88,212 Works

Plasma Aβ40 and Aβ42 and Alzheimer's Disease: Relation to Age, Mortality, and Risk

Richard Paul Mayeux, Lawrence S. Honig, Mingxin Tang, Jennifer J. Manly, Yaakov Stern, Nicole Schupf & Pankaj D. Mehta
BACKGROUND: Plasma amyloid [beta]-peptide (A[beta]) 40 and A[beta]42 levels are increased in persons with mutations causing early-onset familial Alzheimer's disease (AD). Plasma A[beta]42 levels were also used to link microsatellite genetic markers to a putative AD genetic locus on chromosome 10 and were observed in patients with incipient sporadic AD. METHODS: The authors measured plasma A[beta]40 and A[beta]42 levels using a sandwich ELISA after the initial examination of 530 individuals participating in an epidemiologic study...

Literacy and Memory Decline among Ethnically Diverse Elders

Jennifer J. Manly, Pegah Touradji, Mingxin Tang & Yaakov Stern
Literacy may be a more powerful indicator of brain reserve than years of education. Literacy level may be a proxy for native intellectual capacity or life experience that can compensate for brain damage or provide brain reserve. Alternately, the experience of acquiring literacy skills may in itself change the organization of the brain and increase protection against cognitive decline. However, because people with low levels of literacy obtain poor scores on most cognitive measures, only...

Ischemic Stroke and Depression

David W. Desmond, Robert Howard Remien, Joan T. Moroney, Yaakov Stern, Mary Sano & Janet B. W. Williams
Previous studies of depression after stroke have reported widely variable findings, possibly due to differences between studies in patient characteristics and methods for the assessment of depression, small sample sizes, and the failure to examine stroke-free reference groups to determine the base rate of depression in the general population. In an effort to address certain of those methodologic issues and further investigate the frequency and clinical determinants of depression after stroke, we administered the Structured...

Inter-Rater Reliability of a Clinical Staging of HIV-Associated Cognitive Impairment

Karen Marder, Steven M. Albert, Michael P. McDermott, Justin C. McArthur, Giovanni Schifitto, Ola A. Selnes, Ned Sacktor, Yaakov Stern, Donna Palumbo, Karl Kieburtz, Bruce Cohen, Constance Orme & Leon G. Epstein
Objective: To determine the inter-rater reliability of a modification of the Memorial Sloan-Kettering (MSK) Staging for HIV-associated cognitive impairment. Methods: Data were abstracted on neurologic, neuropsychological, and functional status on 100 individuals participating at four sites in the Northeast AIDS Dementia (NEAD) Consortium cohort study, a longitudinal study of predictors of cognitive impairment in HIV-infected individuals. Neuropsychological performance was defined 1) based on the neuropsychologist’s global impression and 2) solely based on neuropsychological test scores....

Exploring the Neural Basis of Cognitive Reserve

Yaakov Stern, Eric Zarahn, John Hilton, Joseph Flynn, Robert L. Delapaz & Brian C. Rakitin
There is epidemiologic and imaging evidence for the presence of cognitive reserve, but the neurophysiologic substrate of CR has not been established. In order to test the hypothesis that CR is related to aspects of neural processing, we used fMRI to image 19 healthy young adults while they performed a nonverbal recognition test. There were two task conditions. A low demand condition required encoding and recognition of single items and a titrated demand condition required...

Kondo effect in a few-electron quantum ring

U.F. Keyser, C. Fühner, S. Borck, Rolf J. Haug, M. Bichler, G. Abstreiter & W. Wegscheider
A small tuneable quantum ring with less than ten electrons was shown to exhibit Aharonov-Bohm oscillations as well as Coulomb blockade. At strong coupling to the leads, evidence of a Kondo effect induced by a single spin on the ring was obtained. Analysis of the phase evolution of the Aharonov-Bohm effect in the Kondo regime yielded phase jumps by π at the Coulomb-blockade resonances and a smooth shift of the Aharonov-Bohm maxima in between.

Combined atomic force microscope and electron-beam lithography used for the fabrication of variable-coupling quantum dots

M.C. Rogge, C. Fühner, U.F. Keyser, Rolf J. Haug, M. Bichler, G. Abstreiter & W. Wegscheider
A study was performed on combined electron-beam lithography and atomic force microscopy used for the fabrication of variable-coupling quantum dots. The conventional electron-beam lithography was combined with direct nanofabrication by local anodic oxidation to produce a parallel double quantum dot based on a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure. It was found that the combination of both nanolithography methods allowed fabrication of robust in-plane gates.

Tuning the onset voltage of resonant tunneling through InAs quantum dots by growth parameters

I. Hapke-Wurst, U. Zeitler, U.F. Keyser, Rolf J. Haug, Klaus Pierz & Z. Ma
A study was conducted on the onset voltage of resonant tunneling through indium arsenide (InAs) quantum dots by growth parameters. It was found that the onset voltage of the first step decreased from 200 mV to 0 with increasing InAs coverage. The results were confirmed by atomic force micrographs and photoluminescence experiments on reference samples.

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