639 Works

Motivation and mortality in older women with early stage breast cancer: A longitudinal study with ten years of follow-up.

Kerri M Clough-Gorr, Rebecca A Silliman, Andreas E Stuck, André Moser & Clark Dumontier
OBJECTIVES The Getting Out of Bed Scale (GOB) was validated as a health-related quality of life (HRQoL) variable in older women with early stage breast cancer, suggesting its potential as a concise yet powerful measure of motivation. The aim of our project was to assess the association between GOB and mortality over 10years of follow-up. MATERIALS AND METHODS We studied 660 women ≥65-years old diagnosed with stage I-IIIA primary breast cancer. Data were collected over...

High resolution microscopy reveals an unusual architecture of the Plasmodium berghei endoplasmic reticulum.

Benoît Zuber, Gesine Kaiser, Mariana Isabel De Niz Hidalgo, Benoît Kornmann, Rebecca Limenitakis Stanway, Volker Heussler & Paul-Christian Burda
To fuel the tremendously fast replication of Plasmodium liver stage parasites, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) must play a critical role as a major site of protein and lipid biosynthesis. In this study, we analysed the parasite's ER morphology and function. Previous studies exploring the parasite ER have mainly focused on the blood stage. Visualizing the Plasmodium berghei ER during liver stage development, we found that the ER forms an interconnected network throughout the parasite with...

Testing for allelopathy in invasive plants: it all depends on the substrate!

Oliver Bossdorf & Madalin Parepa
Invasive plants can affect native plants through competition or allelopathy, and researchers often use pot experiments as a tool to measure the strength of these interactions. Recently, such pot experiments provided inconsistent estimates of the impact and allelopathic potential of invasive knotweed, one of the world's most successful plant invaders. We suspected that the inconsistencies may be explained by the use of different substrates in different experiments. To test this, we conducted an experiment in...

Covert Attention Tracking: Towards Two-Dimensional Real-Time Recordings

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Achieving attention tracking as easily as recording eye movements is still beyond reach. However, by exploiting Steady-State Visual Evoked Potentials (SSVEPs) we could recently record in a satisfactory way the horizontal trajectory of covert visuospatial attention in single trials, both when attending target motion and during mental motion extrapolation. Here we show that, despite the different cortical functional architecture for horizontal and vertical motion processing, the same result is obtained for vertical attention tracking. Thus,...

Species-specific stomatal response of trees to drought - a link to vegetation dynamics?

Roman Zweifel, Andreas Rigling & Matthias Dobbertin
Question: Is stomatal regulation specific for climate and tree species, and does it reveal species-specific responses to drought? Is there a link to vegetation dynamics? Location: Dry inner alpine valley, Switzerland Methods: Stomatal aperture (θE) of Pinus sylvestris, Quercus pubescens, Juniperus communis and Picea abies were continuously estimated by the ratio of measured branch sap flow rates to potential transpiration rates (adapted Penman-Monteith single leaf approach) at 10-min intervals over four seasons. Results: θE proved...

Active release of pneumolysin prepores and pores by mammalian cells undergoing a Streptococcus pneumoniae attack.

Roman Schönauer, Timothy J Mitchell, Annette Draeger, Julika Radecke, Eduard Babiychuk, Benoît Zuber, Patrick Drücker, Heidi Annemarie Wolfmeier, Victoria Babiychuk, Lucy Jane Hathaway & René Köffel
BACKGROUND Streptococcus pneumoniae is a potent human pathogen. Its pore-forming exotoxin pneumolysin is instrumental for breaching the host's epithelial barrier and for the incapacitation of the immune system. METHODS AND RESULTS Using a combination of life imaging and cryo-electron microscopy we show that pneumolysin, released by cultured bacteria, is capable of permeabilizing the plasmalemma of host cells. However, such permeabilization does not lead to cell lysis since pneumolysin is actively removed by the host cells....

iMEM: Isolation of Plasma Membrane for Cryoelectron Microscopy.

Benoît Zuber, Camille Peitsch & Sven Beckmann
The plasma membrane and the cell cortex are essential parts of the eukaryotic cell. The plasma membrane delimitates the cell and mediates communication with the outside. The cell cortex is the submembrane cytoskeleton shaping the cell and is able to reorganize for the passage of material. To study events at and near the plasma membrane, cryoelectron microscopy (cryo-EM) may be used. Most intact cells are too thick for direct cryo-EM imaging. Generating cell-free membrane patches...

The Judiciary between Management and the Rule of Law - The general research findings

Andreas Lienhard & Daniel Kettiger

Das Gefängnis als Forschungsfeld

Marina Richter, Ueli Hostettler & Roger Kirchhofer

The Judiciary between Management and the Rule of Law - The general research findings

Andreas Lienhard & Daniel Kettiger

Conducting commissioned research in neoliberal academia: The conditions evaluations impose on research practice

Ueli Hostettler & M. Richter
The article deals with the unease we experience during various commissioned research projects. On the one hand, as social scientists, we feel committed to conducting ‘good research’ that acknowledges quality criteria such as flexibility and transparency and in particular allows for musing and reflexivity to ‘discover’ new aspects of our research topic. On the other hand, we are situated in the context of present-day neoliberal academia. This means that our work is assessed according to...

An applied methodology for stakeholder identification in transdisciplinary research

Heleen Claringbould, Julia Leventon, Luuk Fleskens & Gudrun Schwilch

Ausländerinnen und Ausländer im geschlossenen Strafvollzug: eine ethnologische Gefängnisstudie

Ueli Hostettler & Christin Achermann

Flagellar membrane fusion and protein exchange in trypanosomes; a new form of cell-cell communication?

Conrad Von Schubert, Andrew Hemphill, Cristina Fragoso, Erik Betzig, Wesley Legant, Isabel Roditi, Dong Li & Simon Imhof
Diverse structures facilitate direct exchange of proteins between cells, including plasmadesmata in plants and tunnelling nanotubes in bacteria and higher eukaryotes. Here we describe a new mechanism of protein transfer, flagellar membrane fusion, in the unicellular parasite Trypanosoma brucei. When fluorescently tagged trypanosomes were co-cultured, a small proportion of double-positive cells were observed. The formation of double-positive cells was dependent on the presence of extracellular calcium and was enhanced by placing cells in medium supplemented...

Web-based 3D-visualization of the DrugBank chemical space

Mahendra Awale & Jean-Louis Reymond
BACKGROUND Similarly to the periodic table for elements, chemical space offers an organizing principle for representing the diversity of organic molecules, usually in the form of multi-dimensional property spaces that are subjected to dimensionality reduction methods to obtain 3D-spaces or 2D-maps suitable for visual inspection. Unfortunately, tools to look at chemical space on the internet are currently very limited. RESULTS Herein we present webDrugCS, a web application freely available at www.gdb.unibe.ch to visualize DrugBank (www.drugbank.ca,...

Quelle collocation causative enseigner ? L’exemple des structures V causatif + N d’EMOTION

Monika Bak Sienkiewicz
This analysis is part of a group of studies on the combinatorial profile of nouns of emotion (Blumenthal 2002). Aligned with the syntactic pattern V + N in the cause and effect relationship (Nazarenko 2000), the aim of this study is to analyze the attraction between the causative verbs and the predicate nouns included in the nine emotions fields of the Emolex classification. The study of how these constructions function in the Emolex digital corpus...

À quelle langue accède l’apprenant ? Examen critique du traitement de l’oral dans les premières leçons de manuels de français langue étrangère pour débutants

Anick Giroud & Christian Surcouf
If one considers the recordings from textbooks of French as a foreign language, some typical spoken French phenomena appear not to reflect results provided by spoken French corpora. In order to have a better insight into this issue, we analyzed the recordings of the first three lessons of ten beginners’ textbooks (1982–2012). In this article, we examine /ə/ deletion (/ȝəvøləvwaʁ/ vs. /ȝvølvwaʁ/ ‘je veux le voir’), reduction from /ty/ to /t/ before vowel (/tyabitu/ vs...

Exploiter un travail de corpus sur la place de l’épithète pour élaborer une progression didactique en FLE

Marie-Armelle Camussi-Ni, Juliette Thuilier & Annick Coatéval
This paper sets out the convergence between two approaches – a theoretical one and an applied one – aiming to tackle the problem of attributive adjective position in French. We show how the results of a corpus study contribute to the understanding of the issues faced by traditional descriptions designed for learners of French as a foreign language. This reflection leads us to create a learning progression that aims to give learners the keys to...

Direction Estimation Model for Gaze Controlled Systems

Pawanesh Abrol &
Detection of gaze requires estimation of the position and the relation between user’s pupil and glint. This position is mapped into the region of interest using different edge detectors by detecting the glint coordinates and further gaze direction. In this research paper, a Gaze Direction Estimation (GDE) model has been proposed for the comparative analysis of two standard edge detectors Canny and Sobel for estimating automatic detection of the glint, its coordinates and subsequently the...

Doubled lattice Chern–Simons–Yang–Mills theories with discrete gauge group

Nadiia Dmytrivna Vlasii, Uwe-Jens Wiese, David Mesterhazy, Therkel Andreas Zollner Olesen & Stephan Caspar
We construct doubled lattice Chern–Simons–Yang–Mills theories with discrete gauge group G in the Hamiltonian formulation. Here, these theories are considered on a square spatial lattice and the fundamental degrees of freedom are defined on pairs of links from the direct lattice and its dual, respectively. This provides a natural lattice construction for topologically-massive gauge theories, which are invariant under parity and time-reversal symmetry. After defining the building blocks of the doubled theories, paying special attention...

Examining the validity of the total dwell time of eye fixations to identify landmarks in a building

Alain De Wulf, , , & Philippe De Maeyer
It is uncertain to what extent the duration of eye fixations reflects the use of landmarks during navigation. Therefore, a study was conducted in which eye tracking data and route descriptions were collected of 23 participants who were highly familiar with the indoor test environment. Based on the total fixation time on different landmark categories, two measures were calculated, namely the calculated landmark category use and the probable landmark category use. Based on the ratio...

Performance of a simple remote video-based eye tracker with GPU acceleration

Jean-Pierre Du Plessis &
Eye tracking is a well-established tool that is often utilised in research. There are currently many different types of eye trackers available, but they are either expensive, or provide a relatively low sampling frequency. The eye tracker presented in this paper was developed in an effort to address the lack of low-cost high-speed eye trackers. It utilises the Graphical Processing Unit (GPU) in an attempt to parallelise aspects of the process to localize feature points...

Laser Ablation/Ionisation Mass Spectrometry: Sensitive and Quantitative Chemical Depth Profiling of Solid Materials

Valentine Grimaudo, Andreas Riedo, Peter Wurz, Marek Tulej, Maike Brigitte Neuland, Pavel Moreno-García & Peter Broekmann
Direct quantitative and sensitive chemical analysis of solid materials with high spatial resolution, both in lateral and vertical direction is of high importance in various fields of analytical research, ranging from in situ space research to the semiconductor industry. Accurate knowledge of the chemical composition of solid materials allows a better understanding of physical and chemical processes that formed/altered the material and allows e.g. to further improve these processes. So far, state-of-the-art techniques such as...

[Bacterial resistance in bacteria isolated from the nasal cavity of Swiss dairy calves].

Mireille Meylan, Florence Pipoz & Vincent Perreten
Fifty-six E. coli, 37 P. multocida und 8 M. haemolytica were isolated from 157 nasal swabs taken from calves in 52 dairy herds. The antibiotic susceptibility of the organisms was determined by measurement of the minimal inhibitory concentrations. Of the 56 E. coli isolates, 55.3% exhibited resistance to tetracyclines, 55.3% to sulfonamides, 39.3% to beta-lactams, 30.3% to aminoglycosides, 8.9% to fluorochinolones and 3.5% to 3rd generation cephalosporins. The 3rd generation cephalosporin- resistant isolates contained the...

Canine Distemper Virus Fusion Activation: Critical Role of Residue E123 of CD150/SLAM.

Fanny Anne Bringolf, Silvan Röthlisberger, Andreas Zurbriggen, Francesco Origgi, Philippe Plattet, Mojtaba Khosravi, Maria Bieringer & Jürgen Schneider-Schaulies
UNLABELLED Measles virus (MeV) and canine distemper virus (CDV) possess tetrameric attachment proteins (H) and trimeric fusion proteins, which cooperate with either SLAM or nectin 4 receptors to trigger membrane fusion for cell entry. While the MeV H-SLAM cocrystal structure revealed the binding interface, two distinct oligomeric H assemblies were also determined. In one of the conformations, two SLAM units were sandwiched between two discrete H head domains, thus spotlighting two binding interfaces ("front" and...

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