ambiguity resolution in silent reading. Contextual bias and potential stress-clash in the ambiguous region were crossed in a 2 2 design. Participants read biased context sentences followed by temporarily...

SMOOVS: Towards calibration-free text entry by gaze using smooth pursuit movements

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Gaze-based text spellers have proved useful for people with severe motor diseases, but lack acceptance in general human-computer interaction. In order to use gaze spellers for public displays, they need to be robust and provide an intuitive interaction concept. However, traditional dwell- and blink-based systems need accurate calibration which contradicts fast and intuitive interaction. We developed the first gaze speller explicitly utilizing smooth pursuit eye movements and their particular characteristics. The speller achieves sufficient accuracy...

Eye-tracking multi-word units: some methodological questions

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Eye-tracking in linguistics has focused mainly on reading at the level of the word or sentence. In this paper we discuss how the phenomenon of formulaic language might best be examined using this methodology. Formulaic language is fundamentally multi-word in nature, therefore an approach to eye-tracking that considers the “word” as the basic unit of analysis may require re-evaluation. We review the existing literature on single word and sentence processing, and also those studies that...

Abstracts of the 17th European Conference on Eye Movements 2013

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This document contains all abstracts of the 17th European Conference on Eye Movements, August 11-16 2013 in Lund, Sweden ECEM 2013 has been the 17th European Conference on Eye Movements, with the original aims ‘to exchange information on current research, equipment and software’ remaining at the forefront. ECEM is transdisciplinary, promoting new approaches, co-operation between research fields and communication between researchers. It has grown from it’s origins as a small, specialist conference to a large...

Comparing graphs and text: Effects of complexity and task

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Graphs are commonly believed to facilitate users’ compre-hension. We explored the effect of graphs on comprehension compared to text, manipulating content complexity (single bar vs. double bar graphs) and question type (point-locating vs. comparison questions). A total 78 college students viewed graph and text stimuli and answered comprehension questions while their eye movements were recorded. The results indicate that students do not always process graphs more efficiently than text conveying the same information. Students processed...

Vergence tracking: a tool to assess oculomotor performance in stereoscopic displays

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Oculomotor conflict induced between the accommodative and vergence components in stereoscopic displays represents an unnatural viewing condition. There is now some evidence that stereoscopic viewing may induce discomfort and changes in oculomotor parameters. The present study sought to measure oculomotor performance during stereoscopic viewing. Using a 3D stereo setup and an eye-tracker, vergence responses were measured during 20-min exposure to a virtual visual target oscillating in depth, which participants had to track. The results showed...

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