As we enter the fourth decade during which computers have been widely available for home purchase and the third decade of widely-available internet access, the Supreme Court, the military's Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces, and many federal circuits have yet to sanction a general framework for applying the Fourth Amendment to the individual computer or electronic storage device. The federal circuits are split as to whether computers and their storage media require special...
The Convention on the Safety of United Nations and Associated Personnel: Time to Dust 'Er Off, Fix 'Er Up, and Protect Some UN ForcesKatherine S Gowel
THE CONVENTION ON THE SAFETY OF UNITED NATIONS AND ASSOCIATED PERSONNEL: TIME TO DUST ‘ER OFF, FIX ‘ER UP, AND PROTECT SOME UN FORCES The international community has exposed UN forces to unnecessary risk over the last fifteen years because it has neglected to enforce the provisions of the Convention on the Safety of United Nations and Associated Personnel (the Safety Convention). In 1994, the United Nations and member states created the Safety Convention because...
Why Settle for a "Willy-Nilly Unequal, Haphazard Rule of Law Effort"?: An Argument for a Standardized Framework for the Development of the Rule of LawKelli A Hooke
Rule of law (ROL) operations are complex and require a team effort by United States Government (USG) agencies and employees. They cover a broad scope of disciplines and activities and require the coordination between multiple USG agencies. And if conducting ROL missions is a team effort, there should be a playbook that every member uses. Unfortunately, that is not the case. Many current ROL operations are conducted ad hoc, with little coordination, and too focused...
Reclaiming the Rehabilitative Ethic in Military Justice: The Suspended Punitive Discharge as a Method to Treat Offenders with PTSD and TBI and Reduce RecidivismEvan R Seamone
After ten years of sustained combat operations, a legal system has emerged in response to the special needs of servicemembers who have sustained Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and other unseen injuries in combat. Recognizing that these wounded warriors experience symptoms that often manifest in criminal conduct, this justice system incorporates advanced "problem-solving" strategies in its sentencing practices. It provides offenders with a "second chance" to escape the disabilities of a conviction by dismissing or expunging their...
„Gleichstellungsvorsprung" im Osten und „nachholende Modernisierung" des Geschlechterverhältnisses im Westen bilden ein Spannungsverhältnis, das zum Ausgangspunkt genommen wird, um die gegenwärtige Situation von Frauen in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland zu diskutieren. Im Mittelpunkt der referierten Befunde steht die jüngere ostdeutsche Frauengeneration, die einerseits spezifisches Sozialisationsgepäck aus der Zeit vor der deutschen Einheit mitbringt, andererseits auf besondere Weise mit dem Paradoxon der Flexibilisierung und Entgrenzung der Arbeitswelt und der institutionellen Trägheit des männlichen Ernährermodells konfrontiert ist. Das...
A new system to very precisely couple radiation of a moving source into a Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectrometer is presented. The Camtracker consists of a homemade altazimuthal solar tracker, a digital camera and a homemade program to process the camera data and to control the motion of the tracker. The key idea is to evaluate the image of the radiation source on the entrance field stop of the spectrometer. We prove that the system...
Biogenic volatile organic compound and respiratory CO₂ emissions after ¹³C-labeling: online tracing of C translocation dynamics in poplar plantsA. Ghirado, J. Gutknecht, I. Zimmer, N. Brüggemann & J.P. Schnitzler
Background: Globally plants are the primary sink of atmospheric CO2, but are also the major contributor of a large spectrum of atmospheric reactive hydrocarbons such as terpenes (e.g. isoprene) and other biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC). The prediction of plant carbon (C) uptake and atmospheric oxidation capacity are crucial to define the trajectory and consequences of global environmental changes. To achieve this, the biosynthesis of BVOC and the dynamics of C allocation and translocation in...
Zonal asymmetries in middle atmospheric ozone and water vapour derived from Odin satellite data 2001-2010A. Gabriel, H. Kornich, S. Lossow, D.H.W. Peters, J. Urban & D. Murtagh
Stationary wave patterns in middle atmospheric ozone (O3) and water vapour (H2O) are an important factor in the atmospheric circulation, but there is a strong gap in diagnosing and understanding their configuration and origin. Based on Odin satellite data from 2001 to 2010 we investigate the stationary wave patterns in O3 and H2O as indicated by the seasonal long-term means of the zonally asymmetric components O*/3=O3-[O3] and H2O* =H2O-[H2O] ([O3], [H2O]: zonal means). At mid-...
Composition changes after the "Halloween" solar proton event : the high-energy particle precipitation in the atmosphere (HEPPA) model versus MIPAS data intercomparison studyB. Funke, A. Baumgaertner, M. Calisto, T. Egorova, C.H. Jackman, J. Kieser, A. Krivolutsky, M. Lopez-Puertas, D.R. Marsh, T. Reddmann, E. Rozanov, S.M. Salmi, M. Sinnhuber, G.P. Stiller, P.T. Verronen, S. Versick, T. Von Clarmann, T.Y. Vyushkova, N. Wieters & J.M. Wissing
We have compared composition changes of NO, NO2, H2O2, O3, N2O, HNO3, N2O5, HNO4, ClO, HOCl, and ClONO2 as observed by the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) on Envisat in the aftermath of the “Halloween” solar proton event (SPE) in late October 2003 at 25–0.01 hPa in the Northern Hemisphere (40–90° N) and simulations performed by the following atmospheric models: the Bremen 2-D model (B2dM) and Bremen 3-D Chemical Transport Model (B3dCTM), the...
Spectroscopic characterization of highly doped ZnO films grown by atomic-layer deposition for three-dimensional infrared metamaterialsA. Frölich & M. Wegener
We systematically study the optical spectra of ZnO grown by atomic-layer deposition as a function of Al (and Ti) doping concentration. The spectra measured on films are well described by fits using a Drude free-electron model. The derived plasma frequencies are consistent with the expected amount of doping and can be continuously and controllably tuned from small values to about 400 THz. The losses (damping) are also quantified. In addition, we achieve smooth conformal coatings...
Hydrogeology of Stromboli volcano, Aeolian Islands (Italy) from the interpretation of resistivity tomograms, self-potential, soil temperature and soil CO2 concentration measurements.Anthony Finizola, Julien Colonge, Tulio Ricci, Stéphanie Barde-Cabusson, Svetlana Byrdina, Aline Peltier, Matteo Lupi, Eric Delcher, André Revil, Thibault Bailly, Jean Letort, Geoffroy Avard, F Di Gandi, Laura Bennati, Ève Tsang-Hin-Sun & Guilhem Amin Douillet
To gain a better insight of the hydrogeology and the location of the main tectonic faults of Stromboli volcano in Italy, we collected electrical resistivity measurements, soil CO2 concentrations, temperature and self-potential measurements along two profiles. These two profiles started at the village of Ginostra in the southwest part of the island. The first profile (4.8 km in length) ended up at the village of Scari in the north east part of the volcano and...
Background One of the key forces shaping proteins is coevolution of amino acid residues. Knowing which residues coevolve in a particular protein may facilitate our understanding of protein evolution, structure and function, and help to identify substitutions that may lead to desired changes in enzyme kinetics. Rubisco, the most abundant enzyme in biosphere, plays an essential role in the process of carbon fixation through photosynthesis, thus facilitating life on Earth. This makes Rubisco an important...
Effect of hosts on competition among clones and evidence of differential selection between pathogenic and saprophytic phases in experimental populations of the wheat pathogen Phaeosphaeria nodorumBruce A. McDonald, Jiasui Zhan, Rubik J. Sommerhalder & Fabio Mascher
Background Monoculture, multi-cropping and wider use of highly resistant cultivars have been proposed as mechanisms to explain the elevated rate of evolution of plant pathogens in agricultural ecosystems. We used a mark-release-recapture experiment with the wheat pathogen Phaeosphaeria nodorum to evaluate the impact of two of these mechanisms on the evolution of a pathogen population. Nine P. nodorum isolates marked with ten microsatellite markers and one minisatellite were released onto five replicated host populations to...
Background Environmental stress can result in strong ecological and evolutionary effects on natural populations, but to what extent it drives adaptive divergence of natural populations is little explored. We used common garden experiments to study adaptive divergence in embryonic and larval fitness traits (embryonic survival, larval growth, and age and size at metamorphosis) in eight moor frog, Rana arvalis, populations inhabiting an acidification gradient (breeding pond pH 4.0 to 7.5) in southwestern Sweden. Embryos were...
Evolution of reproductive mode variation and host associations in a sexual asexual complex of aphid parasitoidsChristoph Vorburger, Christoph Sandrock & Bettina E. Schirrmeister
Sexual and postmating reproductive isolation between allopatric Drosophila montana populations suggest speciation potentialAnneli Hoikkala, Jackson H. Jennings, Dominique Mazzi & Michael G. Ritchie
A measurement of the angular correlations between beauty and anti-beauty hadrons (BB¯¯¯¯) produced in pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV at the CERN LHC is presented, probing for the first time the region of small angular separation. The B hadrons are identified by the presence of displaced secondary vertices from their decays. The B hadron angular separation is reconstructed from the decay vertices and the primary-interaction vertex. The differential BB¯¯¯¯ production cross...
Measurement of the weak mixing angle with the Drell-Yan process in proton-proton collisions at the LHCLukas Wehrli, Ann-Karin Sanchez, Leonardo Sala, Predrag Milenovic, Francesca Nessi-Tedaldi, Lukas Bäni, Luc Pape, Pierre Lecomte, Christoph Nägel, Alessandro Thea, Ludwig Tauscher, Werner Lustermann, Daniel Treille, Carmelo Marchica, Christoph Grab, Rainer Wallny, Marco Rossini, Michael Dittmar, CMS Collaboration, Filip Moortgat, Pablo Martinez Ruiz Del Arbol, Sergio Cittolin, Nicolas Chanon, Joanna Weng, Matthias Weber … & Christina Urscheler
Background Prokaryotic environmental adaptations occur at different levels within cells to ensure the preservation of genome integrity, proper protein folding and function as well as membrane fluidity. Although specific composition and structure of cellular components suitable for the variety of extreme conditions has already been postulated, a systematic study describing such adaptations has not yet been performed. We therefore explored whether the environmental niche of a prokaryote could be deduced from the sequence of its...
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